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USE OF CRA LINED PIPE IN HIGH TEMPERATURE SYSTEMS


Abstract
Alastair Walker, Director, KW Ltd, Leatherhead , UK
Mark Spence, Technical Director, United Pipelines Ltd,
Warrington, UK
Dave Reynolds, Operations Manager,
Smit Land & Marine Engineering Ltd., Bromborough, UK
The paper describes a test program to prove the capability of pipelines lined with a thin sheet
of corrosion resistant nickel alloy (CRA) to resist the very severe corrosive conditions that
sometimes occur in high temperature pipeline systems. The test program, which was specific
to the Elgin-Franklin interfield flowlines investigated the properties of the pipe and liner
materials and the ultimate states of buckling of the lined pipe when subjected to high
temperature, axial loading and intemal pressure. The tests also included an investigation of
the effects of cyclic loading on the pipe, caused by the start-up and shut-down operations of
the system.
The paper presents the method of testing and some typical results that were used in the limit
state strain-based design checks of the flowlines that were contained within a bundle
configuration. It is concluded from the results of the tests that mechanically lined pipe is
appropriate for use in flowlines transporting corrosive fluids at temperatures up to 160C in
the pipe configuration considered here.
INTRODUCTION
High temperature flowline systems sometimes are required to transport fluids that are
corrosive to carbon steel. The high temperature has the effect of increasing this
corrosive effect. A number of options for the design of such flowlines include:
a. increased wall thickness for a carbon steel pipe to accommodate the
estimated loss of metal due to corrosion;
b. fabrication of the flowline from corrosion resistant alloy (CRA) such as Super
Duplex or 13% Cr alloy;
c. fabricating the pipe from carbon steel that has a thin layer of CRA
metallurgically bonded, or welded to the inner surface;
d. using carbon steel pipe that has a thin liner of CRA mechanically bonded to
the inner surface of the flowline.
The choice of the most suitable option for any particular flowline system is generally
governed by cost and the availability of suitable proven welding procedures. The
latter are now available for all the options described above. The relative costs will
vary according to the diameter of the pipe, the length of the flowline and the financial
deal the Operator, or EPIC contractor, can strike with the pipe manufacturer. As a
very rough guide the relative costs will favour options a and b for smaller diameter
pipe; c and d are more cost effective for larger diameter pipe.
The design of very high temperature flowlines imply other challenges to engineers,
foremost among these being that the pipe may be subjected to axial forces that, in
conjunction with pressure effects, will cause the materials to operate at strains
greater than the yield strain for the carbon steel. In such a circumstance it is
obviously necessary that strains imposed on the pipe are less than the limiting
buckling strain for the carbon steel or CRA pipe or the CRA liner. The flowline
system will be subjected to varying axial and hoop stresses as the temperature and
pressure increase and decrease during start-up and shut-down cycles. This variation
of loading has to be considered during the design of the flowline and assurance is
1
required that the lined pipe will retain its integrity and that the seam welds are fit-for-
purpose during the operating life of the flowline.
The preliminary design of the flowline bundle for the Elgin-Franklin Field
Development identified that the use of EEMUA 166 EP450 carbon steel pipe
mechanically lined with 825 Inconel would be commercially attractive option. A
companion paper'1 presents the design of the flowline bundle in greater detail. Two
flowlines were accommodated within the bundle and the carbon steel pipes were
designed with an outer diameter of 314.4mm, wall thickness 12.7mm and the CRA
liner was 3mm thick. The present paper describes the procedures for tests to
determine the capability of the liner pipe to operate at temperatures up to 165C,
internal pressure of 150bar and to have an estimated 650 start-up and shut-down
cycles. The test programme had several objectives, viz.,
to obtain appropriate material mechanical properties for X65 and Inconel at
the maximum operating temperature;
to demonstrate that the cyclic application of axial forces and pressure would
not endanger the integrity of the girth weld in the CRA liner;
to demonstrate that the maximum calculated axial strains, including strain
localisation, would not result in local deformation, i.e. buckling, of the liner;
to determine the ultimate limit state of the lined pipe.
The last of these objectives provided information on the form of the 'collapse state' of
the pipe and liner and, by comparison with the maximum design calculated strain,
confirmed the adequacy of the margin of safety against collapse incorporated in the
flowline design.
Three series of tests were designed and commissioned. The first preceded the
initiation of the detailed design of the flowline bundle. These tests involved example
sections of mechanically lined EP450 pipe that, although they had a slightly different
diameter from the intended design, were machined to the O/t ratio of the design pipe.
The material properties provided a basis for the strain-based design of the flowlines.
The tests for measuring the ultimate strain in this first series provided confidence that
there would be good margin between buckling strain and the corresponding value
calculated in the initial design.
A second series of tests was carried out on the production carbon steel pipe material.
The results from these tests provided confirmation that the detailed design basis was
valid, and was actually conservative in its calculation of the maximum strains in the
