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Chemistry - Module 2 - Metal

1. Metals have been extracted and used for many thousands of years
Outline and examine some uses of different metals through
history, including contemporary uses, as uncombined metals or as
alloys.
Contemporary Uses of common metals
1
Metal Uses
ron and !teel
(an alloy with
<2% carbon)
Good tensile
strength, cheap,
rusts (corrodes)
- Railways, bridges, buildings
- motor cars bodies, ships and trains
- Engine blocks, ire hydrants, drainage pipes, and gates
- Reinorcing in concrete (roads, bridges, high rise buildings)
- Rerigerators, washing machines and other domestic appliances
- !ea"y machinery in industry
- #ontainers (drums and tin cans)
- pipes, nails, nuts and bolts
"luminium -
low density, light
weight, good
tensile strength,
and high
resistance to
corrosion
- $uildings (window and door rames, paneling)
- %eroplanes
- &otor car parts (cylinder heads, radiator cores)
- !igh "oltage transmission lines
- 'omestic pots and pans and wrapping oil
- 'rink containers
- Electric wiring o"er long distances (long distance power lines)
Copper - Electrical wiring (household and street cables)
- (ipes and plumbing ittings
- Electroplating, )ewellery and household decorations
#inc - Gal"ani*ing iron (surace coating)
- (rotecti"e paints and electroplating
- 'iecast alloys (car carburetors) and brass
- #asing or dry cells (batteries)
$ead - #ar batteries
- (lumbing (lashing) and in solder
- +n crystal glass and as gla*e or pottery
%ifferent Metals &hroughout 'istory and their uses(
1
,able is directly rom- .mith, Ronald/ #on0uering #hemistry - (reliminary #ourse %ustralia- &cGraw-!ill, 2112
,he irst metal to be e3tracted rom an ore was copper/ ,his occurred in the
&iddle East in about 4111 $/#/ #opper o3ide was heated with charcoal (mainly
carbon) and globules o copper resulted/ ,his copper was used to make domestic
utensils and possible some types o ornaments/ 5orking copper, howe"er, was
diicult as the melting point needed was too great or wood ires to achie"e/
6urthermore, the inished products o copper were airly sot as pure copper is an
e3tremely sot metal/ ,hereore, copper tools did not replace the stone ones
currently in use/ +n #yprus, around 7111 $/#/ copper was acti"ely mined/
%s time progressed, it was disco"ered that heating copper and tin ores with
charcoal produced a much harder metal alloy 8 $ron*e/ $ron*e has a much lower
melting point than copper and so could be melted, moulded and worked much
more easily in wood ires/ %round 2111 $/#/, bron*e had become prominent and
used or tools and weapons throughout the European and %sian continents/ ,his
led to a technological dierence between societies with bron*e and those without
it9 simply put 8 nations that irst de"eloped methods o mining and using $ron*e
as weapons were able to con0uer less de"eloped nations/
,in mines were a"ailable in #ornwall around this period as well/ $ron*e was the
most prominent metal used or weapons and tools rom about 2111 $/# to :111
$/#/ ,hat is why this era is known as the )ron*e "ge.
+n order to e3tract iron rom iron o3ide, using wood-ires (charcoal) you must
generate a temperature higher than that o copper e3traction/ +t was not until
:211 $/#/ that humans de"eloped a method o generating these higher
temperatures and also the ability to orge iron into tools and weapons/ +t was
necessary to blow air into the ire to get a suiciently high temperature, and then
it must be sotened in order to orge it/ !owe"er, iron as a substance had been
known to e3ist at least thousand years beore this (2;11 $/#/) because it had
been ound in nearly pure orm in meteorites/
,he technology or e3tracting, processing and moulding rapidly spread out
throughout Europe and %sia/ +ron is a much harder metal than bron*e, and
thereore most weapons and tools were made o iron instead/ .ystematically, the
period rom about :111 $/#/ to :/#/E is called the ron "ge.
%nthropologists and historians end the +ron %ge at : #/E and like to call the era to
present the Modern "ge. ,hroughout the &odern %ge, the technologies or
producing iron and steel rapidly impro"ed, and 0uantities being used increased
markedly (Especially ater the +ndustrial Re"olution o the eighteenth century)/
!owe"er, there was no signiicant mo"e towards the use o new alloys or metals
until the late nineteenth century/ ,his is despite metals such as cobalt, *inc, nickel
tungsten, manganese, chromium and titanium being isolated in the eighteenth
century, and magnesium, sodium, cadmium, aluminium as well as "anadium
being isolated in the nineteenth/
%lloy steels were de"eloping rom about the late :<<1=s and were de"eloped in
the ollowing order-
- ,ungsten steel (or cutting tools)
- &anganese steel (or railway lines and digging tools)
- .ilicon steel (electromagnets and transormer cores)
- #hromium steel (.aes, iles, ball bearings)
- >ickel steel (used or scientiic instruments ? used or
telecommunication)
- @anadium steel (#ars since low density, lightness ? high tensile
strength)
.tainless steel was manuactured and came into use ater about :A21/
&etals that ha"e come into common use in the last :11 years include aluminium,
tungsten, magnesium and tungsten/
%luminium and steel both re0uire electricity in order to produce them/ ,his
e3plains why they were only manuactured in the last :11 years 8 because
electricity only became prominent around :11 years ago/
"luminium + ,he commercial use o aluminium began towards the end o the
nineteenth century and has e3panded rapidly e"er since/ %luminium has displaced
iron and steel or many uses or which it was better suited/ %luminium is oten
alloyed with copper manganese, magnesium and titanium/
&ungsten + %lthough tungsten had been used in steel alloys rom the :<<1s, its
use as a pure metal or ilaments in light bulbs (and later in tele"ision picture
tubes) did not begin to be used markedly because o its diiculty to be turned
into wires (because o its high melting point)/
Magnesium + (rominent during 55++, as it was the ma)or components o alloys
or aircrat bodies and cares/ .till used in mobiles, computers, though it has been
mainly replaced by aluminium
&itanium + !ighest strength to weight ratio o any metal9 "ery hard and "ery
resistant to corrosion/ %lloyed with aluminium and "anadium it is e"en stronger
and harder/ +t is used in aerospace industry, or medical impacts and or bicycles
and other sporting appliances/
,ote( B,he least reacti"e metals were the easiest to isolate and were the irst
metals to be widely used, and that it is only in modern times that industry has
become suiciently skilled to isolate and reine metals such as aluminium, and
the metals that are added to iron to make steel/C
2
%escribe the use of common alloys including steel, brass and
solder and explain ho- these relate to their properties.
2
'irect 0uote- D>.5, .#!EEF E6 #!E&+.,RG, !.# ,E%#!ER.H 5ERI.!E(/ B</7 &etalsC -
>o"ember :AAA DRF- http-JJwww/chem/unsw/edu/auJhighschoolJilesJmetals/pd
Contemporary Uses of %ifferent types of alloys
&ype of !teel Composition .articular .roperties Uses
Carbon !teels
&ild .teel <1/2% #arbon .ot, &alleable which allows
it to be manipulated into
dierent shapes easily
#ar $odies, (ipes, nuts,
bolts and rooing/

.tructural .teel 1/7 to 1/4% #arbon !igh tensile strength, !ard/
%llows or it to be used in
situations where e3treme
strength is necessary/
$eams and girders, railways
and reinorcing
!igh-#arbon .teel 1/4 to :/;% #arbon @ery !ard makes it useul
in cutting/
Ini"es and tools such as
drill bits, chisels hammers
"lloy !teels
#hrome .teel 2 to 2% #hromium !ard ? .hock resistant
which makes it suitable or
security de"ices
.aes, iles, ball bearings
,ungsten .teel :1 to 21% tungsten
1 to ;% #hromium
and @anadium
!ard at high temperatures-
good or cutting because it
doesn=t melt and stays hard
#utting and grinding tools
.ilicon .teel 2 to ;% .ilicon Easily magneti*ed and
demagneti*ed
Electromagnets and
transormer cores
!tainless !teels
.tainless .teel :1 to 21% #hromium
; to 21% >ickel
!ard, resist corrosion/ Good
or cutting as well as
situations that re0uire the
tool to be resistant to
corrosion/
6ood processing machinery,
kitchen sinks and
appliances, cutlery, surgical
and dental instruments,
some ra*or blades
Contemporary Uses of non-ferrous alloys
"lloy Composition !pecial .roperties Uses
$rass ;1 - 41% copper with *inc Fustrous gold appearance,
hard but easily machined
which allows it to be shaped
easily but it is also
attracti"e/
(lumbing ittings,
musical instruments,
decorations
$ron*e <1 8 A1% copper with tin !ard, resists corrosion,
easily cast which allows or it
to resist damage but can be
easily machined/
.hips= propellers,
casting statues
'uralumin A;% %luminium, 2%
copper, :% manganese
Fow density, "ery strong
makes it light and strong so
good or aircrats ? bikes

%ircrat parts, racing
bicycles
.older 71-41% tin with lead Fow melting point adheres
irmly to other metals when
molten/ Easy to melt,
thereore good adhesi"e/
Koining metals together,
particularly in plumbing
and electronics/
#opper-nickel
#oinage alloy
L;% copper with nickel .il"ery appearance resists
corrosion/ ,hereore long
lasting, which is essential or
the coins
;, :1, 21, ;1 cent coins
B GoldC
coinage alloy
A2% copper, 4%
%luminium, 2% >ickel
Gold appearance resists
corrosion/ ,hereore long
lasting, which is essential or
the coins
: and 2 dollar coins
:< #arat Gold
A #arat Gold
L;% Gold
7L/;% Gold
!arder than pure gold
(22 #arat)/ (ure gold is too
sot to be used in Kewellery9
the additions make the alloy
harder which increases the
durability o the )ewellery/
%lso "ery attracti"e and
lustrous/
Kewellery
/xplain -hy energy input is necessary to extract a metal from its
ore.
