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THE RESISTANCE OF SOIL BELOW

THE MAXIMUM SCOUR LEVEL

IN THE DESIGN OF WELL

FOUNDATIONS

OF

BRIDGES

THE INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS

1996

<<

tIC: sun

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ESTIMATING

THE RESiSTANCE OF SOIL BELOW

THE MAXIMUM SCOUR LEVEL

IN THE DESIGN OF WELL

FOUNDATiONS

OF

BRIDGES

Pub!( sh e d &v

THE INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS

Janinagar House, Shahjaban Road

New DeH,i-H

1996

Pri~cR

(1tus I~acki ig ~

<<

IIC: rn-an

First Published

Repdnted

Reprinted

Reprinted

Reprinted

October, 1972

March, 1984

July, 1987

March, 1992

As 1996

Octobei~2000

(RIghts of ?WblIntk# adV flasbtkn ON NUtS)

Printed at Dee Kay Printers, New Dcliii

(500 copies)

<<

IRC: 451972

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ESTIMATING THE RESISTANCE

OF SOIL BELOW THE MAXIMUM SCOUR LEVEL IN

THE DESIGN OF WELL FOUNDATIONS OF BRiEGEh

1. INtRODUCTION

ii. The draft recommendations fur estimating the resistance

of soil below the maximum scour level in the design of well founda-

tions of bridges we~efinalised by a Subcommittee consisting of the

following personnel at their meeting held on the lst March 1971.

Shri B . Balwarn R ao ci.wwenor

2. Shri 5. Seetharaman Member-Secretary

Memkn

3, SM S. B . iSu 7 . Shri N~S. Ramaswamy

4. Dr. K. K. Katti 5. Dr. K, S. Sankaran

5, Sttri S. M. Kaul 9. SM Shitala Sharan

6. Dr. P. Ray Chowdhury 10. SM S. N. Sinha

I.!. Shri T. N. Subba Lw

This draft was approved by the Bridges Committee in their

meetings held on the 17 th November, 19 7 1 and 14th April, 1972. It

was later approved by the Executive Committee in their meeting held

on the 26th and 27 th April, 19 7 2 and by the Council in their 7 8th

meeting held in Nainital on the 10th July, 19 7 2.

1.2. The recommendations given in this Standard I~avebeen

lormuiated on the basis of the observed behaviour of models of well

foundations and also the wo:k done by many workers in this held.

The basic a~surnptionsare ghen in Appendices.

1.3 . These studies have indicated that

(i) sharing oF the moment between sides and base is conti-

nuously changing with the increase in delhrmation of the

soil and

(ii) the weciranics of sharing ul ihe moment between the sides

and the base is entirely different for the initial stages of

loading ot a well as compared to its eltirnate failun~

<<

1.4. Elastic theory method iives the soil pressures at the side

and the base under design loads, but to determine the actual factor of

safety against failure, it will be necessary to calculate the ultimate

soil resistance, 1 herefore, the design of well foundations shall be

checked by both these methods.

2. SCOPE

2.1. The procedure given is applicable to the design of wdl

foundations of bridges resting on non-cohesive soil like sand and

surrounded by the same soil below maximum scour level. The

provisions of these recommendations will not apply if the depth of

embedment is less than 0.5 times the width of foundation in the

direction of lateral forces.

3. PROCEDURE FOR CALCULATING THE SOIL R ESISTANCE

The resistance of the soil surrounding the well foundation shall

be checked:

(i) for calculation of base pressures by the elastic theory with

the use of subgrade moduli; and

(ii) by computing the ultimate soil resistance with appropriate

factor of safety.

4. Y wThTIIOD OF CALCULATION

I. E!astic Theory (vide Annexure I)

Step 1: Determine the values of W, H and M under combina-

tion of normal loads without wind and seismic loads assuming the

minimum grip length below maximum scour level as required under

iR C 5l970

where

W total downward load acting at the base of well,

including the self weight of well.

*St md a SpLm ifi~0 tot ~ rnd CL dt ot Pt k t c~for R LMd 8t dgms Sccr ~n

(i~nciat F eat utis of Deogn.

2

<<

IRC : 451972

H external horizontal fo:ce acting on the well at scour

level.

M :: total applied external moment about the base of

well, including those due to tilts and shifts.