flowlines. The third, and final, programme of tests was carried out on lengths of the
lined production pipe, to further validate the safety of the detailed design of the
flowline bundle.
The presentation in this paper concentrates on the procedure for, and results from
the material and full-scale tests on the production lined pipe.
LINED PIPE MANUFACTURE
The lined pipe was supplied by United Pipelines Ltd. having been manufactured by
Buttings. The CRA liner is made by cutting, rolling and seam welding sheet Inconel
into a very thin-walled cylinder, with an outside diameter slightly less than the inside
diameter of the carbon steel pipe. The liner is inserted into the pipe and the
combined assembly is expanded by hydraulic pressure against an external cylindrical
former. The expansion stretches the CRA cylinder to fit closely with the inner surface
2
/ ....
. :
of the pipe. The combined liner and pipe are then further expanded to well beyond
the elastic limit, generally up to a hoop strain of about 1 %. The actual value of strain
will vary from joint to joint depending on the outside diameter of the pipe.
On removal of the hydraulic pressure, the steel pipe 'shrinks' elastically on to the
CRA liner thus forming a mechanical bond between the pipe and the liner. The grip
formed by the bond is determined by the mechanical properties of the steel and CRA,
particularly the moduli of both materials and the stresses corresponding to 1 % strain.
The relaxation of the steel pipe following removal of the internal pressure, induces a
pressure, p, at the interface of the liner and the pipe.
The degree of bonding is determined by this pressure and the mechanical adherence
between the two metal faces, which in turn is to an extent dependent on the
cleanliness and lack of scale at the interface. The bonding can be measured in two
ways, i.e.
direct measurement of the strain in the liner
push-out test.
The first of these is fairly straightforward but may be a little uncertain in its outcome
since the strain may vary around the liner. If the liner is uniformly compressed
radially by the pipe the circumferential strain, to, is
G =
pD,
2 t, E
where D is the mean diameter of the liner
,
t, is the thickness of the liner
E, is the modulus of the liner material
(1)
By cutting the liner longitudinally and removing it from the pipe this strain can be
measured.
The alternative approach is, according to API5LD, to push the liner out of a length of
pipe. The resisting force is developed by the adherence of the two metals, modelled
as a Coulomb friction force, and can simply be written
t E. (E )
2:rLfLl -"-" -' a- -a-
'lE E y ~ yl
where E, is the modulus of the carbon steel material
t, is the thickness of the steel pipe
fL is the coefficient of the Coulomb friction
a-
y
, is the stress in the pipe material at 1 % strain
a- is the stress in the liner material at 1 % strain
y,
L is the length of the test lined pipe
(2)
3
Figure 1 shows typical results from a push out test conducted during the first program
of tests. The dimensions of the pipe were 254mm outside diameter, 19.2mm wall
thickness. The specimen, shown in Figure 2, was 250mm long, as specified in the
API5LD. Measurement of the material properties for this specimen gave
E,=205,OOON Imm' E, =195,OOON Imm' O"y,=612N Imm'
0" Y' = 505N 1 mm'
F=272p
Comparison of the calculated value shown above with the corresponding maximum
push-out force shown in Figure 1 gives an equivalent coefficient of friction of
p=O.95. This implies a very good adherence between the two metal surfaces and
the outside face of the liner shown in Figure 2 implies that the two surfaces were in
fairly uniform contact over the whole surface. The results shown in Figure 1 indicate
that the push-out force reduces fairly linearly with the distance the liner is pushed out
from the pipe. This corresponds to the formulation of the force in equ.(1). The
discontinuities in the graph in Figure 1 result from stopping and starting the push-out
to enable readjustment of the stroke of the ram in the test machine.
The calculated value of the strain in the liner is 3.45 x 10" which implies that the
interface pressure is 1.6 N/mm
2
. The push-out test is considered to be a more
significant measure of the gripping force since it measures the effect of the
adherence at the interface surface as well the pressure there. This is a good
measure for the bonding of the liner with the pipe since effectively it is an integral
effect as distinct from the localised measurement of the strain gauges.
MATERIAL TESTS
Flowlines transporting very high temperature fluids (> 145C) will develop fully
constrained axial forces that in conjunction with the hoop stress from the pressure,
may induce strains greater than the yield strain for EP450 material. The detailed
design approach therefore has to be based on an assessment of acceptable strain
levels and this, in turn, implies a requirement to have data on the complete stress-
strain properties of the pipe and liner material.
The material mechanical properties that are significant in the detailed design of the
very high temperature flowlines are:
tensile and compressive stress-strain relationship at the maximum
operating temperature
coefficient of expansion for the range of operating temperatures
cyclic stress-strain relationship at the maximum and minimum operating
temperature
Material Strength tests
Testing small specimens of material machined from the wall of a sample pipe is by
no means a simple matter. There are particular difficulties with regard to applying
large compressive strains to a specimen without causing buckling deformations,
which requires a very small specimen, and at the same time having a specimen that
is large enough for the strains to be measured accurately. Considerable effort has
been expended by test houses involved in the evaluation of material properties for
high temperature flowlines to develop an accurate approach to measuring the
4

