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Surveying & Measurement

Levelling

Levelling

The general term applied to any of the


various processes by which elevations of
points or differences in elevation are
determined.

Levelling

To measure the difference in height (H)


between two points and !" vertical rods are
set up at each of these two points and a level
somewhere between them.

The height difference between and ! is the


difference between the rod (staff) readings.

#nce the elevation of a point is


determined" that point can be used for
determining the elevations of other points.


Some $efinitions (%)

Levelling & surveying operation carried out to


determine the elevation of points or to find the difference
in elevation of points

Spirit Level/Engineers Level & surveying instrument


used to carry out levelling

Backshot (BS) & sighting with a level bac' to a point


of 'nown elevation

Foreshot (FS) & sighting with a level to determine the


elevation of a point

Turning Point & point at which you have established


an elevation with (S and on which you will subse)uently
ta'e a !S

Intermediate Shot & foreshot to a point at which you


want to 'now the elevation but which will not be used as
a turning point

Some $efinitions (*)

Peg Test & Surveying operation carried out to determine


if the levelling bubble and telescope line+of+sight are
parallel

Elevation o Instrument (EI) & ,levation of the


telescope cross+hairs

Balancing shots & ttempt when doing a levelling


survey to 'eep the lengths of (S and !S at any given
instrument setup as close as possible.

!losure Error & $ifference in elevation determined from


the levelling survey and the 'nown elevation of a
benchmar'.

The -se of Levelling

To design highways" railroads" canals" sewers"


water supply systems etc" having grade lines
that best conform the e.isting topography"

To lay out construction pro/ects according to


planned elevations"

To calculate volume of earthwor's and other


materials"

To investigate drainage characteristics of an


area" etc.

The ,)uipments 0
1od (Staff) (%)

The ,)uipments 0
1od (Staff) (*)
2hiladelphia 1od (front)
2hiladelphia 1od (rear)
$ouble faced levelling
rod

The ,)uipments 0
1od Level and Tripod

3arrying and Setting -p a Level

lways carry it in the container.

Screw the head snugly on the tripod.

(or bull eye4s bubble" alternately turn one screw


and then the other two.

#n side+hill setups" place one leg on the uphill


side and other two on the down hill side.

-se hand level to chec' for proper height of the


setup before precisely levelling the instrument.
vial

3arrying and Setting -p a Level

3arrying and Setting -p a Level

2ond !ubble

5hen pond bubble is centred the instrument4s


standing a.is is appro.imately vertical.

The compensators in the instrument ta'e over


and ad/ust the optical Line of 3ollimation so that
it is hori6ontal.

5hen the instrument is rotated the


compensators ensure that a hori"ontal plane o
collimation is swept out.

#utomatic Levels
fter the pond bubble
is manually centered"
an automatic
compensator levels the
line of sight" and 'eeps
it level.

utomatic Level

,+type Levelling Staff (%)

,+type Levelling Staff (*)
%.788
%.7%8
%.7*8
%.798
%.79*

,+type Levelling Staff (9)
%.%88
%.%%8
%.%*8
%.%98
%.%99

3ommon ,rror Sources

Level rod not vertical

Levelling rod not fully e.tended or


incorrect length

Level instrument not level

:nstrument out of ad/ustment

,nvironment + wind and heat



Suggestions for ;ood Levelling

nchor tripod legs firmly

3hec' the bubble level before and after


each reading

Ta'e as little time as possible between !S


and (S

Try to 'eep the distance to the !S and the


(S e)ual

2rovide the rod person with a level for the


rod

,limination of 2aralla.

2aralla. is the apparent movement of the


image produced by movement of the
observer<s eye at the eyepiece.

:t is eliminated by focusing the telescope


on infinity and then ad/usting the eyepiece
until the cross+hairs appear in sharp focus.
The setting will remain constant for a
particular observer<s eye.

Types of Levelling =ets

#pen leveling nets

3losed loop leveling nets


height
kno$n

Types of Level>ng =ets

3losed lin' or closed connecting leveling nets

Leveling between two points is performed in two


steps0 forward (HAB) and bac'ward (HBA).
The height differences" HAB and HBA should
be theoretically e)ual.

HAB - HBA d
height
kno$n
height
kno$n

HPC Method
Height of the Plane of Collimation Method

:t consists in finding the elevation of the


plane of collimation for every set up of the
instrument and then obtaining the reduced
levels (1L) of point with reference to the
respective plane of collimation.

The ?23 method is generally used in


profile levelling and in setting out levels for
constructional wor'.

HPC Method
Height of the Plane of Collimation Method

Same staff position as last reading


therefore the same row

=ew staff position therefore a new row


?23 @ 1educed Level (1L) A !S
1L @ ?23 + (S
1L @ ?23 + :S

!L%SE&'L%%P LE(ELI)* !%+P,T#TI%)
!ollimation +ethod

-od -eadings (m) Bench
+arks
&istance
(m)
BS IS FS
!ollimation
.eight
.eights !orrected
.eights (m)

/

*

9

B

C

D

E

F

/


B8

F8

E8

C8

D8

E8

FB

B*

*.%BE

%.D%9

%.8E7

9.BC*

8.9%B

8.*E%

*.EBC

8.DF*




8.B7%

*.9%*

8.*FD

8.%E7

9.C7F

%.8C*

%.B*9

*.7C9

%*F.D*%

%*7.EB9

%*F.C%8

%9%.DED

%9%.F%%

%*F.BFB

%98.%EE

%*7.B9D

%*D.BEB

%*F.%98
+%

%*E.B9%
+*


%*F.**B
+9


%9%.B7E
+B


%*F.*%9
+C


%*E.B9*
+D


%*F.ECB
+F


%*D.BF9
+7


/012343

%*F.%*7

%*E.B*7

%*F.**%

%9%.B79

%*F.*8F

%*E.B*D

%*F.EBD

/012343
L @ B7D m
!S
@%*.989 %*D.BF9 G %*D.BEB @ 8.887 m

3hec' 0
!S
+
(S
@%*.989 G %*.*7B @ 8. @ 8.887m


HPC Method
Height of the Plane of Collimation Method



!alculation checks
(S + !S @ %st 1L + Last 1L
:S A (S A (1Ls e.cept first)
@ (each ?23 . number of applications)
!heck +isclosure
llowable Misclosure @ H C= mm. (I1ule of ThumbI)
5hen calculations are chec'ed and
if the misclosure is allowable
$istribute the misclosure.
Simple check
Full check

