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BURJ KHALIFA

LITERATURE CASE STUDY ON


(HIGH RISE BUILDING)
Submitted By:-
SONAL SHARMA
AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF
ARCHITECTURE,JAIPUR
BATCH 11
CASE STUDY BURJ KHALIFA
CONTENTS
S.NO
TOPICS PAGE NO.
GENERAL PARAMETERS

FOUNDATION DESIGN

STRUCTURAL DESIGN

FLOOR DIVISIONS

FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM
ELEVATORS & LIFTS

HVAC SYSTEM

WIND ENGINEERING SYSTEM
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.


6.

7.
1

2-3

4-6

7

8-9


10

11


SONAL SHARMA(72)
IV YR SEC B
SEM VII ,BCT
A.S.A




CASE STUDY BURJ KHALIFA
PAGE NO.
1/11
GENERAL PARAMETERS
FORMER NAME - BURJ DUBAI (TALLEST STRUCTURE IN WORLD)
TYPE - MIXED USE SKYSCRAPER
LOCATION DUBAI ,UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
CONSTRUCTION STARTED JANUARY 2004
CONSTRUCTION COMPLETED - 2010
TOTAL HEIGHT 828m
HEIGHT TILL TOP FLOOR -584.5m
TOTAL FLOOR COUNT -163 FLOORS +46 MAINTENANCE LEVELS
IN THE SPIRE + 2 PARKING LEVELS IN BASEMENT =209 FLOORS
TOTAL FLOOR AREA- 309,473 sq m
ARCHITECT ADRIAN SMITH(At SOM
company,Chicago)
DEVELOPER EMAAR PROPERTIES
STRUCTURAL ENGINEER- BILL
BAKER(At SOM)
CONSTRUCTION PROJECT
MANAGER- TURNER CONSTRUCTION
PROJECT DEVELOPER MOHAMED ALI
ALABBAR
SONAL SHARMA(72)
IV YR SEC B
SEM VII ,BCT
A.S.A
CASE STUDY BURJ KHALIFA
PAGE NO.
2/11
FOUNDATION DESIGN
THE TOWER FOUNDATIONS CONSIST OF A PILE SUPPORTED RAFT.

THE SOLID REINFORCED CONCRETE RAFT IS 3.7 M THICK AND WAS POURED UTILIZING C50 (CUBE
STRENGTH SELF CONSOLIDATING CONCRETE.

THE RAFT WAS CONSTRUCTED IN 4 SEPARATE POURS (THREE WINGS AND THE CENTER CORE).

REINFORCEMENT WAS TYPICALLY AT 300MM SPACING IN THE RAFT, AND ARRANGED SUCH THAT
EVERY 10TH BAR IN EACH DIRECTION WAS OMITTED,RESULTING IN A SERIES OF POUR
ENHANCEMENT STRIPS THROUGHOUT THE RAFT.

THE BURJ TOWER RAFT IS SUPPORTED BY 194 BORED CAST-IN-PLACE PILES.

THE PILES ARE 1.5 METER IN DIAMETER AND APPROXIMATELY 43M LONG WITH A DESIGN CAPACITY
OF 3,000 TONNES EACH.
SONAL SHARMA(72)
IV YR SEC B
SEM VII ,BCT
A.S.A
CASE STUDY BURJ KHALIFA PAGE NO.
3/11

THE C60 (CUBE STRENGTH) SCC CONCRETE WAS PLACED BY THE TREMIE METHOD UTILIZING
POLYMER SLURRY.

THE FRICTION PILES ARE SUPPORTED IN THE NATURALLY CEMENTED CALCISILTITE CONGLOMER
CALCISILTITE FOMIATIONS.

WHEN THE REBAR CAGE WAS PLACED IN THE PILES, SPECIAL ATTENTION WAS PAID TO ORIENT THE
REBAR CAGE SUCH THAT THE RAFT BOTTOM REBAR COULD BE THREADED THROUGH THE
NUMEROUS PILE REBAR CAGES WITHOUT INTERRUPTION, WHICH GREATLY SIMPLIFIED THE RAFT
CONSTRUCTION.
.
THE CONCRETE MIX FOR THE PILES WAS A 60 MPA MIX BASED ON A TRIPLE BLEND WITH 25% FLY
ASH, 7% SILICA FUME, AND WATER TO CEMENT RATIO OF 0.32.