0% mineral is a pure (or nearly pure) crystalline compound that occurs in the
Earth=s crust/
,ote( 6or both, balance is roughly e0ual amounts o sil"er and copper/
%n ore is a compound or mi3ture o compounds rom which it is economic (or
commercially proitable to e3tract a desired substance such as a metal/1
2
6or almost e"ery metal a chemical reaction is used to e3tract the metal rom its
ore/ E"ery chemical reaction in"ol"es either the release or absorption o heat
which is one o the most common orms o energy/
.ome chemical reactions that in"ol"e the e3traction o a metal rom its ore
absorb or use heat (endothermic), while in other reactions heat is released
(e3othermic)/
>umerous e3amples o each type o reaction are a"ailable including-
- E3tracting +ron rom +ron (+++) o3ide with carbon in a blast urnace
releases heat in an e3othermic reaction/
- E3tracting %luminum rom alumina absorbs large amounts o heat in an
endothermic reaction
- E3tracting copper rom copper sulide ores releases huge amounts o heat
in an e3othermic reaction
- E3tracting >ickel in"ol"es crushing and lotation that concentrates the ore,
which is then roasted/ !ere the chemical reaction is endothermic and
e3othermic as large amounts o heat is absorbed and released/
- E3tracting copper rom chalcopyrite, #u6e.2, is an endothermic reaction
where large amounts o heat is absorbed to e3tract the metal and is also
an e3othermic reaction since large amounts o heat energy is released/
/nergy input is essential to e3tract a metal rom it=s ore or the ollowing
reasons-
- Many ores contain metal oxides. ,hese o3ides are much more stable
than the actual metals themsel"es/ ,hereore a signiicant amount o
energy is essential in order to break the metal 8 o3ygen bond in the metal
o3ide/ Enly then can the metal be released in its elemental orm, thus
energy input is necessary to e3tract a metal rom its ore/
- ons are the main component o an ore (because they are reacti"e)9 pure
substances remain as is (due to their stability)/ ,he metal (product o the
chemical reaction) contains more energy than the reactant (the ore)/
,hereore energy must be added, which will result in the reduction (and
decomposition) o the ore/ ,he energy causes the breaking down o
intermolecular bonds within the ore, causing new substances to be
ormed/ ,he reaction is usually endothermic/
- /nergy is not only involved in the extraction reaction/ ,hat is only
one part o the total amount o energy used/ Energy is also used to mine
the ore, puriy or concentrate the ore, maintain the high temperatures that
are necessary or the e3traction reactions and also to puriy the raw metal
or to orm useul alloys (such as steel, brass and bron*e)/
dentify -hy there are more metals available for people to use
no- than there -ere 233 years ago.
,here are three main reasons why there are more metals a"ailable or people
to use now than there were 211 years ago-
3
'irect Muote- .mith, Ronald/ #on0uering #hemistry - (reliminary #ourse %ustralia- &cGraw-!ill,
2112
4 &echnology has improved rapidly since the 15336s. !umans ha"e learnt
how to create a high-temperature en"ironment (such as a blast urnace) that has
allowed them to e3tract metals that couldn=t be e3tracted pre"iously/
6urthermore, with the introduction o electricity, the method o electrolysis was
produced/ ,his allowed or the most reacti"e metals (such as aluminium) to be
e3tracted rom there ores/ 211 years ago these technologies were not present
and thereore there was no method o e3tracting these metals as heating carbon
did not pro"ide suicient energy to e3tract those metals/
4 E"er the past 211 years, the improvement of metallurgical s7ills or
making and testing new alloys led to the incorporation o a wider range o metals
into e"eryday products/ ,he impro"ement led to the increasing amount o alloys
being produced/ 'ue to this, scientists began to e3periment with dierent metals
to determine the outputs i two metals were combined/ %n e3ample o this is
titanium/ ,itanium is the se"enth most abundant metal in the Earth=s crust but is
e3tremely diicult to e3tract rom its ores/ ,itanium was not widely used on it=s
own as a metal but when it was disco"ered that when titanium is combined with
limited amounts o other metals, it becomes e3tremely hard, has high-tensile
strength and is "ery light, its use e3panded rapidly/ ,itanium alloys became the
back-bone o modern )et and aircrats/ 5ith the impro"ement o metallurgical
skills to create new alloys, a wider range o metals are a"ailable or people to use
now than 211 years ago/
4 Money. +n the past it was "ery e3pensi"e to e3tract metals rom their ores/
%n e3ample o this can be seen with aluminium/ ,he ma)or cost in e3tracting
aluminium is the electricity used or the electrolysis and or keeping the
electrolyte molten/ 'uring the twentieth century the price o electricity ell
steadily and this impro"ed the competiti"e position o aluminium relati"e to steel,
so it became used more prominently/ ,hus the reducing cost o e3tracting the
metal is another reason why more metals are a"ailable or people to use now/
#urrently there are many more metals a"ailable or people to use than there were
211 years ago/ $eore the :A
th
#entury (:<11) only ten prominent metals were in
use- tin, iron, lead, copper, sil"er, *inc, gold, platinum and bismuth/ ,hese metals
were either naturally occurring in the Earth as uncombined elements (Gold, .il"er,
(latinum) or could be easily e3tracted by heating with carbon/
!owe"er, currently there are at least another twel"e or more metals in
widespread industrial use (such as aluminium, titanium, magnesium, uranium,
cadmium, molybdenum, "anadium, chromium, nickel, cobalt, manganese,
tungsten) whereas about another twenty-i"e metals ha"e specialised uses/ .ome
o these metals include gallium, rubidium, sodium, strontium, calcium, beryllium
and *irconium/
,here are two main criteria which determine the a"ailability o metals or
commercial or industrial use-
- %bundance o metal in the Earth=s crust
- Ease o e3tracting the metal rom its ore
8ather, process, analyse and present information from secondary
sources on the range of alloys produced and the reasons for the
production and use of these alloys.
"lloy 9easons for production Uses
"lnico
<8:2% %l, :;824%
%lnico alloys make strong permanent
magnets, and can be magneti*ed to
produce strong magnetic ields/ ,hey
- &agnet applications
- electric guitar pickups
- microphones
>i, ;822% #o, up to
4% #u, up to :% ,i,
and the balance is 6e/
were produced to create a magnetic ield
upto three times that o the Earth=s/ ,his
phenomenon allowed scientists to use the
alloy in many magnetic applications/
- sensors
- loudspeakers
- cow magnets
Magnalium
%luminium with ;-
;1% &agnesium
+t pro"ides greater strength, greater
resistant to corrosion and a lower density
than pure aluminium/ %lso more workable
and easier to wield than aluminium/
!owe"er, too much magnesium eg N;1%
makes the alloy brittle and susceptible to
corrosion/
- (yrotechnics since when large
amounts o &g is present, the
powder is lammable so used as
a metal uel/
- %ircrat and @ehicle
components due to low density
and high strength/
:itallium
41% cobalt, 21%
chromium, ;%
molybdenum and
other substances/
'e"eloped by %lbert 5/ &errick in :A72/
+t has a "ery low in density, is lightweight
and resists corrosion/ 6urthermore it is
also a thermal resistor/ %lso does not
react in the body with any substance like
other metals do (inert)/ ,his makes it
suitable or medical purpose
- 'entistry because it is light
weight and resists corrosion/
- &edical surgery as the
substance is inert to any body
luid under any condition/
- ,urbocharger components
because o thermal resistance
8unmetal
<<% #opper, :1% ,in
and 2% Oinc
+t is "ery resistant to corrosion rom
water, steam and salt water/ +ts
composition "aries based on why it is
produced but copper, tin and *inc are the
three ma)or components/ %lso withstands
atmospheric corrosion/
- Guns
- @al"es, pump parts and steam
ittings as it is resistant to
corrosion rom steamJsalt water/
- &achinery brushes
- Gears and bearings sub)ected
to hea"y loads ? low speeds/
8alinstan
4</;% Ga, 2:/;% +n,
:1% .n
Galinstan is commercially used as a
mercury replacement due to its nonto3ic
properties/ !as high relecti"ity and lower
density, and is produced as a regular
replacement or mercury in astronomy/
+t is also a promising coolant, but is costly
and aggressi"e, howe"er ongoing
e3periments are being conducted/
- ,hermometers due to its
nonto3ic properties, but inner
tube must be coated with gallium
o3ide to pre"ent the alloy rom
wetting the glass surace/
- Fi0uid mirror telescopes or
astronomy
-+t is also a promising coolant/
"nalyse information to relate the chronology of the )ron*e "ge,
the ron "ge and the modern era and possible future
developments.
!tone "ge + up to about 2333 ).C.