Step 2: Compute l~and

1v and I

where

I - . Ia 4- ml~(1 i 2 ,.m~)

Is moment of inertia of base about th. axis normul to

direction oh horizontal forces passing through its

CO.

lv = moment of inertia of the projected area in elevation

LD~

of the sotl mass offering resistance r

where

L = projected width of the soil mass offering resistance

multiplied by appropriate value of shape tactor.

Nose: The value of shape factor for circular wells shall be

taken as 0.9. For square or rectangular wells where the resultant

horizontal force acts parallel to a principal axis, the shape factor

shall be unity and where the fotces are inclined to the princtpab axis,

a suitable shape factor shall be based on experimental results.

= depth of well below scour level.

m = Ks/K: Ratio of horizontal to vertical coefficient

of subgrade reaction at base, in the absence of

values for K

11 and K determined by field tests m

shall generally be assumed as unity.

p = coefficient of friction between sides and the soil =

tan 8, where 8 is the angle of wall friction between

well and soil.

3

<<

IRC: 451972

for rectangular well

diameter

for circular well

rD

Step 3 : Ensure the following

M

H> .-. (1 4- rut)-- ~W

and H czM(l jup) + ~W

where

r D/2. l/mlv

coefficient of friction between the base and the soil.

It shall be taken as tan ~.

= angle of internal friction of soil.

Step 4 : Check the elastic state

mM/I > y (Kp

if mM/f is > y (Kp K.~),find out the grip required by putting the

limiting value mM/I = y (Kp K4

where

= density of the soil (submerged density to be taken

when under water or below water table).

K, & K,~ passive Led actve pressure coefficients to he, c~.lcu-

laced usingCoult mbs theory, assuming 8 ,.the angle

of wall friction between well and soil equal to j ~

but limited to a value of 224.

Step 5 : Calcula:e

4

<<

IRC: 451972

where

~H~and ~ : : ; : r. maximum and minimum base pressure respectively.

A area of the base of well,

B wid th of the base of well in the direction of forces

and moments.

P = Mfr

Step 6: Check r~(0, i.e., no tension

j> allowable bearing capacity of soil,

Step 7: If any of the conditions in Steps3. 4 and 6 or all do

not satisfy, redesign the well accordingly.

Step S: Repeat the sante steps for combination with wind and

with seismic case separately.

U.. ULTZMATE kESlSTAfl~EMtTHOD (Ylde Annenirr 2)

Step 1: Check that W/A> oj2

W total downward load acting at the base of well,

including the self weight of well, enhanced by a

suitable load factor given vide Step 6.

A = area of the base of well.

= ultimate bearing capacity of the soil below the base

of well.

Step 2: Calculate the base resisting moment Mb at the plane

of rotation by the following rormula:

Mb = QWB tan 4~

B = width in case of square and rectangular wells

parallel to direction of forces and diameter for

circulac wells,

5

<<

IRC: 451972

Q - a constant asgiven in Table I below for square or

rectartguiaf base. Ashape factor of 0.6 is to be

multiplied for wells with circular base,

= angle of internal friction of soil.

TABLE l

D/H 0.5 1.0 1,5 2.0 2.5

Q 0.41 0.45 0.50 0.56 044

Note : The values of Q for intermediate D/.3 values in the

above range may be linearly interpolated.

M

5 = 0.10 v D~(K, KA) L

where

y . = density of soil (submerged density to be taken for

soils under water or below water table)

L ~. projec:ed width of the soil mass offering resistance. In

case of circular wells. it sholl be 0,9 diameter to account

for the shape~

D = depth of grip below maximum scour level,

K,, .KA passive and active pressure ectefficient to be calculated

using Coulombs theory assuming 8 angle of wall

iriction between well and soil equal to 3 * but limited

to a value of 221,

Step 3 : Calculate the resisting moment due to friction at front

and back faces (Mg) about the plane of rotation by following

formulae:

(i) For rectangular well

M,=0.l8y(K, X~)LtDsin)

6

<<

IRC : 45~~l972

(ii) for circaIn r well

iS1~ oH

7IK KA) B~Vsin 3

step 4 Tie total resistancL moment M~about the plane of

rotation shall be

M1 : : ~,7 (M~+ Ms +- M~1

Step 5 : Check M~4: M

where

M .:: total applied external moment about the plane of

rotation, viz., located at O2D above the base, taking

appropriate load factors as per combinations given

below

111) ,.. (I)

liD -fB ~ l.4(Wc 4 Ep +WorS) ... (2)

lID + l.6L (3)

lID f B F i4(L + Wc~ F Er) .. (4)

i.ID+B j 125(L+Wcj Ep+WorS) .,. (5)

where

D : ,: dead load

L.: live load including braking, etc.