DUE TO THE PRESENCE OF EXTREMELY CORROSIVE GROUND WATER, ANTI-CORROSION MEASURES
(CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEM) WAS REQUIRED TO ENSURE THE DURABILITY OF THE
FOUNDATIONS.


MEASURES IMPLEMENTED INCLUDED SPECIALIZED WATERPROOFING SYSTEMS, INCREASED
CONCRETE COVER, THE ADDITION OF CORROSION INHIBITORS TO THE CONCRETE MIX. STRINGENT
CRACK CONTROL DESIGN CRITERIA, AND CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEM UTILIZING TITANIUM
MESH WITH AN IMPRESSED CURRENT.








TRIPLE LOBED FOOTPRINT OF BUILDING INSPIRED BY A FLOWER.

ITS REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURE MAKES IT STRONGER THAN STEEL-FRAME SKYSCRAPERS.

ITS "Y" SHAPED IN PLAN - TO REDUCE THE WIND FORCES ON THE TOWER, AS WELL AS TO KEEP THE
STRUCTURE SIMPLE AND FOSTER CONSTRUCTIBILITY.

TOWER COMPRISES OF 3 ELEMENTS ARRANGED AROUND A CENTRAL BUTTRESS ED CORE.

EACH WING, WITH ITS OWN HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE CORRIDOR WALLS AND PERIMETER
COLUMNS, BUTTRESSES THE OTHERS VIA A SIX-SIDED CENTRAL CORE, OR HEXAGONAL HUB.

WHICH RESULTS IN A EXTREMELY STIFF LATERALLY AND TORSIONALLY TOWER.

A RIGOROUS GEOMETRY IS APPLIED TO THE TOWER THAT ALIGNES ALL THE COMMON CENTRAL
CORE, WALL, AND COLUMN ELEMENTS.

EACH TIER OF THE BUILDING SETS BACK IN A SPIRAL STEPPING PATTERN UP THE BUILDING.


CASE STUDY BURJ KHALIFA
PAGE NO.
4/11
STRUCTURAL DESIGN
SONAL SHARMA
IV YR SEC B
SEM VII ,BCT


THE SETBACKS ARE ORGANIZED WITH THE TOWER'S GRID, SUCH THAT THE BUILDING STEPPING IS ACCOMPLISHED BY
ALIGNING COLUMNS ABOVE WITH WALLS BELOW TO PROVIDE A SMOOTH LOAD PATH.

THIS ALLOWS THE CONSTRUCTION TO PROCEED WITHOUT THE NORMAL DIFFICULTIES ASSOCIATED WITH COLUMN
TRANSFERS.

THE SETBACKS ARE ORGANIZED SUCH THAT THE TOWER'S WIDTH CHANGES AT EACH SETBACK.

THE ADVANTAGE OF THE STEPPING AND SHAPING IS TO "CONFUSE THE WIND.

OUTRIGGERS AT THE MECHANICAL FLOORS ALLOW THE COLUMNS TO PARTICIPATE IN THE LATERAL LOAD RESISTANCE OF
THE STRUCTURE; HENCE, ALL OF THE VERTICAL CONCRETE IS UTILIZED TO SUPPORT BOTH GRAVITY AND LATERAL LOADS.

THE WALL CONCRETE SPECIFIED STRENGTHS RANGED FROM C80 TO C60 CUBE STRENGTH AND UTILIZED PORTLAND
CEMENT AND FLY ASH.

THE WALL THICKNESSES AND COLUMN SIZES WERE FINE-TUNED TO REDUCE THE EFFECTS OF CREEP AND SHRINKAGE .


CASE STUDY BURJ KHALIFA
PAGE NO.
5/11
STEPPING & SHAPING
SONAL SHARMA
IV YR SEC B
SEM VII ,BCT
A.S.A
AT TOP CENTRAL CORE EMERGES AND IS SCULPTED TO FORM A STRUCTURAL STEEL SPIRE
UTILIZING A DIAGONALLY BRACED LATERAL SYSTEM.