compressive and tensile stress-strain properties and the reduction in strength due to
the temperature.
The results obtained during the present test program are typified for the case of
compressive loading. Figure 3 shows the form of test specimen; it is machined from
the pipe wall into a barrel shape and very small strain gauges are attached to the
surface aligned with the longitudinal axis of the specimen. The ends of the specimen
are placed on platens that have spherical seats so that any lack a parallelism in the
ends of the specimen can be accommodated. The assembly is housed in a heated
jacket and the loading is applied at a constant rate with a strain- rate of 10-4
/sec
.
Figure 4 shows a typical result for the stress-strain properties of the EP450 steel at
160C. It may be seen that there is very little difference in the levels of strain
measured by the gauges around the specimen. This implies no buckling
deformations in the specimen. Beyond a strain level of about 4% there is evidently
some bending of the specimen occurring. The programme of material testing
included compression specimens cut in the longitudinal direction, i.e. along the axis
of the pipe, and in the transverse direction, i.e. hoop direction. Corresponding tensile
specimens were machined from the pipe and tested at various temperatures. The
tensile stress-strain relationship is exemplified by Figure 5, at 160C.
One of the objectives in the earlier material tests was to evaluate the effect of
temperature in reducing the yield strength of the EP450 steel. This is an important
factor in determining the requirement for a strain-based design approach. The
results from the tensile and compression tests, in terms of the stress corresponding
to 0.5% strain are shown in Figures 6 and 7 for compressive yield and tensile yield,
respectively. The longitudinal values are described by the circle symbol and the
crosses are the transverse values. It may be seen there is a considerable degree of
scatter in the test results. Table 1 summarises the results by presenting the
averaged values of the stress levels corresponding to 0.5% strain. It may be seen
that the effect of the high temperature is to reduce the 'yield' stress by about 6-10%.
Cyclic Loading Tests
Initial analysis of the response of the flowlines to the start-up and shut-down
conditions indicated that hoop strain ratchetting was extremely unlikely.
Nevertheless, tests were carried out to measure the effect of cyclic loading on the
material stress-strain properties. Figure 8 shows a typical set of results in which a
specimen machined from the pipe in the longitudinal direction, was subjected to
strain controlled loading from 1 % compressive strain to 0.5% tensile strain. The
significant aspect of these results is that the material is stable in the sense that the
stress-strain relationship does not change with increasing numbers of cycles. It is
also noticeable how the Bauschinger effect alters the cyclic properties from those in
the first application of load. The distinct yield point in the first cycle disappears and
there is a more gradual yielding starting at a lower stress than the yield of the
material in the first application of load. This is a feature that is not incorporated in the
simplified analysis method for determining the temperature at which hoop strain
ratchetting will be initiated. Incorporation of the measured cyclic stress-strain
properties in a computer model confirmed that for the conditions in the specific
flowline system considered here, hoop strain ratchetting is not a probable limit state.
5
Specimen Temperature Average value of Temperature
Type
(0C)
0.5% stress reduction factor
(N/mm2)
(%)
Tensile Long. 20 516 -
165 467 10
Tensile Trans. 20 518
-
165 483 6.5
Compressive 20 568
-
Lon!l 165 534
"
Compressive 20 508
-
Trans. 165 476 6
Table 1 Summary of results from matenal strength tests
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
The coefficient of expansion is an important fact in the development of the axail
forces due to the operating temperature. Essentially, the force P, is
P = aLIT E A,
where
a is the coefficient of thermal expansion
L1T is the change of temperature
E is the modulus for the material
A, is the cross-sectional area of the pipe
Generally in pipeline design it is assumed that the coefficient is a constant. This is
reasonable for small temperature changes, but for the large temperature range, from
o to 160C, considered here the coefficient is known to vary with temperature.
Because of the central character of the coefficient in calculating the axial force in the
flowline it was decided to determine the variation of the coefficient with temperature
for the actual material to be used in the manufacture of the flowlines.
The tests to evaluate the coefficient of thermal expansion were carried out on a
special thermo-mechanical analyser at the University of Loughborough. A calibrated
quartz probe is placed on top of the specimen and heat is applied to increase the
temperature of the specimen at a rate of 5C/min. The temperature and output from
the probe are recorded at specified temperatures during the test. The coefficient of
thermal expansion is then calculated at these specific values of temperature.
The expansion of the specimen is measured over a range of 20C and the coefficient
of expansion is calculated for the mid-point of that range. This is exemplified by the
case of a temperature rise from 90C to 110C. The strain in the specimen is
measured across this range and the result divided by 20 to give the result reported
as the coefficient of thermal expansion for 100C, i.e. 0;(100).
It is evident from the above description that the values of the coefficients of
