1976
TENTATIVE GUIDELINES
FOR
DESIGN OF GAP GRADED
CEMENT CONCRETE MIXES
FOR ROAD PAVEMENTS
THE INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS
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IRC: 591976 Tentative Guidelines for the Design of Gap Graded Cement Concrete
Mlxe~for Road Pavements
Page 9Fig. 2
40 mm Crushed Stone
40 mm Natural Gravel
45 mm Crushed Stone
45 mm Natural Gravel
Page 11, Table 4
Size of aggregate Bulk density kg/rn
3
coarse aggregate
6350 mm
5040 mm
4020 mm
2010mm 1520
104 75 mm 1520
Size of aggregate
coarse aggregate
6353 mm
5345 mm
4522.4 mm
22.4i 1.2
11.25.6 mm
Bulk density kg/rn3
1560
1540
Reference
!RC : 591976
Page 3, Table I
Existing Version Revised Version
Max. size Single size Max~size of
of aggre
gate (mm)
coarse
aggregate
(mm)
compatible
fine aggregate

Small size
coarse aggre
gate (mm)
Max. size
of aggregate
(mm)
Single size
coarse aggregate
(mm)
63 6350
Max. Size of
compatible
finer
aggregate
50 5040
40 4020
20 2010
20  10
10 4.75
10 4.75
63
53
45
22.4
6353
5345
4522.4
22.411.2
22.4112
11.25.6
11.25.6
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I ___ .. _ _.~.. ~ . . .
Existing versIon
(i) For cement.t50 kg, net quantities
of materiaja are fine aggregate=
80.40kg, coarse aggregate = 224.0 kg
and water 25 0 kg~25.Olitre.
(i) Extra water to be added to cater for
absorption by coarse aggregate~=
224x0.4/lOo 0.896 kg 0.896
litre,, Water to be deducted for free
moisture present in fine aggregate=
80.40 x 2/1001.608 kg 1.608 litre,
Actual quantity of water to be
added is therefore
U,
I, _____
tn 1
7Days Coiv~ProSh~QStraft;tb C~rv~low
of Cesont (~fct
2}
U) WitA 5n~Ia W~t~P ivsdod Coi~crt(t
Staid Standird Sjand~rd Sand Mn
Sand(I5 Z6~ (IS650~966) DmS~$n
350 440 A
U SrS 39~ e
2*0 352 C
245 30$ D
> 20 264 E
75 2W F
01
04 0.6 0.6 1.0
~kThBcEMENT RATIO BY Wt
Fig. 1.. Design curve for cement Concrete mixes in relation to 7~days
compressive strength of cement
~* Tentative Guidelines for Cement Concrete Mix Design for Road
Pavements
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LRC :591976
+
40

C,
x
I~J
>
300 ~
200s~
N
0.40 0.~
WATERCEMENT RATIO (BY WT)
(For
5vers Iaw~to low wo~ab1Iltycorrespor~dis~
to a sl~~p025 n~u~)
Fig. 2. Chart for assessment of flexural strength of concrete from
its cube compressive strength
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IRC : 591976
the curve as stated above. Where design is based on flexural
strength of concrete, the approximate relationship between com
pressive and fiexural strength of concrete may be obtained from
Fig. 2.
2.6. Selection of Water Sand and Content
2.6.1 . The principle of mix design for gapgraded concrete is
radically different from that for continuously graded concrete. The
basis of such design, as stated earlier, is that the voids in the coni
pacted singlesize coarse aggregates will be filled by the selected
easily admissible finer aggregates (in most cases sand), meaning
thereby that the compacted bulk volume of the latter will be equal
to the voids in the former, In the same way, the voids in the
compacted, easily admissible finer aggregates (in most cases sand)
will he filled by the cement paste having the stipulated water
cement ratio.
2.6.2. ihe void content in aggregate can be easily calculated
from its bulk density and specific gravity determined through tests,
If the bulk density and specific gravity of aggregate are d (kg(m~)
and s (gm/cma) respectively, then the void con tent n is
(1. I~s ) 100% (2)
lhe approximate values of specific gravity, bulk density and
void content in different singlesized coarse aggregates and coarse
(Zone I and Ii.) and line (Zone III and IV) sands are given in Table
4. These values are meant for guidance only.
2.7. Mix Proportioning by Optimum VoidFilling Principle
2.3.1. The mix proportions of gapgraded concrete can be
calculated in the following manner
Let
(i) V (in ii~) . gross volume of single sized coarse aggregate
= gross volume (V== 1 m) of wet mix minus the
volume (v
5) of entrapped air minus the volume
(vp) of extra cement paste required to provide
the desired workability.