,he .tone %ge reers to a period o time in human prehistory, all the way back
rom the irst primate tool making more than 2/4 million years ago to about 7111
$#, when metallurgy in the orm o smelting copper ore was de"eloped/
,he .tone %ge reers to the time period in which man made its tools rom stones,
such as lint/ ,he .tone %ge was participated in by at least nine species o the
genus !omo/ ,hey li"ed in small tribes leading a hunter-gatherer liestyle, until
the "ery end o the .tone %ge/
#ommon .tone %ge products included the mortar and pestle, arrowheads,
spearheads, stone scrapers, and most amously, hand-a3es/ (ottery came at the
"ery end/ $one needles and straw te3tiles were also made/ %ter the basics o
.tone %ge tools were de"eloped, "ery little reinements came or thousands o
years ater/ %d"anced darts, harpoons, the ishhook, the oil lamp, rope, and the
eyed needle all appeared in the ensuing periods/
Copper "ge + 2233 to 2233 ).C.
,he #opper %ge was the transitional period between the .tone %ge and the
$ron*e %ge in which an introduction o nati"e copper took place while stone was
still the main resource utili*ed/ #opper is the eighth most abundant metal in the
earth crust, a"ailable all o"er the world and one o the ew that can appear in
pure state/ 6urthermore it is not complicate work with it, bare hammering can
transorm a nugget into a bead/ %dditionally, the eye-catching look o the nati"e
copper makes it easy to recogni*e and e"en more attracti"e i con"erted into
)ewellery/
#opper can be ound in o"er :41 dierent minerals/ Enes o the most commonly
e3ploited minerals are the #uprite, &alachite, %*urite, #halcopyrite, #hrysocolla
and ,ennantita, e/g/ malachite was ound in Rudna Gla"a (.erbia) or #abrierPs
(6rance)/
+n locations such as #yprus or #rete, collecting the mineral was once as easy as
simply picking it up rom the ground/ ,he treatment o this nati"e mineral was
also uncomplicated through cold-hammering/ ,his permitted the production o
only a limited range o artiacts like awls, pins, or beads as in larger ob)ects, the
metal cracks when it is cold-hammered/
!eating the metal on an open ire reduces its hardness considerably and
increases malleability/ ,his permits the conection o slightly more sophisticated
ob)ects like bracelets/
+n time, nati"e copper became hard to ine so copper ore was used/ ,his was a
"ery signiicant de"elopment as it was the beginning o metallurgy, as the mineral
has to be smelted to separate the copper rom the gangue/ ,hus, technology was
re0uired to do so, showing how o"er time, humans began to learn new tehcni0ues
and technology increased allowing them to take ad"antage o resources like
copper/
)ron*e "ge + 2233 to 1333 ).C.
,he $ron*e %ge reers to a period o time where metallurgy had ad"anced to the
point o making bron*e rom natural ores/
,he $ron*e %ge primarily took place between 2711 $# and :111 $# and resulted
in the gradual impro"ement o sophisticated metallurgy which culminated in the
disco"ery o iron working around :111 $/#/
,he $ron*e %ge began 2111 years ago in the present-day areas o ,urkey, +ran,
and +ra0/ ,he birthplace o metallurgy is usually taken to be %natolia, ,urkey/
,he $ron*e %ge was important because it allowed or the creation o more
durable tools and artiacts or producti"e use/ $ron*e kni"es, a3es, armor,
pottery, or artwork are harder and longer-li"ed than stone or copper making it a
more preerable resource/ % more durable resource enhances the potential or
sustained economic acti"ity, but more importantly - warare/
'uring the $ron*e %ge, much o humanity was segmented into thousands o
warring tribes/ ,hose that had mastered the art o making $ron*e weapons and
tools were likely to dominate their not yet ad"anced neighbours/
ron "ge + 1333 ).C. to 1 C./.
,he +ron %ge was the period o time when iron metallurgy was the most
sophisticated/ +ron-working is preerable to bron*e because is had a much higher
durability and is a"ailable more readily in the orm o iron ore/ %n iron sword
would be able to break a bron*e sword with a "igorous blow/ ,his shows that
ci"ili*ations that irst de"eloped the art o iron metallurgy had a signiicant
ad"antage o"er their de"eloping neighbours 8 especially when it came to warare/
.ystematic production o iron originated in %natolia (modern-day ,urkey), and
simultaneously spread to all parts o the world 8 East and 5est/
(roducts rom the +ron %ge were similar to that o the $ron*e %ge, but they were
much more durable- swords, pottery, chains, arming tools, etc/ lasted
signiicantly longer than their bron*e predecessors/
Modern /ra + 1 C./ to present
%s time passed on technology impro"ed and as a result an increasing amount o
metals and alloys were produced/ ,his allowed or the construction o many tools,
technologies and structures/
,he most common metals in use today are iron and aluminium/ +ron, howe"er, is
rarely e"er used in its pure elemental state, but rather it is used as an alloy o
steel or construction purposes/ %luminium is one o the Earth=s most abundant
metals/ ,hereore it is used or a "ariety o purposes ranging rom saucepans,
oil, aircrat and drink cans/
&he future ;possible future developments4(
,he latest trend in metallurgy is in recent years has been the use o knowledge to
predict unusual properties o alloys, which may ha"e considerable "alue in
engineering and industry applications/
,he ollowing are our points that are likely to be possible in the not so distant
uture-
. .pecialised mills and units with ma3imum automation o all production
purposes will be present in new highly de"eloped plants/ +n the uture the
producti"ity o these plants will increase and the demand or steel may reach
:2 8 :; million tonnes per year per plant/
. ,he blast urnace industry will increase the "olume o their acti"e blast
urnaces and new super high-capacity urnaces will be a"ailable, all containing
impro"ed technological e0uipment/
. 6urthermore, the process o smelting iron will be intensiied- the preparation
process will be impro"ed, gas pressure will be increased, and natural gas in
combination with cold technological o3ygen will be used in the urnace/ ,his
will not only raise the production o iron but also raise its 0uality/
:. 6urther impro"ement and de"elopment o o3ygen-con"erter and electrosteel
processes will be likely/
2. Metals differ in their reactivity -ith other chemicals and this
influences their uses
Q %escribe observable changes -hen metals react -ith dilute acid, -ater
and oxygen
&etals "ary in their reactions with certain substances/ .ome are "ery reacti"e
whereas others are e3tremely unreacti"e to the same substance/
9eaction -ith Oxygen(
%ll metals e3cept sil"er, platinum and gold react with o3ygen to orm o3ides-
- Fi, >a, I, #a, $a react rapidly at room temperature/
- &g, %l, 6e, On react slowly at room temperature but burn "igorously i heated in
air or pure o3ygen/
- .n, (b, #u react slowly and then only i heated/
%ll the o3ides ormed are ionic compounds/
,hose metals which burn in air or o3ygen orm crystalline white solids that ha"e
none o the physical properties o the original metal (lustre, strength etc/)
5hen metals slowly react at room temperature, they lose their shiny lustrous
appearance/ .ome, such as %l, become coated with a dull layer o tightly adhering
o3ide, which pre"ents urther reaction/ !owe"er, others like iron, orm a powdery
surace layer o o3ide which does not impede urther reaction/
6or e3ample when magnesium is heated in air, large amounts o heat and light
energy are gi"en o in the e3othermic reaction/ ,he initial shiny sil"er metal turns
into a white powdery substance known as &agnesium o3ide/
2&g(s) ? E2(g) 2&gE(s)
9eaction -ith -ater(
>ot all metals react with waterJsteam-
Fi, >a, I, #a, $a react with water at room temperature/
&g, %l, On, 6e react with steam at high temperatures/
.n, (b, %u, %g, #u do not react at all/
5hen a reaction occurs with water the products ormed are hydrogen gas and the
metal hydro3ide/
2>a(s) ? !2E(g) 2>aE!(s) ? !2(g)
5hen calcium is dropped into water, bubbles o colourless gas orm/ 6urthermore,
a suspension o insoluble calcium hydro3ide orms/
5hen a piece o reshly cleaned magnesium ribbon is held near steam, a white
deposit o &gE orms on the ribbon/ 5ith steam, howe"er, the product is o3ide,
not hydro3ide/
,ote( Reer to pracJtheory to see reactions o &g with all three substances/
5ater is more energetically stable than dilute acids, thus less metals react with it
in comparison to acid
9eaction -ith %ilute "cid(
%cids are substances which in solution produce hydrogen ions, !?/ &ost metals
react with dilute hydrochloric and suluric acids to rom hydrogen gas and a metal
salt/
6or e3ample &agnesium-
&g(s) ? 2!#l(a0) &g#l2(a0) ? !2(g)
%s can be seen, a metal salt along with hydrogen gas is produced/ +n a physical
sense, "igorous bubbles are seen to arise rom the hydrochloric acid (which we
know is hydrogen gas), urthermore we notice a clear solution orms (which we
know is magnesium chloride)/ %lso, the container gets hot/
/xtra( 9emember( O$98
5hen an atom loses one or more electrons we say that it has been o3idi*ed/
+ an atom gains one or more electrons we say that it has been reduced/

Redo3 reactions are where reduction and o3idation occur simultaneously in the
same reaction/
'alf /<uations( ,hese are reactions that describe the o3idation and reduction
process separately in terms o electrons lost or gained/
n 8eneral(
Metals that react vigorously -ith dilute acids also react "igorously with
water and o3ygen, and are called acti"e metals/ (Eg/ &agnesium)
Metals that react less vigorously -ith dilute acids also react less "igorously
with water and o3ygen, and are less acti"e metals/ (Eg/ Oinc)
Metals that do not react -ith dilute acids also don=t react with water and
o3ygen, and are called inacti"e metals/ (Eg/ Gold)
describe and =ustify the criteria used to place metals into an order of
activity based on their ease of reaction -ith oxygen, -ater and dilute
acids
&etals "ary in their reacti"ity/ Reacti"e metals will react with o3ygen, whereas
those that are inacti"e will not, placing them lower on the acti"ity series/ % highly
reacti"e metal with react with cold water, whereas metals that don=t react with
cold water may react with hot water and are lower on the acti"ity series/ &etals
that don=t react with water, need to be tested in dilute acid to test their reacti"ity/
,hus metals that react "igorously are deemed to be more reacti"e than those that
react less "igorously or only with concentrated acids/
,he reason or this procedure is that metals that react with o3ygen will react
more "igorously with water and then acids/ ,hus by determining where each
metal will react, we can make up an acti"ity series which is a list o metals based
on their order o reacti"ity/
,he acti"ity series o the common metals goes as ollows-
I, >a, Fi, $a, #a, &g, %l, On, 6e, .n, (b, #u, %g, (t, %u
identify the reaction of metals -ith acids as re<uiring the transfer of
electrons
%cids are substances which in solution produce hydrogen ions, !?/ +t is the
hydrogen ions which react with the metals/ ,hese ions result in the transer o
electrons between the substances in"ol"ed/
&etals reacting with acids are redo3 reactions/ %nother name or these reactions
is electron-transer reactions/ 6or e3ample when &agnesium reacts with dilute
hydrochloric acid, the net ionic e0uation is-

&g(s) ? 2!?(a0) &g2?(a0) ? !2(g)
%s can be seen the &agnesium has been o3idi*ed while the !? has been reduced/
outline examples of the selection of metals for different purposes based
on their reactivity, -ith a particular emphasis on current developments
in the use of metals
.ome situations where the choice o metal is based hea"ily upon the chemical
reacti"ity-
9oof 8uttering for 'ouses( >on-reacti"e aluminium is one option but it
is e3tremely e3pensi"e/ En the other hand gal"ani*ed iron is a"ailable
which is signiicantly cheaper but e"entually corrodes/
>ater pipes( >on-reacti"e, e3pensi"e copper or cheaper, corrodible iron/
/lectrical contacts for replaceable circuit boards in computers ?