THE STRUCTURAL STEEL SPIRE WAS DESIGNED FOR GRAVITY, WIND, SEISMIC AND FATIGUE.

THE EXTERIOR EXPOSED STEEL IS PROTECTED WITH A FLAME APPLIED ALUMINUM FINISH WITH
VERTICAL TUBULAR FINS TO WITHSTAND DUBAIS EXTREME SUMMER TEMPERATURE.

THE 5 SETS OF OUTRIGGERS, DISTRIBUTED UP THE BUILDING, TIE ALL THE VERTICAL LOAD
CARRYING ELEMENTS TOGETHER.

DESIGN INCORPORATES CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL ELEMENTS PARTICULAR TO REGION.

Y SHAPED PLAN WITH WINGS ALLOWS MAXIMUM OUTWARD VIEWS AND INWARD NATURAL LIGHT.
CASE STUDY BURJ KHALIFA
PAGE NO.
6/11
STEEL SPIRE
Y- SHAPED PLAN
EXTERIOR STEEL WITH
ALUMINIUM FINISH
SONAL SHARMA
IV YR SEC B
SEM VII ,BCT
A.S.A
CASE STUDY BURJ KHALIFA
PAGE NO.
7/11
FLOOR DIVISIONS
B1-B2 PARKING & MECHANICAL
GROUND-8
th
FLOOR -HOTEL
9
th
-16
th
RESIDENTIAL
17
th
-18
th
- SERVICE FLOOR
19
th-
37
th
- RESIDENTIAL
38
th
-39
th
-HOTEL SUITES
40
th
-42th SERVICE FLOOR
43th-SKY LOBBY
44
th
-72th-RESIDENTIAL
73th-75
th
-SERVICE FLOOR
76
th
-SKY LOBBY
77
th
-108
th
-RESIDENTIAL
109
th
-110
th
- SERVICE FLOOR
111
th
-121th-CORPORATE SUITES
122th-RESTAURANT
123th- SKY LOBBY
124
th
-OBSERVATORY
125
th
-135
th
-CORPORATE SUITES
136
th
-138
th
- SERVICE FLOOR
139
th
-154
th
-CORPORATE SUITES
155
th
- SERVICE FLOOR
156
th
-159
th
-COMMUNICATION & BROADCAST
160 & ABOVE SERVICE FLOORS


SERVICE/MECHANICAL FLOORS

SEVEN DOUBLE STOREY HEIGHT
DISTRIBUTED AROUND EVERY 30 STOREYS .

IT HOUSES THE ELECTRICAL SUB-
STATION,WATER TANKS AND PUMPS,AIR
HANDLING UNITS.
SONAL SHARMA
IV YR SEC B
SEM VII ,BCT
A.S.A

CASE STUDY BURJ KHALIFA
PAGE NO.
8/11
FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM

FIRE PROOF CONCRETE AND SILLS ON ELEVATORS USED SO THAT WATER FROM
SPRINKLERS DOES NOT FLOOD THE SHAFT.

IN CASE OF FIRE DESIGNATED ELEVATORS FEATURE A LIFEBOAT EVACUATION MODE
ALLOWING FIRE BRIGADE OR TRAINED STAFF TO TRANSPORT OCCUPANTS FROM UPPER
PORTIONS OF TOWER TO DISCHARGE LEVELS.

ELEVATORS INCLUDE OPERATING CAPABILITY ON PRIMARY AND EMERGENCY
POWER,WATER RESISTANT EQUIPMENT,MEANS FOR VISUAL INSPECTION OF THE ELEVATOR
SHAFT AND RAISED ELEVATOR DOOR THRESHOLDS ON EACH FLOOR OPENING TO MINIMIZE
THE FLOW OF SPRINKLER WATER INTO SHAFTS.

THERE IS ALSO A 5,500kg CAPACITY ELEVATOR FOR FIRE FIGHTERS AND BUILDING
SERVICE WORK.

HIGHLY FIRE RESISTANT WALLS ARE THERE SURROUNDING AL THE STAIRS.