(ii) v. (in ma) gross volume of next compatible size of fine
aggregate (in most cases sand)
== volume of voids in the singlesize coarse
aggregate
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IRC: 591976
with ni denoting per cent of voids in
singlesize coarse aggregate,
and (iii)~ (in m
3) = volume of cement paste required to fill the
voids in finer aggregate
= volume of voids in finer aggregate
with n2 denoting per cent of voids in
finer aggregate
 n
1 .n2. V
10000
The total voiLime of cement paste is therefore Vp Vp r
Knowing Vp and watercement ratio (r) by weight, the quantities of
cement and water t. an be easily calculated.
TAnLE 4. APPaoxistATr VALUEs or Sprciric GRAvITy, BULK Drxsrrv
ANt) Volt) CONTENTS OF Cos 5SF AND FINE Acosroans
Size of aggregate SpecifIc gravity Bulk density Per cent void
(gjcm) (kg m
3) (%)
Coarse aggregate*
6350 mm 2,65 1650 37,7
5040 mm 2.65 1620 38.6
4020 mm
265 1600 39,6
2010 mm 2.65 1520 42.6
104.75 nm 2.65
1520 42,6
Fine aggregate
Coarse sand
(Zone I & II) 2.65 1450
45,3
Fine sand
(Zone I P1 & iS) 2.63 1350 48.7
~P%o!e The above, values are average for both angular (manufactured) and
rounded (natural) coarse aggregates.
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IRC :591976
2.7.2. The mix proportions by weight per m~gross volume
of wet concrete therefore are
Water Cement Compatible finer Coarse aggregate
aggregate (in most
cases sand)
kg/ms (kg/m
3) kglm~ kg/rn3
where
(i) W,,
(1 v,vp) d~ (3)
(ii) 1+,
~o ~ ~ ~ (4)
1000 v~.s~
(in) W,
I r.s,
1000 s,, r Fit . ,
~ ~ ~ (lv~v~)J (5~
a rid (iv) W~, .= r.
lOO() r,s, r , n
1 112 , 1
.~....  (I ~ ~)J (6)
with == volume (m
8) of entrapped air in 1m3 gross volume
of wet concrete (see para 2.7.3.)
volume (m3) of extra cement paste required for
desired workability in 1m3 gross volume of wet con
crete (see para 2.7.4),
Per cent of voids in singlesize coarse aggregate,
pi~zz~ Per cent of voids in finer aggregate,
= hulk density (Kg/rn3) of coarse aggregate,
. bulk density (Kg/rn3) of finer aggregate (in most cases
sand),
specific gravity of cement, and
r watercement ratio by weight.
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mc 591976
2.7.3. Approximate quantities (i~)of entrapped air in wet
concrete mixes having different maximum sizes of coarse aggregate
are shown in Table S.
Tans 5. A~noxasnAuouwr os Eina*nuo Am IN NON
AISRAW5D ~ONOUfl
Msx.slzeofaureaate
(mm)
10
20 40
50 63
Entrauoed air
4%) 3 2 1.0 0.5 04
Volume of aIr per
1 m gross
volume of wet
0.03 0.02 0.01 0.005 0.004
concrete (&)
2.7.4. The amount (9,) ofextra cement paste required in
the concrete mix will depend on the degree of workability desired,
which in turn will depend on the compactive effort Intended to be
applied and the amount of reinforcement proposed in the struct
ure. In India, most concrete pavements are built without any
reinforcement excepting dowel bars at expansion joints and some
times dcbars at longitudinal joints. The dump stipulated in IRC:
151970 is very low to low (0 to 25 mm) for paving concrete mixes
when compacted by vibration. Since gapgraded concrete mixes
should be dry to prevent segregation, the slump shall not be more
than 12 mm. For this degree of workability, the amount (if,) of
extra cement paste may be taken as equal to about 11 per cent of
the gross volume (F) of wet concrete on average basis. The
quantity of extra cement paste will in reality depend on the
shape and size of coarse aggregate as weli as the grading offine
aggregate. Therefore, if greater refinement is desired, the volume
of extra cement paste may be increased or decreased by 1 per
cent (making it 12 per cent or 10 per cent of!) depending on
whether the coarse aggregate is angular (e.F., crushed stone) or
rounded (e.g., gravel). Similarly, if sand available is such that the
number ofgaps between the lowest coarse aggregate fraction and
the fine aggregate is required to be reduced to 12 or 01 instead of
23 (see pare 2.3.1), the volume ofextra cement paste may be
reduced by 1 and 2 per cent (making it 10 and 9 per cent ofF) when
the number ofgaps is 12 and 01 respectively.
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IRC 59~l976
3. WORKED OUT EXAMPLE ON MIX DESIGN
An example illustrating the mix d.esign procedure is worked
out in Appendix.