other electronic e<uipment( #heaper copper (which slowly orms a non-
conducting o3ide layer) or e3pensi"e gold which will not react to o3ygen/
)ody mplants( E3tremely e3pensi"e and inert titanium alloys o less
e3pensi"e, but o"er the long term corrosion susceptible stainless steel/
&etals currently used or dierent purposes include-
$ithium( used in pace-makers, cameras and button cells due to the
energy o electrons transerred rom lithium anode and the high reacti"ity
o lithium
Magnesium( used as a component in ireworks, military and emergency
purposes and inside boilers/ ,his is due to its relati"ely high reacti"ity and
the act it burns bright when heated with air
"luminium( lack o reacti"ity means it can be used as drink cans, ood
wraps, aircrat bodies, in automobiles and in window rames
&itanium( used as artiicial )oints, aircrat and ship bodies, pipes/ +ts
rele"ant properties are a low reacti"ity, stable, resistance to corrosion and
chemically inert nature in the human body
outline the relationship bet-een the relative activities of metals and
their positions on the .eriodic &able
$y inspecting our acti"ity series it is possible to determine certain trends between
them and the periodic table-
,he acti"ity series shows that Group : metals are the most reacti"e, ollowed by
Group 2 metals/ Group 7 (%l) comes ne3t in reacti"ity ollowed by some transition
metals (On, 6e) and then the metals o group 2/ %t the end o the series are more
transition metals (#u, %g, (t, %u)/
6urthermore, the acti"ity series also shows that in groups : and 2 reacti"ity
increases rom top to bottom/
dentify the importance of first ioni*ation energy in determining the
relative reactivity of metals.
,he relati"e reacti"ity o metals correlates with a physical property known as first
ionisation energy.
@irst onisation energy o an element is the energy re0uired to remo"e an
electron rom a gaseous atom o the element/
+onisation energy is commonly measured in kK J mol/ 5here a mole is a particular
number o atoms (4/127 3 :1R27)/
,he irst ionisation energy measures the ease o remo"ing an electron rom a
metal atom- the lower the ionisation energy, the easier ir is to remo"e an
electron/
&he reactivity of metals increases as their ionisation energy decreases.
%s we go rom let to right across the acti"ity series, metal ions become easier to
reduce to metal atoms/ 'ue to the act that metal ions are present in ores, it can
be said that the urther to the right in the acti"ity series a metal is, the more
easily it can be e3tracted rom its ores/
/xtra ,ote(
I, >a, Fi, $a, #a, &g, %l
%ll re0uire electrolysis o molten ionic compounds in order to be e3tracted rom
their ores/
On, 6e, .n, (b
Reduction o o3ides with carbon or carbon mono3ide
#u, %g 8 roast sulides in air
(t, %u 8 occur naturally as ree metals/
!uper oxides(
" superoxide is an anion -ith the chemical formula O2- . +t is important
product o the one electron reduction o dio3ygen (E2), which occurs widely in
nature/ 5ith one unpaired electron, the supero3ide ion is a ree radical/
24 "s metals and other elements -ere discovered, scientists recognised
that patterns in their physical and chemical properties could be used to
organise the elements into a periodic table.
dentify an appropriate model that has been developed to describe
atomic structure
,he current model o the atomic structure is an adaptation o the original atomic
structure outlined by Ernest Rutherord/ +n :A::, he suggested that the atom
consisted o a small, dense core o positi"ely charged particles in the centre (or
nucleus) o the atom, surrounded by a swirling ring o electrons/
!e concluded through his e3periments and the e3periments o others that the
nucleus was e3tremely dense (because in his e3periment the alpha particles
would bounce o o it) but the electrons were e3tremely small, and spread out at
large distances (since the alpha particles would pass right through this area o the
atom)/
RutherordHs atom resembled a tiny solar system with the positi"ely charged
nucleus always at the centre and the electrons re"ol"ing around the nucleus/ ,he
positi"ely charged particles in the nucleus o the atom were called protons/
(rotons carry an e0ual, but opposite, charge to electrons, but protons are much
larger and hea"ier than electrons/ Ernest Rutherord interpreted results obtained
by Giger and &arsden, when they e3posed a thin ilm o gold oil to a beam o
alpha particles/ !e concluded that all o the positi"e charge and most o the mass
o an atom was concentrated in an e3tremely small region at its centre/ 5hich we
today know is correct/
%toms are electrically neutral since the number o protons balances the number o
electrons, thus gi"ing an o"erall net charge o *ero/ ,he si*e o the atom is
irrele"ant as the number o protons and electrons will always be the same in an
atom/
,hus an appropriate model o the atomic structure is that o Ernest Rutherord=s
as it demonstrates a positi"ely charged nucleus and a cloud o re"ol"ing
electrons/ !owe"er some essential reinements were necessary to this model and
these were incorporated as they were disco"ered/ 6or e3ample the disco"ery o
neutrons in :A72 by Kames #hadwick e3plained why the dense nucleus o the
atom was able to stay together as it
did/ %lso the disco"ery o numerous
other things, such as subshells and
"alence electrons were essential and
were basically added to the same
atomic structure proposed by Ernest
Rutherord
,he Rutherord &odel contained a
number o errors, but it pro"ided
scientists with a base that an atom is
more than )ust a singular particle, it
is made o protons, neutrons and
electrons/
(9utherford Model of a $ithium
"tom
Outline the history of the
development of the
.eriodic &able including its origins, the original data used to
construct it and the predictions made after its construction.