9 ~: ~ buoyancy

Wc;~water current fo~cc

Ep = earth pressure

W wind lhrce

S sci~n~ic force

For horizontal force due to frictional resistance of

beanng d tie To dead and live loads, appropi iate fact ors shall be taken.

But effect of defocnaat ion due to temperature, shrinkage and creep

mq be neglected for normal structures,,

7

<<

INC: 45-1972

Nose (ii) Moment due to shirt and alt of welts and piers and

direct loads, if any, shall also be considered ahout the plane or

rotation.

Step 6 : If the conditions in Steps i and 5 are not satisfied~

redesign the well.

ELASTIC THEORY METHOD ( Anne .vure t)

I INTRODUCTION

The following assuntpt ions are made in deriving the equations

based on elastic theory:

(i) The soil surrounding the well and below the base is perfectly

elastc!, homogensus and followr Hookes Law.

(ii) Under design working leads, the lateral. deflections are so

small that the urtit soil ~eact ion p iricre.a ~eslinearly with increasing

lateral deflection j as expressed by p Zr Ku z where Kn is the

caefhc~enLof ho,rizont.:d ~uhgade reaction at the base,

(~hi)The coefficient of hothor,tal subgrade reaction increases

linearly with depth in. the case of cohesioniess soils.

(iv) The well is assumed .o he a rigid body su~ectedto an

erj,ter~a~ unidirectional horizontal force. H and a moment Mo at scour

level,,.

2. SY MBOLS

A area of base of the well.

a =m width of the base parallel to the direction of the

external horizontal force.

D ~ depth of well below scour level.

B

<<

IRC : 45 1972

II external horizontal force acting on the well at scour

level.

moment of inertia of the base about an axis passing

through C.. G.. and perpendicular to horizontal

resultant force.

moment of inertia about the horizontal axis passing

through the CCI.. of the projected area in elevation ol

ID

the soil mass offering resistance

K coefficient of vertical suhgrade reaction at the base..

K

1 coefficient of horizontal subgrade reaction at the hose.

KA., Kr . active and passive pressure coefficients for cohesion~~

less soils as pei Coulomtds theory.

1. projected width of the soil mass offering resistance.

Note : .A shape factor of 0,9 may be applied for circular wells.

in =r , i.e., ratio of the horizontal to the vertical co-

efficient of suhgrade reactions at the base.

hi total applied external moment at the base = ~Mc .4.

H.D)

M0 =. moment of the external forces at scour level,

Mp : : : r: : : : moment of P about the base.

M5 .. resisting moment at the base.

p ; rr horizontal :soil reaction.

p. Zr.: coefficient of friction between the base and the soil.

p. .=.: coefficient .of friction between sides and the soil.

a density of soil . (submerged density to be ned win

under water)

angle of internal friction of soil.

9

<<

1F(C : 45~~l972

S a angle of friction between the sides of well and soil

taken equal to 3 ~ limited to a value of 22r,

o : = angular rotation of the well as a rigid body.

: : : horizontal soil reaction at depth y from scour level,

vertical soil reaction at distance X from C.O. of

base.

( T~ = maximum and minimum base pressures.

~ P . distance from the axis passing the CO. of base at

which the resultant vertical frictional force on. .~ide

acts normal to the direct ion of horizontal fb mce : 13/2

in case of rectangular welis or, 0.318 diameter in

circular wells.