expansion, a(T), reported from the tests are temperature dependent and
correspond to a specific temperature, T. This is in contrast to an averaged value,
a aCT), across a temperature range, f, which is the value relevant to the design
calculations for the flowlines in which the magnitude of the expansion is calculated
over the range 5C to 165C. The definition of these two forms of the coefficient of
thermal expansion are:
6
<-",
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'- )
Coefficient a( T) related to a specific temperature T
a(T) = d s(T)
dT
where s(T) is the thermal strain measured at the specific temperature T.
Coefficient aa(T) related to the range of temperature T=(T, -T,)
The averaged value is the property relevant to the design of the pipeline axial forces
since the material experiences a variation of the coefficient of thermal expansion as
the flowlines heat and cool. The results obtained from the tests are shown in Figures
9a and 9b for the Inconel and the EP450 material, respectively. A quadratic
interpolation of these points is carried out to give the relationship between the
temperature and the coefficient of thermal expansion as
a(T) = (a+bT+cT')xIO-6
The coefficients obtained from the curve fitting are:
Inconel
a=11.l9 b=0.042 c=-1.l1lxI0-
4
Carbon Steel EP450
a =8.044 b=0.064 c=-1.806xI0-'
The averaged value of the coefficient, from an initial temperature, T, is
This enables the evaluation of the design values of the coefficient of expansion over
the range from an initial temperature, T, = 1 0" C to a maximum temperature of
T, = 16YC to be
Inconel aa = 13.8 x 10-6
EP450 aa = 11.9x10-6
It is evident from Figures 9 that there is considerable scatter in the results for the
measured coefficients of expansion. This is an important aspect in deciding upon an
appropriate level of safety to apply in the detailed design calculations for the forces
induced in the flowlines by the high temperature of the fluid. Generally, it is valuable
7
to carry out a sensitivity analysis during the design to assess the effect of this scatter
on the integrity of the system. The other significant factor, that is particularly
important for the integrity of mechanically lined pipe, is that the coefficient of
expansion for the liner material is greater than the for the EP450 pipe. This implied
that as the temperatures increase the liner will develop a greater bonding force with
the pipe which will intuitively mean enhanced integrity for the lined pipe.
FULL SCALE TESTS ON LINED PIPE
A total of three tests were carried out using full-scale specimens of the production
CRA lined pipe. One test involved loading the specimen only by constrained thermal
expansion; the other two specimens were tested with internal pressure and
constrained expansion. The methodology and results reported here are from one of
these latter tests. The test specimen is shown in Figure 10 loaded into the test
machine. The specimen was fitted with strain gauges on the outside surface of the
carbon steel pipe; because the pressurising medium is hot oil, it was not possible to
strain gauge the inside face of the liner. It was for this reason that a test was carried
out on an un-pressurised specimen in which the strains in the liner could be
measured. The gauges on the outside surface of the specimen measured strains in
the longitudinal and transverse directions and enabled an assessment of possible
slippage between the two components of the pipe. The internal pressure was
applied using mineral oil that is inflammable at the test temperature, and the
temperature was increased using bracelets of resistance heaters encased in thermal
insulation. The temperature of the specimen was measured on the outer and inner
faces of the pipe using thermocouples.
The programme of loading for this test was in stages, as follows:
1. Two cycles of loading combined thermal and mechanical loading during which
the internal pressure was increased to the operating level of 150bar, then the
temperature was increased to at least 160C followed by reduction of the
pressure and the temperature to ambient conditions.
2. 650 cycles of mechanical loading in which the pressure and temperature was
maintained at the operating level and an axial loading was applied in cycles to
represent the full effects of the combined thermal and mechanical loading.
3. Apply an increasing axial load, with the specimen at operating temperature and
pressure conditions, until the specimen buckles or reaches some other limit state
condition.
During the application of temperature and pressure in stage 1 the ends of the
specimen are maintained at a fixed distance apart. This was achieved by a control
that adjusted the position of the machine crosshead to compensate for the
deformations introduced into the end platens and the machine frame by the large
axial loads. After the operating conditions were attained, a further end strain was
introduced to simulate the effect of a potential strain localisation that had been
identified and calculated in the strain-based design analysis. The total apparent
strain, i.e. thermal and mechanical, applied to the specimen was 0.31 %.
The temperature and the pressure were then reduced to ambient conditions and it
was noted that due to yielding during the first stage the specimen had shortened. An
axial tensile load was applied to return the specimen to its original length, i.e. zero
strain. The value of this tensile load was noted. The heating and pressurising
process was then repeated and the load at which the specimen reached 0.31% strain
was noted.
8
/
(
These two loads marked the limits for the mechanical cycles in stage 2 of the test.
The reason for changing the form of the loading is that while the combined thermal