'istory of the .eriodic &able(
Contributor %ate >hat -as Contributed Comment
"ristotle S771 $# 6our Elements 8 6ire, %ir, Earth, 5ater
"ntoine
$avoisier
S :LL1 -
:L<A
5rote the irst list o the 77 elements
currently known and also distinguished
between metals and non-metals
.ome o these elements were
later ound to be compound
and mi3tures/
ABns Aa7ob
)er*elius
:<2< 'e"eloped a table o atomic weights and
also introduced letters to represent the
elements rather than ull names/
Aohann
%Bbereiner
:<2A
'e"eloped groups o three elements
known as triads/ ,hese elements had
similar properties/ .ome e3amples o
his triad include- Fithium, .odium and
(otassium ormed a triad/ #alcium,
barium and .trontium ormed a triad/
#hlorine, bromine T iodine also ormed
a triad/
!e was the irst man to bring
orward the notion o groups/
!e proposed that nature
contained triads o elements
the middle element had
properties that were an
a"erage o the other two
members when ordered by the
atomic weight/ (Faw o ,riads)
"lexandre
-/mile
)Cguyer
de
Chancourt
ois
:<42
%le3andre $Pguyer de #hancourtois was
the irst person to list the known
elements in order o increasing weight
o their atoms/ $ut due to the
complicated nature o his proposed
graph, his ideas were shrouded in less
read )ournals/ !is graph was so
complicated that most 6rench e3perts
still had trouble interpreting it/ +t was
not until ater &endelee" that his work
was credited/
Aohn
,e-lands
:<42 %t this stage o"er 41 elements were
known to e3ist/ >ewlands arranged
these elements in order o atomic
weights and realised that the properties
o the irst and ninth elements, second
and tenth elements etc/ were "ery
similar/ 'ue to his he proposed the BFaw
o Ecta"esC which was simply that Di
the chemical elements are arranged
according to increasing atomic weight,
those with similar physical and chemical
properties occur ater each inter"al o
se"en elements/6
E
>ewlands= Faw o Ecta"es
identiied that many o the
elements had similarities but
his law re0uired similarities
where none actually e3isted/
!owe"er he was unable to
comprehend that some
elements had not been
disco"ered and thereore did
not lea"e any gaps or those
elements/ !e was the irst
person to initiate the notion o
periods/
$othar Meyer :<4A !e was able to compile a periodic table
containing ;4 elements/ !e arranged
the elements based on the periodicity o
properties such as molar "olume when it
was arranged in the order o atomic
'mitri &endelee" and Fothar
&eyer both produced their own
(eriodic tables at the same
time, but &endelee" is still
considered to be the ather o
4
'irect Muote- Ulaw o octa"es/U EncyclopVdia $ritannica/ 211A/ EncyclopVdia $ritannica Enline/ 17
Kun/ 211A DRF- http-JJwww/britannica/comJE$checkedJtopicJ222<72Jlaw-o-octa"es
weight/ &eyer=s contribution was his
ability recognises periodic beha"iour/ %
repeating pattern o atomic "olume/
5hen atomic "olume o an element was
plotted against its atomic weight a clear
pattern e3isted/ &eyer realised that due
to the graph, atomic "olume rapidly
peaks and then alls considerably/
the (eriodic table/
&eyer is also recognised or
identiying periodic beha"iour
which allowed or the
de"elopment o groups and
periods/
%mitri
Mendeleev
:<4A !e also produced a periodic table based
on atomic weights like Fothar &eyer, but
he arranged them Wperiodically= with
elements that had similar properties
arranged under each other/ !e also let
certain gaps or elements that he
belie"ed had not been disco"ered yet/
6urthermore, he was able to predict the
properties o those elements/ 5e know
those elements to be gallium, scandium
and germanium/ %dditionally, &endelee"
also re-arranged the order o the
elements i their properties dictated it/
6or e3ample- ,ellurium is hea"ier than
iodine but it comes beore iodine in the
periodic table/
,he periodic law allowed or the
properties o the elements to
be estimated/ (roperties o the
elements "ary according to
their atomic weights/
>illiam
9amsay
:<A< !e was able to disco"er the noble gases
which allowed or the inclusion o si3
more elements into the periodic table/
5e know these gases are in their own
separate group and are also highly
unreacti"e/
0+n :<A2 Ramsay remo"ed
o3ygen, nitrogen, water and
carbon dio3ide rom a sample
o air and was let with a gas
:A times hea"ier than
hydrogen, "ery unreacti"e and
with an unknown emission
spectrum/ !e called this gas
%rgon/ +n :<A; he disco"ered
helium as a decay product o
uranium and matched it to the
emission spectrum o an
unknown element in the sun
that was disco"ered in :<4</
!e went on to disco"er neon,
krypton and 3enon, and
realised these represented a
new group in the (eriodic
,able/1
F
'enry
Moseley
:A:2 !e was able to determine the atomic
number o each o the elements
disco"ered at the time/ !e was also able
to modiy the B(eriodic FawC to ensure
the properties o the elements "ary
&oseley=s modiied (eriodic Faw
puts the some o the elements
in the right order compared to
what they were pre"iously/ 6or
e3ample, %rgon and (otassium
5
'irect Muote( %us-e-tute- B!istory o the (eriodic ,able o ElementsC 8 'ate @isited- 12-14-211A
DRF- http-JJwww/ausetute/com/auJpthistor/html
periodically according to their atomic
numbers/
as well as #obalt and >ickel
were placed in their correct
order/
8lenn
!eaborg
:A21 !e was able to disco"er and also
synthesise elements that occurred ater
uranium in the periodic table, known as
the lanthanides and actinides or the
transuranic elements/
0+n :A21 uranium was
bombarded with neutrons in a
cyclotron to produced
neptunium (OXA7)/ (lutonium
(OXA2) was produced rom
uranium and deuterium/ ,hese
new elements were part o a
new block o the (eriodic table
called %ctinides/ .eaborg was
awarded a >obel (ri*e in
:A;:1
6
.
>hat data -as used to construct the periodic table and -hat predictions
could be made after every stage of its constructionG
Eb"iously a necessary task when constructing the periodic table is to irstly
disco"er the indi"idual elements/ Gold, sil"er, tin, copper, mercury and lead had
been known or ages gone but the irst actual disco"ery o an element did not
occur until :42A, when phosphorous was disco"ered/ E"er the ne3t 211 years or
so, an increasing number o elements and knowledge about them were
unra"elled/ $y :<4A, 47 elements were disco"ered and as knowledge about these
elements grew scientists began to recognise patterns in their properties and this
led to their classiication/
,he irst person to really recognise a pattern between the elements was Kohann
'Ybereiner (see table) who noticed that some groups o three elements
possessed "ery similar properties and urthermore that the middle element was
the a"erage o the outer two elements (when the elements were arranged by
atomic weight)/ ,hus he de"eloped the BFaw o ,riadsC/ %s scientists e3panded
their knowledge these triads began to groups o our and i"e, showing that the
relationships e3tended beyond 'Ybereiner=s Faw/ !owe"er, research in these
areas was restricted due to the lack o accurate "alues/
,he irst attempt at designing a periodic table was done by 6rench geologist %/ E/
$Pguyer de #hancourtois (see table)/ !e transcribed a list o elements onto a
cylinder so that :4 mass units were written on the cylinder or e"ery turn and so
that closely related elements with similar properties could be lined up "ertically/
!e was the irst to recognise the reoccurrence o elemental properties ater e"ery
se"en elements/ !e was able to predict the stoichiometry o metallic o3ides !is
chart howe"er contained certain ions and compounds which reduced accuracy o
some o his predictions/
,he ne3t ma)or step that occurred was the de"elopment o the Faw o Ecta"es by
Kohn >ewlands (see table)/ ,his law allowed or the prediction o elemental
properties especially between elements that were separated by se"en others/
Fothar &eyer and &endelee" both in :<4A simultaneously constructed their own
periodic tables/ &eyer released an abbre"iated "ersion o his periodic table in
6
'irect Muote( %us-e-tute- B!istory o the (eriodic ,able o ElementsC 8 'ate @isited- 12-14-211A
DRF- http-JJwww/ausetute/com/auJpthistor/html
:<42 but by the time he e3tended and released his ull "ersion (:<L1), 'mitri
&endelee" had released his own (:<4A)/ &endelee" was able to organise the
elements into amilies with similar properties/ %ter this he arranged the metallic
elements according to their "alency or combining power/ !owe"er he came to
challenges with certain metallic elements displaying "ariable "alencies/ &endelee"
also noticed patterns in the properties and atomic weights o the halogens, alkali
metals and alkaline earths/ +n an eort to e3tend this pattern, he created a card
or each o the 47 known elements o the time/ 5hen &endelee" arranged the
cards in the order o ascending atomic weight, he realised that he was able to
group elements o similar properties together/ ,hus the periodic table was
ormed/ ,he ma)or ad"antage o &endelee"=s table o"er pre"ious attempts o
other scientists was that he was able to e3hibit similarities hori*ontally, "ertically
and diagonally/ &endelee" was so conident in his own periodic table that he knew
that the atomic masses o certain elements were incorrect/ !e changed the
atomic mass o beryllium rom :2 to A and also changed the weights o :L other
elements/ !owe"er e"en ater the re-measurement o atomic weights, some
elements were still placed out o atomic weight order/
!ere is where &endelee"=s true genius was shown to the world/ !e predicted that
certain elements had not been disco"ered so he let gaps in his periodic table or
them/ %lso, he predicted the properties o those elements (such as eka-
aluminium, eka-boron and eka-silicon which we now know to be germanium,
scandium and gallium) and when they were ound, their properties almost
matched those predicted by &endelee"/
Comparison of the properties of germanium-
H
.roperty .redicted by Mendeleev "ctual ;as observed in 155I4
%tomic weight L2 L2/7
'ensity ;/;gJmF ;/2LgJmF
&elting point @ery high A41 degrees #elsius
.peciic heat capacity 1/7: K I
-1
g
-1
1/72 K I
-1
g
-1
6ormula o o3ide
RE
2
RE
2
'ensity o o3ide 2/L gJmF 2/L1gJmF
6ormula o chloride
R#l
2
Ge#l
2
$oiling point o #hloride :11 degrees #elsius <4 degrees #elsius
,he periodic law outlined by &endelee" was that the properties o the elements
"ary with their diering atomic weights/ ,here were certain errors in his periodic
table and he incorrectly identiied some relationships but he was the irst person
to pro"ide a sophisticated outline or the arrangement o the elements known as
the (eriodic ,able/ ,he ne3t ma)or disco"ery was that o the >oble gases by
5illiam Ramsay in :<A<, who was able to disco"er argon/ !e disco"ered that
these elements had a *ero "alency so named it group *ero/ 'ue to these actors,
he was able to accurately predict the disco"ery o neon and also predicted its
properties beore its disco"ery/
.cientists o the twentieth century were able to coin the term atomic number and
due to the disco"ery o isotopes it was noted that the periodic law was dependant
on atomic number rather than atomic weight/ Ene o these scientists was !enry
&oseley who was responsible or determining what we know as the atomic
number/ !e proposed that it, rather than atomic weight, was the basic eature
7
,able is 'irectly rom- .mith, Ronald/ #on0uering #hemistry - (reliminary #ourse %ustralia- &cGraw-!ill, 2112
which determined properties/ !e proposed a modiied periodic law- (roperties o
the elements "ary periodically with their atomic numbers/ ,his allowed or the