3. EQUATIONS FOR BASE PRESSURES

In the most general case, the centre of rotation can be above the

base atC

1, at the base C, or below the base at Ca. It can be easily

visualised that the base moves towards the centre F rotanon, if the

latter lies above the base so that the horizontal frictional force at the

ha.se acts in the direction of H. lf the point of rotation lies below

the base by a similar argument.:! it is seen that horizontal frictional

force. at base must be in the opposite sense to H. The maximum.

frictional force which can develop at the base is ~zW, At any parti-

cialar instant only a fraction of it would be acting. 1.. et it he denoted

by flpW Where $ 3 is a factor always less than one.. ii is, therefore,

clear that before movemem tak s place /3 must he between I and i

resp.c.tively so that we can write that for point of rotation at the

base $ 3 must be... between. the lithits I to 1 In the p~.rticularcase

of heavy wells met with in actual practice, the point of rotation shall

l:ie .atoiu.rn:i::i to ~ at the base. Let the ~rell rotate about a. point C

at a hor~i.ontaldistance Xc from the centre of the well shown in

Fig.. I

P total horizontal soit reaction from the sides.

resisting moment .at the base.

lQ

<<

IRC; 454972

-7

D i

k

(t~S /

C

3 j Lfl AI9HOcWttL

H~I

PLAW OF WELL

,eiP~TM~t

SCo%* LtVtL 34

PRESSURE

DISTRISUTION

Al SIDE

!?lEitCTlOtl

F ig I

The total deflection at depth y from wour level

= (D y~9

Horizontal soil react ion K11 y X ii) y) u

Key

~ ~ (D y)

Total horizontal Soil rC2c tion acting on the sides of the s~t

P

1! <<

IRC: 431972

KeL D

LD

Putting =

~,. _2mKoh

(I)

Let M, be the moment of P about base level

M, (D -~ y) dy L

= m ~eL (D y) dy

mKeLf y 2Dy~dy

4!, L

a mKoL (2)

Now consider the soil reaction acting at the base. Vertical

JeA*xtion at distanot (IX 4 Xc) frwn centrc of rotation (Xc ..~. IX) o

K(Xc ~l

4.H12

M~_fvTydA.X...:Ko~(Xc ~X)XdA

+1/2 +1/2

KOJXIJAiKOXc5XSJA

.1/2 -H/I

d A being a function ot IX

<<

IRC:

As the reference coordinates are at co. or ban

fxd A= 0 and l~ fxtd A whence

KB

1 a (3)

1 or ciuilit~~ will ~ 11 0

pP) P

or H -i -.. P (1 .+ fifl,)

H 1 flp\V

or P (4~

Taking moments about base

M.

0 .j.. H. D = .M1 M, t

or Ni = ~ -F M, -3- ~ilP~D (5)

Substituting equations (1), (2) and (3)

N. ... K O

tu in K~l,.~3 /4d, . 2mK~l.~

K . (3 ~ ,.: n~L (I -~

K (j . NI/[t~:, nt l~(I 2~/~)3

(6)

where I ... In: in t (I I-

From equation (.4~

H ..t /3H~\~ M I

P 2inK ft h/I) 2w

.1 1 L f)

1) 1

wltcic r , --

r 2 ml~

11 + Pp W H -3

fl~(W M -~ H

t3

<<

IRC: 451972

p= r t7)

,~(w P 7 )

Equation (7) is sLtisfied only it ~ i whence we obtain

M

7

> ~ZW~PP

or H > (1 ~zp)

~qil)+ p W

The vertical soil reaction isgwen by

7 , Ke(X~+ IX)

W_~ilP=f5dA~Kef.(X~+ )QdA

= KofLdA+KofXdA

= KeX~.A

whence X~K e =.(W

K9X~4-Ko.X

= + K a. Bf2

K a. 13/2

As Ku =

14

<<

IRC: 451972

e

1 A 21

~H..J. ~L.! 9

~ A 2) U

4. CONDITtONS OF STABILITY

fi) The maximum soil reaction from the sides cannot exceed

the mixim.um passive pressure at any depth, if the ~oil remains in an

elastic state., This amounts to the condition that at a ay depth y

7(Kp K~)y or

ytK~ -KA)y

orm !~(D.y)~ Y(KpKA)

(at y =-. o L.H.S. is maximum)

ormKo}y(Kp--KA)

orm~>y(KpKA)

(ii) The maximum coil pressure a~ha..,c O~ shall not exceed

.aliowable pressure on soil, similarly the mi n mum soil pressure

shall not he less than 0, i.e., no tension,

ULTIMATE SOIL RESISTANCE METHOD (Anmxurc 2)

I. INfRODtJCTtON

Th.e elastic theory described in .lnnexure I approximatel>

determines the stresses in the so.il mass hut does not indicate the safety

against ultimate failure of the 11w nl!at ion. For this it will be neces-

sary to know h.e modc of fail arc of well foundations.