and mechanical loading simulates the actual loading the flowline will experience, the
heating and cooling process is very slow and it is not practical to apply approximately
650 cycles of such loading. The method used therefore was to maintain the pressure
and temperature at the operating conditions and to cycle the axial loading between
the two limits noted from the two cycles of loading in stage 1. The axial loading was
therefore varied between 405 tonnes tensile and 610 tonnes compression. The rate
of loading was very slow, almost quasi-static and the rate was made even slower
from time to time to record the strains and deformations on the speeimen.
It was noted in all the tests that the method of heating and controlling the
temperature in the specimen achieved a very uniform temperature across the whole
specimen, even at potentially cold spots near the ends of the specimen where it is
attached to the machine. The strain gauges showed that strain was fairly uniform
throughout the specimen. The variation of strains with the variation of the applied
axial loading was seen to be linear and the overall axial end shortening of the
specimen was unchanged during the test, as shown by the results in Figure 11. This
confirms that there was no incremental change in length as would have occurred if
hoop strain ratchetting was present.
At the end of this stage of the test, i.e. after 644 cycles of loading, the specimen was
allowed to cool and the oil removed. The state of the liner was examined and the
girth weld in the liner was subjected to NDE. Figure 12 shows the form of the liner. It
appears to have deformed into concentric rings but in fact although these
deformations are visible they are too small to be measured. The internal pressure,
aided by the effect of the eRA having a greater coefficient of expansion that the
steel, seems to have caused the liner to mould itself to the surface of the steel pipe.
There was no evidence anywhere on the surface that the liner had de-bonded from
the steel pipe. The NDE showed that the girth weld in the liner had not developed
any deformations or cracking.
The specimen was then put back into the test machine, filled with oil ready for stage
3 in the test. The pressure and temperature were brought up to the maximum
operating conditions and the axial strain gradually increased until the maximum load
was reached. Figure 13 shows the plot of load against averaged axial strain. It may
be seen that the load reaches the state where axial yielding is occurring and strain
hardening of the material is enabling an increase of the load. At a measured strain of
about 2.8% the maximum load is reached and thereafter the load capacity diminishes
with increasing applied axial strain. This measured value of buckling strain compares
to a value Be = 2.4% using the formula in BS 8010, and Be =3.5% using the
formulation in DNV '96.
On removal of the thermal insulation jacket it was observed, see Figure 14, that the
pipe had developed an axisymmetric bulge form of buckling. Figure 15 shows the
form of deformation in the liner and it is evident that the liner had been deformed by
the pressure to buckle radially outwards and had remained attached to the inner
surface of the pipe.
9
CONCLUSIONS
The following conclusions have been drawn from the results of the tests:
The strain-based design method for high temperature flowlines requires detailed
data for the material used for manufacturing the pipe, however careful test
procedures are available that can now provide that data at the operating
temperature of the flowline system.
The coefficient of thermal expansion is a central parameter in the calculation of
the forces in the flowlines. Interpretation of the test data is necessary to ensure
that the correct form of the coefficient is used in the design analyses.
The full-scale tests have shown that cyclic loading, simulating the start-up and
shut-down conditions in the flowline system, does not result in degradation of the
girth weld in the CRA liner or buckling deformations in the liner.
Buckling of the lined pipe at high temperature and pressure is in the form of an
axisymmetrical bulge and the strain at which the buckling occurred was close to
that predicted by the BS 8010 formulation.
The deformations of the liner at the ultimate state were such that the liner
remained attached to the inner wall of the pipe and therefore would not endanger
flow of the contents.
The results from all the tests in the programme validated the use of CRA
mechanically bonded lined pipe for use in pipeline bundle flowline systems at
least up to a temperature of 165C.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors would like to acknowledge the agreement of Elf to publish the
information in this paper. We also recognise the very expert input to the organisation
and conduct of the tests provided by Bert Holt and David Hutcheson of Mitsui .-\
Babcock Energy Limited. " )
REFERENCES
1. Pushing Forward the Limits on HT/HP Developments - The Elgin/Franklin
Interfield Pipeline System, Jeremy Summers and Jane Stirling, Proc. Of OPT,
Os10,2000
10
>00,---------------------------------------____ -,
250
200
z
'"
i
150
.3
100
50
o ~ - - - - _ - - - - ~ - - - - _ - - - - _ ~ - - ~ - - - - ~ - - - - ~ - - ~
o 20 60 80 100 120 140 160
Displacement (nwn)
Figure 1 Plot of Load vs. Axial displacement of a eRA liner during a push-out test
Figure 2 Photograph of a liner pushed out of a length of carbon steel pipe
Figure 3
I
I
I
I
I
I
..
Figure 4
Photograph of arrangement for high temperature compression testing
\ ....
900
BOO
700
--SG1
-----SG2
...... _. sm
. SG4
200
,
HXL
-7 ..
-S
"'
-3
-2 -1
0
Strain W.)
Plot stress vs. strain from a compression test on EP450 material at
160C
-;u
Q.
;.