correct allocation o argon, potassium, cobalt, nickel, tellurium and iodine/
,he last ma)or change to the periodic table resulted rom Glenn .eaborg=s
research in the middle o the twentieth century/ !e was able to disco"er
plutonium in :A21 and was then able to disco"er all the transuranic elements
(rom A2 to :12)/ !e then re-arranged the periodic table by placing the
lanthanide series abo"e the actinide/ ,hus with this inal arrangement, the
modern periodic table was complete/ >ow scientists were able to predict the
reactions between certain elements, the composition o the compounds, reacti"ity
o certain elements, ions and compounds and also the ionisation o elements/
,hese were now predictable due to the work done rom the time o %ristotle to
the inal stages o .eaborg=s research/
/xplain the relationship bet-een the position of the elements in
the .eriodic &able, and(
- /lectrical conductivity
- onisation energy
- "tomic radius
- Melting point
- )oiling point
- combining po-er ;valency4
- /lectronegativity
- 9eactivity
9eactivity
,he reacti"ity o a metal associates well with its irst ionisation energy- the lower
the irst ionisation energy, the greater the reacti"ity o the metal/ ,his is due to
one sole reason- that both reacti"ity o a metal and ionisation energy are related
to the ease with which the metal will lose its electrons/ ,hereore the logical
comparison can be made that-
06or metallic elements reacti"ity decreases rom let to right across a period o
the table (or e3ample >a, &g, %l) and increases rom top to bottom down a
group ($e, &g, #a, .r)/1
5

,his is simply because the more let and down you proceed in the periodic table,
the easier it is or the electrons to be remo"ed, thus resulting in higher reacti"ity/
!owe"er, the case or non-metals is not as simple as it is or metals/ ,his is
mainly due to the act that there are a minimum o two types o reacti"ity or
non-metals/ ,here is the ormation o ions (anions) and also the ormation o
co"alent compounds/
Generally in both cases the reacti"ity increases as you go rom let to right across
a period/ 6urthermore, the reacti"ity decreases as you go rom top to bottom
down a group/ ,his is simply because the arther to the right and up you proceed
in the periodic table, the higher the electronegati"ity, this results in a more
orceul e3change o electrons/
onisation /nergy
6irst +onisation Energy is the energy re0uired to remo"e an electron rom the
outermost shell o an element when it is gaseous state/ +onisation energy is
measure in kKJmol/ Each element has se"eral ionisation energies and the energies
always increase per ionisation le"el/ ,his is simply because it re0uires more
8
'irect Muote- .mith, Ronald/ #on0uering #hemistry - (reliminary #ourse %ustralia- &cGraw-!ill, 2112
energy to remo"e a negati"e electron rom a position ion than it does rom a
neutral species/ ,his is ully due to the electrostatic attraction between the
positi"e nucleus and the negati"e electron cloud/ %ter the irst electron is
remo"ed, there is e3tra electrostatic attraction on the remaining electrons making
them harder to remo"e/
+onisation energies pro"ide strong e"idence towards periodic law/ 6urthermore
they also pro"ide signiicant conirmation that the atoms want to ha"e Bnoble gas
conigurationC/ %s can be seen rom the graph abo"e, when irst ionisation
energies are plotted against atomic number a clear trend is seen/ ,he minimum
"alues are all captured by the alkali metals (group : 8 Fi, >a, I, Rb, and #s)
showing that it is easy to remo"e an electron rom these elements/ En the other
hand the ma3imum "alues are captured by the noble gases (!e, >e, %r, Ir, Ze,
Rn) showing that a large amount o energy is needed to remo"e an electron rom
these stable elements/
0Elements with low ionisation energies readily orm positi"e ions and thereore
such elements orm ionic compounds (>a
+1
, #a
+2
, %l
+3
)/1
J
%s you go across any period o the periodic table, the irst ionisation energy
increases, indicating that when you mo"e rom let to right, the tendency to lose
electrons deceases/ 5hen you go down any group o the periodic table, the
ionisation energy decreases/ ,his indicates that elements lose electrons less
readily as we mo"e rom let to right/ ,his is because elements on the right hand
side o the periodic table wish to gain electrons to orm an octet, whereas the
ones on the let would rather lose those electrons/ %lso elements more readily
lose electrons as we go down a group/ ,his is because the increasing number o
shells in the atom allow or the easier remo"al o the outermost electrons/
"tomic 9adius
5hen atomic radius is plotted against atomic number, the cur"e shows a distinctly
periodic nature/ ,he atomic radius passes though a set o ma3imum=s which
corresponding directly to the group : metals (also known as the alkali metals)/
,here is also a set o minimums which occur in the last group o the periodic table
known as the noble gases/ ,hus the relationship between the position o elements
in the (eriodic table and their atomic radius is that the atomic radius decreases
rom let to right across any period o the table/ ,his is because o the stronger
attracti"e orces in atoms between the opposite charges in the nucleus and
electron cloud cause the atom to be contracted in slightly/ 6urthermore the
atomic radius also increases in going down any group o the table/ ,his is because
o the increasing si*e o the nucleus as you mo"e down a group/ %lso, new energy
le"els o electrons are added to the atom, each making the atom signiicantly
larger in both mass and "olume/
Melting point
5hen a substance melts, some o the orces that hold the particles together are
broken or loosened so that the particles can mo"e reely but are still together/
,he stronger the attraction orces (intermolecular bonds), the more energy is
needed to break them, and thus they ha"e higher melting points/
9
'irect Muote- .mith, Ronald/ #on0uering #hemistry - (reliminary #ourse %ustralia- &cGraw-!ill, 2112
5hen the melting points o the elements are plotted against their atomic
numbers a periodic beha"iour occurs, as the cur"e passes a series o minimums
which correspond to the noble gases/ ,he ma3imums do not appear in such a
simple pattern howe"er/ ,he ma3imum melting points occur appro3imately hal-
way between the minimums/
)oiling .oint
5hen a substance boils, the ma)ority o the remaining attracti"e orces between
the molecules (intermolecular orces) are broken so that the particles can reely
and ar apart (because o their gaseous state which results in rapid translational
mo"ement)/ ,he stronger the intermolecular bonds (attracti"e orces), the more
energy is re0uired to o"ercome them, thus gi"ing them a higher boiling point/
5hen the boiling points o the elements are plotted against atomic numbers, the
graph that is produced is similar to the graph on the pre"ious page which showed
the melting points o the elements plotted against their atomic numbers/ ,he
boiling point graph undergoes a similar series o minimums which correspond to
the atomic numbers o the noble gases/ 6urthermore, the ma3ima occur
appro3imately hal-way between the minimums/
/lectronegativity
0,he electronegati"ity o an element is a measure o the ability o an atom o that
element to attract bonding electrons towards itsel when it orms compounds/
+ the dierence in electronegati"ities o two elements is greater than :/;, the
elements will orm an ionic compound9 otherwise the compound will be co"alent/1
13
,he electronegati"ity increases as we mo"e rom let to right across a period/ ,his
is because elements situated on the let o the table ha"e one or two "alence
electrons and would gi"e those electrons away to achie"e an octet/ %ccordingly,
they ha"e a low electronegati"ity/ En the other hand, elements situated on the
right o the table only re0uire a ew electrons to complete a ull octet, so they
want to grab other elements electrons, thus gi"ing those elements high electro-
negati"ity/
,he electronegati"ity deceases as we mo"e down a group/ ,his is because
electrons situated at the top o the able ha"e minimal electrons that they want to
preser"e/ ,hus they ha"e a stronger desire to ac0uire more electrons/ Elements
situated on the bottom o the table ha"e a large amount o electrons and
thereore losing some is not an issue/ ,his is mainly due to the electron shells/
Electrons in the outer electron shells are not as tightly bound to the atom and are
thus easily lost, whereas internal electrons (those closer to the nucleus) ha"e
much more electrostatic attraction and are thus tightly bound/
Combining po-er ;valency4
,he most common "alency o an element is its group number (i it is in groups
one to our) or eight minus its group number (i it is groups i"e to se"en)/
,he noble gases are situated in group eight (also known as group eighteen or
10
'irect Muote- .mith, Ronald/ #on0uering #hemistry - (reliminary #ourse %ustralia- &cGraw-!ill, 2112
group *ero) because they ha"e no "alence electrons and thereore are "ery
unreacti"e and rarely orm compounds/
+t is not possible to determine some o the "alencies o the elements situated
outside the general groups (one to eight)/ ,hese elements are known as the
transition metals and ha"e "arying "alencies/ 6or e3ample copper may ha"e a
"alency o one or two, iron may ha"e a "alency o two or three, chromium may
ha"e a "alency o two or three etc/ !owe"er most o these transition elements
rom cations with a positi"e two charge/
,he position o an element determines its "alency which hence determines its
combining power/ + an element is situated in group eight it has *ero "alencies
and thus will ha"e limited combining power/ + an element is situated in any other
group o the periodic table it will ha"e a number o "alence electrons meaning
that it will ha"e a signiicant combining power/ Generally the most reacti"e metals
are located to the bottom let o the periodic table (due to their low
electronegati"ity) whereas the most reacti"e non-metals are situated towards the
top-right (due to their high electronegati"ity)/ ,hese elements ha"e the greatest
combining power but the lowest "alencies/ +/e/ thereore it could be said that the
lower the "alency the greater the combining power/
/lectric Conductivity
&etals are good conductors o electricity, non-metals are not good conductors o
electricity rather they are electrical insulators/
,his means that all the elements situated on let hand side o the periodic table
(e3cept hydrogen) all the way to group three ha"e good electrical conducti"ity/
,his is mainly because o their metallic nature and structure/ (+/e/ they ha"e
metallic bonding which means there is a sea o delocalised electrons which can
mo"e reely and this allows or the conduction o electricity)/
,he elements on the right hand side o the periodic table (the non-metals) are
electrical insulators because they do not ha"e ree mo"ing electrons/ ,hey usually
orm diatomic co"alent bonds and this means that the electrons are tightly bound
within the molecules and thereore no electricity can be conducted since no ree
electrons/ ,his is with the e3ception o carbon, which despite being classiied as a
non-metal displays e3cellent electricity conducti"ity when in the orm o graphite/
%ll semi-metals are able to conduct electricity but .ilicon, Germanium, $oron
,ellurium which display high le"els o resistance when it comes to electrical
conducti"ity/
E4 @or efficient resource use, industrial chemical reactions must use
measured amount of each reactant.