15

2

<<

~IC: 451972

2 OBSERStD FAILURE OF TIlE WElLFOUNDATtON

UNDER ULTIMAfl CM. NDtTtONS

The pattern of failure of the soil muss under the application of

r;hnsversLt II ~rces to large and snia II dept lis of embedment is depleted

in F:Hc, 2.

~

1t~L~ ~.r...n ~:~ ,... ~ ~ 0

S. . ,_ ~.d a

Fig 2

Thor si I around he base in either case slides over a circular e\lindrftcal

pat h with centre of rot at ion soni~wheue above the base, The plastic

t~~owat the side follows I h~r tNt al concept as in the case of rigid

hulkhcitl at failure. Failure hay beer observed to occur at abcut 3~

rotat ton of t he well in case of no n-cohesive soils.

3 . Q UANTUM OF RESISTANCE

The obscrved variation of the total alt note icsislancc of the soul

noisy, i.e., both at the base and thu siles under sat ying dii cut loads is

given in Fig. 3.

rhis study indicates that the total resisting moment incleases with the

increase in the ratio of the direct load to the nIt mate bearang capacity

of the soil up to 0 5 to fl.7. After that it reduces. It is, therefore,

necessary to ensure that the bearing poressure adopted has a factor of

safety of twsa or more on ultimate bearing capacity of Ibe soil

cakutatc*l by any rational formula,

16

<<

IR C: 1t7 2

hi

4 POINT OF ROTAUON AT FAILURE

(i Movement of the pohet of rotation or the vertiod ails

~a)fleet of geometry and horIzontal l oads

The geometry of the toundat ion, viz., the ratio of the width of

ftamndation to the depth of embedment in the sofl and the magnitude

of the horizontal loads hae no effect in sF ifting the po~nt of rotation

along the vertical axis as could be seen from Fig. 4.

K

V

~

F oundot~,nsof iftqr.nl w~Jfln

St ~b2Ocyn

a *4~3 0Cm

WI

Position of the ce ntre of rotation as a function of relative depth

Fig. 4

7

Fig 3

~1

14

<<

IRC: 454972

(h) Effect of direct loads

The point of rotation has a relatIon to the ratio o~the super

impostd vertical loads to the ultimate hearingcapacity of the soi as

seen from Fig 5 ~

where

*

0 P~actual vcrtcal pnsuro ochn

1

~ ultimata ~corQnc~cop~dtty

0* 10 & oa cia p;ar

Fig. 5

The actual variation is confined to a narrow range beti~en0.7 5

and 08 times the depth of embedment below the scour level. Taking

into account normally expected vertical loads on well foundations1

a fixed value of 0.2 times depth above the base of the foundation

has been adopted for working out the soil resistance.

(ii) Shift of the point of rotation al ong the horizontal axis

The point of rotat ion undergoes a change in the horizontal

direction depending upon the geometry of the foundation and the

extent of defo~nationof the foundation. Under ultimate conditions

the magnitude of horizootal shift of the point as function of D/B

ratio is given in F ig. 6.

This shift in position of the point of rotation in the horizontal

direction will cause variation in the share of the moments between

the sides and the base.

~5

18

<<

TRC : 45 19 7 2

02

0~4

03

A

0

05

F ound at ions of d ittrent widths

p

AB-BoCm

4~~-4 ,~

t.0 t5 acs as s~

Position

0f the centre of rotation as a function of relativedepth

Fig. 6

Note: F or the purpose of this analysis the shift or the point

of ro~ationalong the horizontal axis has been ignored, in view of

other related indeterminate factors.

5. METHOD OF CALCULAT1ON

5,1. Base R esisting Momert (Mb)

The base resisting moment is the moment of the frictional force

snobilised al ong the surface of rupture which is assknd to be

cylindrical passing through the corners of the base for a square nIl

as shown in F ig. 7 .F or circular wells, the surfaee of rupture corres-

ponds to that of a part of sphere with its centre at the point of

rotation and passing through the periphery of the base.

if W is the total vert ~cal load au~mutedby appropriate load

factors given in suppara 5 .5 below, the lo*d per unit width will

be WfB , s~thich will also be equal to the upnrd peusure as shown

in F ig. 8.