'" .,
"
,}
..
a.

w
ft

0;
600 ----- ------------- .----- .----.... -- ----.----..... ---- .----.-----
500
400
:JOO .
SGl
SG2
SG3
200
SG4
100
__ ----__ ------__ ----__ ----__ ------__ --____
o 0.5 1.5 2
Strain (".)
2.5 3 3.5 4
Figure 5 Plot of stress vs. strain from a transverse tensile test at 160C on a
specimen of EP450 steel pipe
Figure 6
..
0-
6
c
. O'l,..
"' ' ,,000
ci O'Ti


<n
600
I I I
'"

-
l-
t
500
0
0
+
0
-
400 -
I I I

T;
Temperature (C)
A plot of the stress measured at 0.5% strain during tensile tests of
EP450 steel at 20C and 160C
-Cycle 1
1.--------------- --- --- -------------600
-CycleS I
Cycle 10
-Cycle 20
-Cycle 30
-Cycle40 I
tU .---- Cycle 50
a.. - _. ___ .. ,. ._ - D ~ _ . . o
200
~ -1.2
00
e
U;
-1 -0_6 -0.4
-600
04
___________________________________ -aoo..L... _________ _
'..4 Strain
Figure 8 The plot of stress vs. strain recorded during a cyclic test at 160C
6
"
15
0
";;;
a
Co
bj
'0+++
"5 aaj
Tl __
!S