%efine the mole as the number of atoms in exactly 12g of carbon-12
;"vogadro6s ,umber4.
,he mole is simply a number/ Fike a do*en is a group o :2 some-things, a mole
is I.32 x 13K22 some-things/ .o i you ha"e a mole o people, you would ha"e
4/12 3 :1R27 people/ +n chemistry it will usually reer to the number o atoms or
molecules within a particular mass/
Eg- !ow many moles o #arbon dio3ide, in 2/71g[
,ote( ,he relative atomic mass ;or atomic -eight4 o an element is the
a"erage mass o the atoms present in the naturally occurring element relati"e to
the mass o an atom o the carbon-:2 isotope taken as e3actly :2/
,ote( +t is essential to realise that the relati"e atomic mass (or atomic weight) o
an element is >E, the mass o an atom o that element/ +t is )ust a relati"e mass
8 relati"e to the mass o a carbon atom/
,ote( Relati"e atomic mass and atomic weight are the same terms
,he relative molecular mass ;or molecular -eight4 o a compounds is the
mass o a molecule o the compound relati"e to the mass o an atom o the
carbon-:2 isotope which is taken as e3actly :2/
,he molecular -eight o a compound is the sum o the atomic weights o the
atoms as gi"en in the molecular ormula/
,he relative formula mass ;or formula -eight4 o a compounds is the sum o
the atomic weights o the atomic species gi"en in the stated ormula o that
compound/
,ote( + or any element we take the mass which in grams is numerically e0ual to
the atomic weight, then it contains 4/12 3 :1R27 atoms/
,he "vogadro constant (or which the symbol is >%) is the number o atoms in
e3actly :2 grams o the carbon-:2 isotope/
,he molar mass is the mass o a mole o the substance/ +t can used or both
elements and compounds/
,ote( 5hen we use gaseous elements it is important to understand that
elements in a gaseous state may be diatomic/ 6or e3ample o3ygen/ !ere it is
important to identiy wether or not the 0uestion wishes the molar mass o o3ygen
atoms (which is :4) or the molar mass o o3ygen gas (which is 72)/
+t is relati"ely easy to con"ert between mass, moles and the number o
atomsJmolecules/
,o change rom mass to moles- n L m?M (where n is the number o moles, m is
the mass o the substance, & is the molar mass o the substance)/
,o con"ert rom moles to number o atomsJmolecules-
>umber o atomsJmolecules X number o moles 3 the %"ogadro constant
Compare mass changes in samples of metals -hen they combine -ith
oxygen.
,ote( +n order to calculate the percentage composition o a particular element
within a substance, use the ollowing ormula-
+n the compound o ormula %w$y#*-
- x ;atomic -eight of "4 x 133
M"L NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
molecular -eight of "-)yC*
$oo7 "t "ttached example mole Ouestions.
%escribe the contribution of 8ay-$ussac to the understanding of gaseous
reactions and apply this to an understanding of the mole concept.
9ecount "vogadro6s la- and describe its importance in developing the
mole concept
+n :<1<, a man by the >ame o Kohn 'alton proposed a theory which we know as
'alton=s atomic theory/
,he three postulates o %alton6s atomic theory were-
&atter is composed o tiny, in"isible particles called atoms
%ll atoms o the one element are identical, but dierent rom the atoms o
all other elements
#hemical reactions consist o combining, separating or rearranging atoms in
simple whole number ratios/
,his theory led to the use o symbols, ormulae and e0uations, and also the
concept o relati"e atomic mass/
!owe"er, ormulae and atomic weights were the grey area/ +t was Gay-Fussac
and %"ogadro who pro"ided the answer/
%ter studying the "olumes in which gases reacted, Gay-Fussac, in :<1<,
proposed the law o combining "olumes-
When measured at a constant temperature and pressure, the volumes
of gases taking part in a chemical reaction show simple whole number
ratios to one another.
;14 6or e3ample- :11 mF o hydrogen reacts with :11 mF o chlorine to orm
211mF o hydrogen chloride (one B"olumeC reacts with one B"olumesC to orm two
B"olumesC)
%"ogadro noted the similarity between Gay-Fussac=s statement and the third
postulate o the atomic theory/ ,hus he proposed the ollowing-
When measured at the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes
of gases will contain the same number of molecules.
,his became known as %"ogadro=s Faw
$y applying this law to statement (:), we can deduce that one molecule o
hydrogen combines with one molecule o chlorine to orm two molecules o
hydrogen chloride/
Er
One MO$/ of hydrogen gas reacts -ith one MO$/ of chlorine gas to
produce t-o MO$/! of hydrogen chloride.
Gay-Fussac=s law o combining "olumes along with %"ogadro=s law allowed or the
use o results rom 0uantitati"e analysis in order to determine ormulae or
compounds and hence their relati"e atomic masses/
$ecause the e3istence o ormulae and atomic weights, and hence the ability to
write chemical e0uations, are essential or the concept o moles, it can be
concluded that the work o Gay-Fussac and %"ogadro was critically important in
de"eloping the mole concept/
,ote(
"vogadro6s la- can be rearranged to read(
Equal numbers of molecules of different gases occupy the same volume
(at the same temperature and pressure.
+n this orm %"ogadro=s law allows us to con"ert statement about numbers o
molecules in chemical e0uations into statements about "olumes/ $D, E>FG 6ER
G%.EED. RE%#,%>,. %>' (RE'D#,./
,ote( ,he study o 0uantitati"e aspects o ormulae and e0uations is called
stoichiometry/ ,he calculations in"ol"ed are stoichiometric calculations/
%istinguish bet-een empirical formulae and molecular formulae.
,he empirical formula o a compound is the ormula that tells us the simplest
ratio in which the atoms are present in the compound/
,he molecular formula o a compound is the ormula that tells us how many o
each type o atom are present in a molecule o the compound/
/xtra(
Molarity
&olarity is the concentration o solute within a solution/
- ,he concentration o solution is the amount o solute dissol"ed in a gi"en
amount o solution
- ,he amount o solute is the number o moles o solute
- ,he amount o solution is the "olume o solution in Fitres
- ,he &olarity o a solution is deined as the number o moles o solute in one
litre o solution/
- &olarity X (moles o solute) J ("olumes o solution in litres)
- c X n J @ (where c is the &olarity o the solution in molJF)
- ,he symbol & is used or &olarity/ :& means a &olarity o one moleJlitre/
- .0uare brackets \] around a symbol indicate the Bconcentration oC/
\>a?] means the concentration o sodium ions in moles per litre/
F4 &he relative abundance and ease of extraction of metals influences
their value and breadth of use in the community.
%efine the terms mineral and ore -ith
reference to economic and non-economic deposits of natural resources.
% resource is something that we need or want to use/ ,atural resources are
reely a"ailable in nature (naturally occurring)/ !ynthetic 9esources are man-
made and do not occur naturally in nature/
% economic resource is a resource through we which we are able to gain proit/
&etals make up one o our most precious natural resources/ &etals are non-
renewable because when we ha"e consumed them all, they are unable to be
replaced and we cannot make any more/
% roc7 is a mi3ture o minerals/
%n ore is a compound or mi3ture o compounds rom which it is economic (or
commercially proitable) to e3tract the desired substance such as a metal/
% mineral is a pure (or nearly pure) crystalline compound that occurs in the
Earth=s crust/
!aematite is a mineral9 it is the common ore o iron/ ,he ore o aluminium is
bau3ite9 it is a mi3ture o compounds, mainly the minerals gribbsite and
boehmite, iron (+++) o3ide, silica and "arious clays/ ,here are "arious minerals
called alumino-silicates but these minerals are not ores o aluminium because it is
not economic to e3tract aluminium rom them/ ,hus showing that the term BoreC
is coined to a deposit where the metal mined has a proitable yield/
%escribe the relationship bet-een the commercial prices of common
metals, their actual abundances and relative costs of production.