(1) F or a rec*a~*Iarbase

Ctnsider the small aft of length td~ at an angle of 4 from

the verticalanis..

19

<<

<<

IRC: 4~-.1972

It ~ holi7t11 id I c tp~neiu~ R , d J. . ctps cL

Vert ka 1~rcc~it the clc~nent

Rd~cosJ.WB

T)uc to t Ii s ~crt ka force the norniaI loice dc~dopedat the

ekment k 8 F~

where ~ R. d ~. coc ~ c~~L

= cos~d.L!~L

-~ ~

2WR 1 (I + COS 2cL)

B j ~--~-.d~

0

RW

B~ (0 + Sm & COS 9~

B B /B t+4ntDz

sin8=~-, cosO=rn~~~,LanO=~

2_-b ;R==A~f~__.4_~_~~

W / ~ 4n~D~ I B 2nBD

F~ 2 \/ + ~ I. ~ nD +

Moment of resistance of the base about the point of rotation

Mb=Fflcan#R (1)

(ii) For a circular base

Amul tipl ication factor of 0.6 is to be applied for the above

expression of Mb in order to acc~untfor the surface of rupture

being part of a sphere~

For both cases substituting the value n equa to 0.2D f~r

the point of rotation in formula (I) above, the bas~resistance c~n

be siinpli~edand expressed in tetrns of B.

MD = Q WB tan ~

<<

TRC: 45 --1~7 2

where

13 . wiil t h in the case of square and rectangular

wells parallel to the direction of forces and

diameter for circular wells.

Q a con~tant,which depends upon the shape of

well as welt as the DB ratio. Its values are

given in Table 2 below for square or rectangular

wells. A shape factor of 0.6 is to be multiplied

for wellswith circular base.

TABLE 2

DB 0.5 1.0 t.5 2.0 2.5

- Q 0.41 0.45 050 0.56 044

Note The valuesofQ for interrnedi;itc DRvalues in the above

range may be linearly interpolated.

52. Side Resisting Moment (Mi)

The ultimate soil pressure distiihutIon at the frunt and back

facesof the well f~u~dat~on is indicated in Fig. 9.

Fig. 9

22

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

<<

mc: 972

The point of rotition is loctited at O,2D above the )~ he

side resistance moment will then biS calculated asfolk~~s

Let,

7D(Kp K~j2-:::XrrBC; BF=Y

j~3 , DEF

O,2~ ~ 0,2D

x:Y x Y

D 5D1D

or ~r .. (I)

From AsABC and CEF

D 2)

~ ~

Equating (I) and (2)

511DD--D1

Y Y

or 6 D1 = 2D:

where

= 1/3D ... (3)

Moment of side resistance about O~isthe algebraic momentsof

AsABC and DEC

4D,X. 1D+1~, 2,X.~

XD + ~. D

15 135

13 /13 5 XD

t

= O.096D.X

Say = O.1DX

SubstItuting for X

Ms 0.1 yl) (K~ K.) per unit width of well;

FOE a wtdth of L, Mi 0.1

1D (Kp K4,L

23

<<

IRC: 45-4972

5.3. ResistIng moment due to McIlee en

front .5 beck faces (Mr)

Due to the passive pressure of soil as shown in Fig. 9, the

fri:tional rorces on the front and back races of ~tll will be acting in

the vertical direction and will also produce resisting moment Mr.

For the purpose of thiscode, the effect of the active earth pressure

perpendicular to the directions of applied forces is neglected. The

resisting moment Mf is calculated asfollows:

The vertical pressure due to friction at any level issin S times the

pressure at that level whate 8 isthe ang4e of wall friction,

Total friction force/unit width (AAOE + ABOD) sin S

D

1=D13

pressure at F -~} yD (Kp.K* )

ArcaofAAOE 4. yD(K,K,~q

~ ~ D (Kr IL)

Area of AROD yD (K, K4)

= 0.1 yDiK,- IL)

Total friction ft~rce/uni~t width

(K,IL) sinS

Moment abnut centre of rotation

(i) in case of rectangular wells rot width L

Mf:J2?yDt (KpKA). ~sia8xL

(K,K,). B. sin8xi.