SONAL SHARMA
IV YR SEC B
SEM VII ,BCT
A.S.A
PRESSURISED AIR- CONDITIONED REFUGE AREAS AT APPROX EVERY 25 FLOORS ARE THERE TO
WAIT SAFELY DURING FIRE ON WAY DOWN STAIRS.

REFUGE AREAS SEPARATED FROM MAIN STRUCTURE BY 2-HOUR FIRE RESISTANT STRUCTURE.

MULTI-ALARM SENSORS THAT INCLUDE SMOKE,HEAT AND OTICAL SENSORS ARE LOCATED IN ALL
ROOMS THROUGHOUT THE BUILDING.

LENGTH OF BUILDING FROM BASEMENT TO LEVEL 160 IS FULLY SPRINKLER-FED.

A TEAM ONSITE 24 HOURS PRESENT BEEN TRAINED AND BRIEFED TO DO IN CASE OF
EMERGENCIES.
CASE STUDY BURJ KHALIFA
PAGE NO.
9/11
ELEVATORS AND LIFTS
BUILDING HAS 57 ELEVATORS AND 8 ESCALATORS.

ELEVATORS ARE DOUBLE DECK CABS WITH A CAPACITY FOR 12-14 PEOPLE PER CAB.

SPEED OF ELAVATOR IS 64km/h.
SONAL SHARMA
IV YR SEC B
SEM VII ,BCT
A.S.A
CASE STUDY BURJ KHALIFA
PAGE NO.
10/11
HVAC SYSTEM
THE AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM DRAWS AIR FROM THE UPPER FLOORS WHERE THE
AIR IS COOLER AND CLEANER THAN ON GROUND.

THE CONDENSATE COLLECTION SYSTEM, WHICH USES THE HOT AND HUMID
OUTSIDE AIR,COMBINED WITH THE COOLING REQUIREMENTS OF THE BUILDING
RESULTS IN CONDENSATION OF MOISTURE FROM AIR.

THE CONDENSED WATER IS COLLECTED AND DRAINED INTO A HOLDING TANK
LOCATED IN THE BASEMENT CAR PARK.

THIS WATER IS THEN PUMPED INTO THE SITE IRRIGATION SYSTEM.

COOLING SYSTEM INCLUDES A SYSTEM BASED ON A THERMAL ICE- STORAGE
FACILITY THAT PRODUCES TONNES OF ICE SLURRY DURING NIGHT.

USING ALFA LAVAL PLATE HEAT EXCHANGERS THE SLURRY BUILT UP IN A TANK
STORE THE COOLING ENERGY THAT IS LATER RELEASED THROUGH THE PIPELINES
TO THE ENTIRE INDOOR AIR CONDITIONING AND TAP WATER NETWORKS.
SONAL SHARMA
IV YR SEC B
SEM VII ,BCT
A.S.A
CASE STUDY BURJ KHALIFA
PAGE NO.
11/11
WIND ENGINEERING SYSTEM











FOR A BUILDING OF THIS HEIGHT AND SLENDERNESS, WIND FORCES AND THE RESULTING
MOTIONS IN THE UPPER LEVELS BECOME DOMINANT FACTORS IN THE STRUCTURAL DESIGN.

AN EXTENSIVE PROGRAM OF WIND TUNNEL TESTS AND OTHER STUDIES WERE UNDERTAKEN.

THE WIND TUNNEL PROGRAM INCLUDED RIGID-MODEL FORCE BALANCE TESTS, A FOIL MULTI
DEGREE OF FREEDOM AERO ELASTIC MODEL STUDIES, MEASUREMENTS OF LOCALIZED PRESSURES,
PEDESTRIAN WIND ENVIRONMENT STUDIES AND WIND CLIMATIC STUDIES.

WIND TUNNEL MODELS ACCOUNT FOR THE CROSS WIND EFFECTS OF WIND
INDUCED VORTEX SHEDDING ON THE BUILDING.

THE WIND VORTICES NEVER GET ORGANIZED BECAUSE AT EACH NEW TIER THE WIND ENCOUNTERS
A DIFFERENT BUILDING SHAPE.

SONAL SHARMA
IV YR SEC B
SEM VII ,BCT