@actors -hich affect the price of the metal are(
- ,he abundance and location o ores o the metal (less abundant ores will
generally attract higher royalties and so will be more e3pensi"e)
- ,he cost o e3tracting the metal rom the ore (aluminium and titanium are
much more e3pensi"e to e3tract than iron or copper)
- ,he cost o transporting the metal or its ores to the re0uired location (rare
metals or their ores may need to be shipped rom remote locations, while or
abundant metals con"eniently located ore deposits can be used)
- ,he world-wide demand or the metal9 i demand is high, the price rises9 i it
slumps, price alls- the supply and demand actor/
/lement E .i %l 6e #a >a I &g
"bundance
;M by mass4
2A/2 2;/L L/; 2/L 7/2 2/4 2/2 :/A
9esource "pproximate Pno-n 9eserves
%luminium :111111111 (:3:1RA)
#opper 711111111 (73:1R<)
+ron A1111111111 (A3:1R:1)
+t is likely prediction that copper will be the irst one to run out/
@actors that -ill affect ho- long these metals -ill last( Rate o use, new
disco"eries o ores, new de"elopments, replacement materials/
$ased on present rate o usage, these reser"es o aluminum, copper and iron are
e3pected to last appro3imately 71, 21 and A1 years respecti"ely/ %s these three
metals are used e3tensi"ely by our society, a shortage o any o them will ha"e
"ast conse0uences/
+ %luminium supplies were to reach shortage le"els, these would be the
conse0uences-
- Fower abundance 8 !igher costs
- Economic conse0uences/
- %lternati"e products (eg plastics) 8 higher en"ironmental conse0uences
eg/ (ollution
- Greater amount o recycling
,here are a number o ways scientists can help make these reser"es last longer
including-
- +ncrease recycling
- 'e"elop new methods o e3tracting metals
- &etal protection 8 new methods
- 'e"elop alternati"es or metals/
#ommercial prices and cost o production o metals "ary considerably/ ,he
ollowing table pro"ides some appro3imate estimates or comparison/
Metal .rice ;Q"?&onne4 .roduction ;Q"?&onne4 9elative "bundance
%luminium 2111 :411 :
st
+ron ::11 A11 2
nd
&agnesium ;711 2211 <
th
/xplain -hy ores are non-rene-able resources
Metal ores are non-rene-able resources. ,hey were ormed when the Earth
was ormed and there is now way o orming any more o them/ 5hile we are
unlikely to use up all the known reser"es o metal ores in the short term, we
ne"ertheless should use them as sparingly as possible so as to make them last or
as long as possible/
.imply put, the main way o doing this is through recycling/ ,here are our
ad"antages o recycling metals-
14 Fess energy used in recycling metals than in e3tracting metal rom "irgin ore
24 6inite natural resources (ores) are conser"ed/
24 Fess rubbish has to be disposed o/ ,his is a ma)or concern in big cities where
sites or garbage dumps are becoming hard to ind/
E4 Recycling may lead to lower prices or metals/
,he problem with any orm o recycling is that the used material has to be
collected rom "ery scattered locations/ ,he ore comes rom a conined location
(the mine site)9 it is processed into metal and then into usable products are 0uite
speciic placed or actories9 but then as the products are sold and used, they are
scattered "ery widely throughout our communities/ #ollecting used material or
recycling is a ma)or money and energy cost o recycling/
%escribe the separation process, chemical reactions and energy
considerations involved in the extraction of copper from one of its ores.
Ore( Chalcopyrite ;Cu@e!24
!eparation .rocess R Chemical 9eactions(
14 Mining, crushing and grinding(
,he mined ore is placed in a crusher and con"erted into pebbles/ ,he pebbles and
then ground to liberate the mineral crystals rom the rock/
24 Concentration
Dsing the process o roth lotation the #halcopyrite mineral is separated rom the
gangue o silicate minerals/ ,he #halcopyrite mineral sticks to the roth and are
remo"ed/ ,he roth is pumped to the smelter, whereas the gangue is disposed/
24 9oasting and !melting
,he roasting process con"erts the sulide mineral into an o3ide/ !melting is an
industrial process in which a urnace pro"ides high temperatures to produce
molten materials or chemical reduction/ Chemical 9eduction in"ol"ed
con"erting a metallic compound to a metal/ ,he copper is released rom the
mineral because the iron and sulur atoms combine more readily with o3ygen to
rom stable compounds/
.and and calcium carbonate are added to the smelter/ E3ygen rich air is also
blown in, and the #halcopyrite undergoes a comple3 series o reactions until
copper is inally ormed/
Overall 9eaction( 2#u6e.2(s) ? ;E2(g) 2#u(l) ? 26eE(s) ? 2.E2(g)
.and and calcium carbonate combine to orm calcium silicate/ ,he iron o3ide
combines with the silicate to orm a slag which loats on the melted copper/ ,he
Wslag= o iron silicate can be readily remo"ed/
6eE(s) ? #a.iE7(l) 6e.iE7(l) ? #aE(s)
.ulur is remo"ed as sulur dio3ide gas by blowing air through the molten copper
at :211 degrees/ ,his is con"erts some copper sulide into copper o3ide and these
react to inally produce copper/
9oasting( 2#u2.(s) ? 7E2(g) 2#u2E(l) ? 2.E2(g)
!melting( 2#u2E(l) ? #u2.(l) 4#u(l) ? .E2(g)
,he melted copper is run o into moulds and cast into blocks or urther reining/
,he cast copper is called 0)listered copper1 because o the bubbled surace
caused by escaping sulur dio3ide gas/ +t contains 2-7% impurities o other
metals such as gold, sil"er and nickel/
/lectro-refining of copper
+n order to reine the blister copper produced, electrolysis is necessary/ Electro-
reining in"ol"es the o3idation o the blister copper (this orms the anode in the
electrolytic cell) and the reduce o the copper ions so ormed back to metallic
copper at the negati"e electrode (cathode)/
Overall /lectrolytic cell reaction(
#u(s) ? #u2? #u2? ? #u(s)
+mpure %node (ure deposit on
#athode
% signiicant amount o energy is re0uired to undergo the e3traction o copper
rom #halcopyrite/ +t is estimated that 22L1kK is the minimum amount o energy
re0uired to produce :kg o pure metal in this e3traction process/
,ote( +n general, the more acti"e a metal, the greater the energy re0uired to
e3tract it rom its ores/
!owe"er, the energy in"ol"ed in the e3traction reaction is the only part o the
total energy budget o the e3traction process/ Energy has to be supplied in order
to-
- mine the ore
- puriy or concentrate the ore
- maintain high temperatures needed to make the e3traction reactions go
- puriy the raw metal or orm it into useul alloys/
9ecount the steps ta7en to recycle aluminium
&he steps in recycling aluminium are(
- #ollect the used products rom homes, shopping centers, actories etc/
- ,ransport the collected material to a central processing plant
- .eparate the aluminium rom the impurities such as dirt, labels etc/
- Re-smelt the metal into ingots
- Roll ingots into sheets o aluminium
- ,ransport these sheets to product manuacturers/
+n recent years, more attention is gi"en to the recycling o aluminium drink cans
as they are readily used by the community and widely dispersed, thus they can
be recycled in order to reduce the cost o manuacturing new products/
Recycling aluminium re0uires only ;% o the energy and produces only ;% o the
#E2 emissions as compared with primary production and reduces the waste going
to landill/
%iscuss the importance of predicting yield in the identification, mining
and extraction of commercial ore deposits.
,he percentage composition and mass-mass calculations are widely used in the
mining and minerals industries to calculate the yields o materials rom their ores/
,he yield o a metal rom a particular mineral or ore is the mass o metal that
can be obtained rom a particular mass o the mineralJore/
Sield i oten e3pressed as a percentage/
5hile we can use ormulae to calculate (or predict) yields o metals rom
particular minerals (pure compounds), or ores we ha"e to measure them
e3perimentally/ ,his is because ores are mi3tures o the re0uired mineral and
unwanted material, and, being mi3tures, they ha"e "ariable composition (rom
one location to another)/
&easurement o the yield rom a particular ore body is e3tremely important in the
mining and minerals industry because it determines whether e3traction o the
metal rom that ore is proitable or not/ 5hene"er a new ore body is ound,
samples are analysed to see i the yield o the metal is enough to make mining
the ore, economically proitable/
%nother actor is considering yield, is that the yield produces in large actories is
less than that o a laboratory/
,he .ercentage yield o a chemical reaction is the amount o product obtained
e3pressed as a percentage o the amount e3pected rom the chemical e0uation/
.ome reasons why yields are oten less than :11% are-
- ,here are physical losses (such as spillages or leakage)
- .ome o the product J reactant may be lost through "aporisation
- .ometimes all o the reactants may not react/
- Rate o reaction may be too slow/ (premature analysis)
- ,here may be certain side reactions which consume parts o the reactants/