O.183v(KpK~OLB.D

3 sinS

say 0.180 y(K, K,.) LBD sin 8

24

<<

IRC: 45-1972

(ii) In case of circular wells

B

LevLr arm =

Therefere M

1 = yD (Kp KA). ~ 1.. sin S

Since 1. (IS 13 in case of circular wcll

0.33 2 -

= y(KpKA). BD s.n ~

0.105 y (Kp K~)B D sin 8

say 0.lly(KpK4,)BD sinS.

5.4. Total resisting moment of soil

Total resisting moment of soil Mr is given by

Mr = (M5 + M1 4- Mr)

5.5. Factor of safety

A suitable safety factor has to be ensured takiMg into account the

probable variation of different loads and their combinations. The

variation of strength characteristic of the soil sbowld also be

accounted for in calculating the resisting moment given by the above

expression. Putting it mathematically

~ 11 (applied load or moment)

A(soil resisting moment~ 0)

where

load factor for a particular load

A = strength factor for the resistance of soil.

The passive resistance of the soil depends on the angle of internal

friction for variation of which a reduclion factor of 1.25 may be

applied. Further to take into account the special nature of risk of

ftilure of roundation, which is most imj~rtantpart of the bridge,

another reduction factor of 1.15 may be applied. Hence the total

coefficient applicable to the Right Hand Side of the abcve expres~

sion (1) will come to 0.7.

Asregardsthe Left Hand Side of the expression, the variation of

loads is described below:

25

<<

IRC: 451972

(i) Dead loS : The dead load bcing more or lessa permanent

load, a factor 1.1 would be sufficient for the variationsin densitiesof

materialsand computational errors, etc.

(ii) Live load: Considering the effect of variation in IRC load

ing met with in bridges, it isadequate to adopt a factor of 1.6 for

probable overloading with the combination of dead load only and

l.4 with other combinations except with wind or seismic. With

either wind or seismic due to reduced probability of occurrence of

maximum live load, a factor of 1.25 is considered adequate.

(iii) Braking force, etc. : These longitudinal loads will cor-

respond to the coefficient adopted for live load.

Notes:

(1) The forces due to characteristic imposed deformations

should be added, e.g., the horizontal load due to frictional resistance

oIthe bearings may include the increase in dead and live load.

(2) For normal structures imposed temperature deformations

of climatic origin and deformations due to creep and shrinkage can

generally be neglected for the ultimate analysis. However, for

statically indeterminate structures, the forces due to above causes

should be considered. Similarly, the forces due to settlement of

support have also to be taken into consideration.

(iv) Water current force: Due to possible error of 20 per cent

in estimating the velocity, a factor of 1.4 may be adopted.

(v) Buoyancy: The effect of buoyancy in reducing the density

of submerged massesis more or lessa constant and can be taken as

unity.

(vi) Wind or seismic forces: When the bridge is not coveted

by live load, a factor of 1.4 isconsidered adequate for wind or seismic

forces. Due to lessprobability of combination with maximum live

load, a reduced factor of 1.25 isadequate.

(vii) Earth presare on abutments: To account for increased

earth pressure resulting from either the density af soil being higher or

26

<<

tRC: 451972

the angle of internal friction being lower than determined by tests ror

various reasons, a factor of 1.4 is considered adequate for tomputa~

tion of earth pressure.

Accordingly, the following combinations of load factors are

oltained:

LID (I)

i.ID+B+l,4(Wc +Ep +WorS) ...~.... (2)

l.1D+l.6L (3)

1.1D+B+l.4(L+Wc +E~) (4)

1.ID+B+l.25(L+W~+Ep +WorS) ........ (5)

where

D =dead load

L = live load including braking, etc.

B = buoyancy

Wc = water current force

Es = earth pressure

W = wind force

S = seismic force

(viii) Tilt and shift : In the computation of applicd momcnrs,

effects of moments due to tilt and shift of weDs, if any, about tie

plane of rotation shall also be considered.

6. In order to ensure the factor of safety for ultimate resistanet

according to above concept, the total resistance niomcnt (Ma red need

by strength factor thouId he not less than t hi iota! applied manic at

(M) about the point ui rotation for the appropriate conib flu t ions a

applied loads enhanced by the taetors gi sen ahovc, i.e., tosay

0.7 (Mb f M

3 -[ M1) ~ M

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