1ise and (all Method

:t consist in determining the difference of level


between consecutive points by comparing each
point after the first with that immediately
preceding it.

The difference between their staff reading


indicates a rise or a fall according as the staff
reading at the point is smaller or greater than
that preceding point.

The 1L of each point is then found by adding


rise or subtracting fall to or from the 1L.

The 1( method provides complete chec' on :S.

:t is commonly used for differential levelling.



!L%SE&'L%%P LE(ELI)* !%+P,T#TI%)
-ise 5 Fall +ethod
-od -eadings (m) &. (m) Bench
+arks
&istance
(m)
BS IS FS -ise (6) Fall (')
.eights (m)

/

*

9

B

C

D

E

F

/



B8

F8

E8

C8

D8

E8

FB

B*

*.%BE

%.D%9

%.8E7

9.BC*

8.9%B

8.*E%

*.EBC

8.DF*




8.B7%

*.9%*

8.*FD

8.%E7

9.C7F

%.8C*

%.B*9

*.7C9


%.DCD
+%




8.E79
+%


9.*E9
+%






%.9**
+*






8.D77
+%






9.*FB
+%


8.EF%
+%




*.*E%
+%


/012343

%*F.%*7

%*E.B*7

%*F.**%

%9%.B79

%*F.*8F

%*E.B*D

%*F.EBD

/012343
L @ B7D m
!S
@%*.989
(S
@%*.*7B

@ E.8BB @ E.89C

3hec' 0
!S
+
(S
@%*.989 G %*.*7B @ 8.887
1:S,
+
(LL
@ E.8BB + E.89C @ 8.887


1ise and (all Method

1ise and (all Method
(all @ (S + !S
(all @ :S + !S
1ise @ !S + (S
1L @ 2revious 1L A 1ise
1L @ 2revious 1L + (all


3ollimation ,rror
Two 2eg Test
The true height difference" h
T

The visi7le height difference" h
S
%
@ S
%
4

A . and S
*
@ S
*
4 A .
?ori6ontal
Line of sight
!
d
.
S
%
S
%
4
S
*
S
*
4
L J *
L
L J *
.
h
T
@
S
%
4
+
S
*
4
@ S
%
+ S
*
h

h

@ S
%
4

+ S
*
4
@ h
T
h

@ (S
%
4

A .) + (S
*
4 A . )
Since the instrument
is the same distance
from both staff
positions and the
errors . are e)ual
and cancel out.

3ollimation ,rror
Two 2eg Test
?ori6ontal

!
S
9
S
9
4
S
B
S
B
4
L J %8 L
:f =#T then the error is @
The visi7le height difference
!ut the true height difference
:f h

@ h
T
then the instrument is #K
(S
%
+ S
*
) + (S
9
+ S
B
)
J L
mm J m
h

@ S9 + SB
h
T
@ S% + S*

3ollimation ,rror
Two 2eg Test

2lace two pegs about L @ 98m (to B8m) apart.

Set up level midway between the two pegs.

1ead staff on each peg" and calculate true


height difference .

Move level about L J %8 @ 9m (or Bm) beyond


one of the pegs.

1ead staff on each peg again" and calculate


height difference.
3ollimation ,rror" @ difference in the differences
and is e.pressed as a number of mm per L m

3ollimation ,rror
Two 2eg Test

cceptable errors

-ren and 2rice %mm per *8m

5impey Bmm per C8m

Test should be carried out regularly.



?ori6ontal
Line of sight
!
d
S
%
S
*
L J *
L
L J *
?ori6ontal

!
S
9
S
B
L J %8 L
3ollimation error" @ (S
%
+ S
*
) + (S
9
+ S
B
) J L" mmJm

/2834 m
/2/49 m
/2:38 m
02;09 m
# t$o peg test gave the ollo$ing results<

True difference between points & !0
h
T
@ b
%
G a
%
h
T
@ %9BE G %%EC
h
T
@ %E* mm

pparent difference between points & !0
h

@ a
*
G b
*
h

@ *8*C G %FB9
h

@ %F* mm

:f the distance between the two pegs is 98 m and
the error is %8 mm (%F*+%E*) then
the collimation error" is %8 mm per 98 m
the collimation correction is 8.8% 98 @ 8.88899 mJm

2eg Test L*M


2eg Test results are reported in
degrees and as slopes.
useful way to e.press peg test
results is in the
units of
NOO mm (highJlow) per m length
of shotP.

Surveyor4s ?and Signals (%)

Surveyor4s ?and Signals (*)
%. ll right.
*. Move right or left.
9. ;ive me a bac' sight.
B. ;ive me a line or this is a hub.
C. 2lumb the rod.
D. ,stablish a turning point.
E. This is a turning point.
F. 5ave the rod.

Surveyor4s ?and Signals (9)

Surveyor4s ?and Signals (B)
%. (ace the rod.
*. 1everse the rod.
9. !oost the rod.
B. Move forward.
C. Move bac'.
D. -p or down.
E. 2ic' up the instrument.
F. 3ome in.