4. TRIAL MIX
4.1. With mix proportions obtained from para 2.7.2. the m.ix
is prepared and the workability measured. If the workability
measured is different from the stipulated value, the extra cement
l)aste (Vp) shall be adjusted. To obtain maximum benefit from
gapgraded concrete, the watercement ratio of the mixes is kept low,
usually between 0.40 and 0.60. For this range of watercement ratio,
for each. 12 mm increase or decrease in observed slump, the amount
of extra cement paste niay be reduced or increased respectively
by S per cent. For 1 m
3 gross volume of wet mix, (V) this reduct
ion or increase in extra cement paste (vp = 0.1 V=0.l m3) would
irnean an alteration by p t).05 Vp = p 0.005 m3 for each 12 mm
ncrease or decrease in the observed slump value.
4.2. The mix proportions are thereafter recalculated with
the adjusted cement paste as per procedure given above for three
watercement ratios comprising the preselected watercementratio
and two other values, one higher and the other lower than
the pre.selected ratio by 0.05. The strength of concrete with
the three svatercement ratios is then determined in accord
ance with 1S: 5l6~1969**. The values of strength obtained are
then plotted against watercement ratios and the appropriate
watercement ratio for the required strength chosen from the plot.
The final mix proportions are then recalculated for this water
cement ratio, other parameters remaining the same.
** Methods of Test for Strength of Concrete
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t,RC : 591976
Appendix
WORKED OUT EXAMPLE FORCEMENT CONCRETE MIX DESIGN
(A) i)esign Stipulations
(i) Minimum compressive strength
required in the field at 28days
(ii) Maximum size of aggregate
(iii) Degree of workability
(iv) Degree ol quality control
(v) Accepted tolerance level
(major work involving testing
of a large number of samples
i.e., t from Table 2=1.50)
(vi) Entrapped air, v~,
(B) Test Data for Materials:
(i) Compressive strength of cement
at 7 days (15,: 2691967)
(ii) Specific gravity of cement
(iii) Specific gravity of coarse aggregate
and fine aggregate
(iv) Water absorption:
(a) Coarse aggregate
(b) Fine aggregate
(v) Free (Surface) moisture:
(a) Coarse aggregate
(h) Fine aggregate
(vi) Bulk density of saturated surfacedry
coarse aggregate (4): 1600 kg/m
(vii) Bulk density of saturated surfacedry
fine aggregate (4): 1450 kg/rn
3
(C) I)esign Strength of Concrete. (5)
260 Kg/cm2
40 mm (singlesize,
rounded aggregate)
12 mm (extra cement
paste, vp=O.l tnt/ma)
Good (coefficient of
variation 10%)
linlS
0.01 mjm3
308 Kg/cm2
3.15
2.65
0.4%
0.6%
nil
2%
(Table 4)
(Table 4)
260 ,..260 260
11.5 10 ~ ~~3o6 kLc.m
1 ~ 100
(D) Selection of WaterCement Ratio:
=say, 310 kg/cm2
From Fig. 1. corresponding to 7days cement strength of 308 kg/cm2
and design strength of concrete of 310 kg/cm2, water
cement ratio required =0.50.
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1RC : 591976
(E) Calculation of Mix Proportions per I in
2 of Wet Concrete
0) V=l in
Therefore V=VvC vp= 1.00 0.010.10=0.89 in2
(ii) W~
2Vda=0.89x 1600=1424 Kg
(iii) W~=!fi~.. d~.
Since n1=(l 1600/1000x2.65)x 100=39.6 per cent
39.6x0.89x1450
______ =511 Kg
1000 a2 ( ~ii,ll~
(iv) l3~=Tn0V~iooo~ (/
Since ,u=(11450/1000x2,65) x 100=45.3 per cent
1000x3.15 39,6x45.3x0.89
. ,~ .10+ o
=317.7 Kg
(v) W0=r, W0
=0.5x317.7=158.85 kg
(vi) Mix proportions
Water Cement Fine Aggregate Coarse Aggregate
(Kg/rn
2) (Kg/ni2) (Kg/rn) (Kg/m3)
158.85 317.7 511.0 1424.0
or 0.5 : I : 1.608 : 4.48
(F) Actual Quantities required for the mix per 50 kg bag of cement
(i) For eement=50 kg, net quantities of materials are: fine aggregate
=80.40 kg, coarse aggregate=224.0 kg and water 25.0 kg=25.0
litre.
(ii) Extra water to be added to cater for absorption by coarse aggre
gate=224x0.4/lOO=0.896 kg=0.896 litre. Water to be deducted for
free moisture present in fine aggregate= 80.40 x2/100=1.608 kg
=1.608 litre. Actual quantity of water to be added is therefore
r.:::25,000 +0.8961.608=24.288 litre.
(iii) Actual quantity of fine aggregate required=::8tL400~i~ 1.608=
82.008 kg.
(iv) Actual quantity of coarse aggregate required=224.0000.896=
223.104 kg.
Therefore, the actual quantities of the different constituents pci
hag of cement are:
Cement =50 kg Sand=82.008 kg
Water =24.288 litre Coarse aggr.=223.104 kg,
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