0
u
10 +
50
+
100
ti ttj
Temperature (C)
+
150
Figure 9(a) Plot of coefficients of thermal expansion (x10
6
) measured at various
temperatures for EP450 material
"
15 0
";;;
a
Co
ill at
'0+++
fi bbj
"u--
!S

0
u
10
+
+
*
+
50
100
tj ttj
Temperature (C)
t
150
Figure 9(b) Plot of coefficients of thermal expansion (x10
6
) measured at various
temperatures for Inconel
Figure 10
Figure 11
Testing arrangement for axial loading at high temperature
'-93 Cycles I
- 300 Cycles i
- 644 Cycles 1
'-0 Cycles
0.8
0.6 .
0.4 .
0.2
1 ____
100
7 0
-400 300
200
.0.2
Load
Plot of load (tonnes) vs. end displacements (mm) for various cycles of
loading
/'
(
Figure 12
Photograph of the internal deformations of the Inconel liner
I
I
;
I
~ o
-15
-2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 00 0
;
5
,
I
I
I
;
I
,
,
I
1
!
I
I
!
i
I !
:
J
i
I i
,
I
I
% Strain
Figure 13
Plot of load (tonnes) vs axial end shortening (rnrn) during buckling test
Figure 14
Photograph of exterior of test specimen after the buckling test
Figure 15
Photograph of interior of the test specimen after the buckling test
300
250
-
z
200
::s:::
- 150
"C
C'Il
100 0
...J
50
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Displacement (mm)
Figure 1 Plot of Load vs. Axial displacement of a eRA liner during a push-out test
Figure 2 Photograph of a liner pushed out of a length of carbon steel pipe
Figure 3
-8
Figure 4
Photograph of arrangement for high temperature compression testing
900
800
700
5
SG1
40
SG2
SG3
SG4
300
200
100
-7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1
Strain (%)
Plot stress vs. strain from a compression test on EP450 material at
160C
~
C1l
0..
::E
-
(/)
(/)
Q)
....
-en
a
~ ..
\". )
3
J
600
500
CU400
a.
:i!
-
III
:(l300
...
...
(/J
200
100
------------
SG1
SG2
SG3
SG4
o
o 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
Strain (%)
Figure 5 Plot of stress vs. strain from a transverse tensile test at 160C on a
specimen of EP450 steel pipe

q;,
"

"-
500
- -

0
=1=
"

o IT L.
- ,
[/)
",,000
0
"""! aT
o i
;; +++


400
- -
<i5

o 50 100 150
Figure 6
o Ti
Temperature (C)
180
A plot of the stress measured at 0.5% strain during tensile tests of
EP450 steel at 20C and 160C
4
Figure 8 The plot of stress VS. strain recorded during a cyclic test at 160C
c:
0
.:;;

c.
bi
'0+++
E aa-
" J u __
!a
"
0
u
15
10
+
50
+
+
100
q, ttj
Tempernture (e)
+
150
Figure 9(a) Plot of coefficients of thermal expansion (x10
6
) measured at various
temperatures for EP450 material


c..
x
lli
u.o
'0+++
5
bbj
u--
!5
"
0
u
15
*
+
10
50
100
ti , ttj
Tempernture (e)
150
Figure 9(b) Plot of coefficients of thermal expansion (x10
6
) measured at various
temperatures for Inconel
Figure 10
-700
Figure 11
Testing arrangement for axial loading at high temperature
1.6
1.
-93 Cycles
- 300 Cycles
-644 Cycles
-- 0 Cycles
0.2
o
-300 -200 -100
-0.21
8.1
Load
Plot of load (tonnes) VS. end displacements (mm) for various cycles of
loading
()
()
Figure 12 Photograph of the internal deformations of the Inconelliner
-3 2.5 -2 .1.5 -, -0.5 0;5
-100 -
-200 -
-500 -
.-700 .
-------
---
~ ~
-900 -
'+0 Stram
Figure 13 Plot of load (tonnes) vs axial end shortening (mm) during buckling test
Figure 14 Photograph of exterior of test specimen after the buckling test
Figure 15 Photograph of interior of the test specimen after the buckling test
Notes
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Notes
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Investing business with know1edge
'.

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