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Rehabilitation of Upper Makulapnit Dam

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1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND
Upper Makulapnit Dam is located across the Makulapnit River, 132429 N 1215847 E, at the
Marcopper site, Makulapnit, Sta. Cruz, Marinduque. It was owned by the Marcopper Mining Company,
and was designed by Engineering Development Corporation of the Philippines (EDCOP). It was built in
1975 to impound storm water originating from Makulapnit River which was intended to use as water
supply in the Marcopper mining operation and for the residence near it. Padolina and Ordillano, (2003)
After the March 1996 mining disaster, the Marcopper Mining Company was forced to close and since
then, this structure has not been used.
According to the Dioceses of Boac (2008), since the mining operation seized, the Marcopper
structures including the Upper Makulapnit Dam were not properly maintained, that there is no regular
inspection done by the government to those structures, and if there is any, the results were not given to the
public, letting them unaware on its status. Those structures are still holding back millions of cubic meters
of water and poisonous mine wastes, that if happened to fail will bring severe flash floods and will swamp
the affected areas with poisonous mine wastes. Poverty is widespread in this province, any kind of
disaster should the structures cause may bring huge impact to the peoples daily lives.
According to the study of the Klohn-Crippen (2001), Upper Makulapnit Dam does not achieve
some of the accepted criteria for the stability analyses, and its spillway has an inadequate capacity to
handle the required of at least 50% of the probable maximum flood. These imply that the dam might be
under designed to accommodate earthquake loads and an overtopping of the dam could happen during
major storm events. But in spite of these, the structure is still standing. This maybe indicates that the
worst possible scenarios are not yet happening or maybe the assumptions used by the Clohn-Crippen in
the analyses were too small for those structure since according to the review, the analyses was performed
without benefit of the original design information. Until now, there is no clear report about the true status
of this structure.
All of the results and recommendations done to the studies conducted by the government and
other independent teams by which millions of pesos were spent were taken for granted. Until now, there
are no short or long term solutions done to the problems in this structure. There are no monitoring and
warning devices found in this structure or any maintenance done. According to D. Querijero the structure
is regularly inspected (personal communication, September, 2012), but this is useless since the results
were ignored by Marcopper and not given to public. If this situation continues, Upper Makulapnit Dam
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could weaken and at any time might burst and also it creates misconceptions and fear to the people.
Should a collapse happened, large area of the town of Boac will be largely affected and its lost can be a
big waste to the province considering its potential uses.
1.2 PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF UPPER MAKULAPNIT DAM AND APPURTENANCES
The descriptions presented herein are taken from the Klohn-Crippen, (2001).
Upper Makulapnit Dam is an earthen structure nominally 50 meters high with a crest elevation of
approximately 275 meters above sea level (masl). It has a vertical impervious core with inclined filter and
drain, each zone about 2 meters in horizontal width, upstream and downstream of the core. The upstream
slope is about 2H:1V with an approximately 35 meter wide berm at 240 masl. The external upstream shell
consists of select rock fill coarser than .15 meters with the internal shell being random fill with a 1.5H:1V
downstream slope and approximately 20 meter wide berm at 220 masl. The downstream shell has a series
of finger drains at 10 meter vertical intervals above 220 masl.
The Upper Makulapnit Dam Spillway is an open cut channel with a 14 meter wide base and
1H:1V side slope and an invert slope of .5%. The spillway cut is about 400 meters long with an invert
elevation of 268 masl. In 2001, the dam catchment was estimated to be 11 km
2
, while the pond area at
268 masl was approximately .15 km
2
.
The diversion tunnel is fully concrete lined, 4.5 meters high, and horseshoe shaped. It is
approximately 582 meters from the downstream portal to the plug and possesses a total length of 614
meters. The tunnel plug was reported to be 6 meters in length. Three 610 millimetre bypass pipes traverse
the plug.
1.3 PRESENT PHYSICAL CONDITION OF UPPER MAKULAPNIT DAM AND APPURTENANCE
The site was inspected on June 2 and September 1, 2012. The purpose of the inspection is to
determine the present condition of the different components of the structure by inspecting the dams crest,
upstream and downstream slope, downstream abutments, and downstream toe, the reservoir banks,
spillway, diversion tunnel and the access to the site. Such inspection focused on the determination of any
obvious defects like cracks, seepage, erosion, vegetation, floating debris, spillway blockage, floating
debris and other defects which could affect the stability of the dam. And also to make necessary
recommendation on what should be immediately done to the problem.

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1.3.1 Dam
The dam is heavily vegetated with deep-rooted trees and brushes. No cracks or any visible
deformation were seen along the crest. The upstream and downstream slopes surfaces are irregular, since
a rockfill, so it is difficult to determine whether the slopes has crack or eroded. But still, there is no huge
erosion, cracking or any deformation found on the slopes. Both the left and right downstream abutments
show no signs of seepage. There is no standing water or seepage seen on the downstream toe of the dam.
But there is a drainage channel or canal found along it. According to M. Palomares, this channel carries
water coming from the mine waste dumps during heavy rains (personal communication, June 2, 2012).
The channel is dry during his visits. The reservoir banks were surrounded by vegetations which help in
the stability of the banks.
1.3.2 Spillway
The water in the spillway cannot flow easily because it is obstructed by weeds, brushes and debris
carried from the reservoir and eroded rocks. The spillway wall is underlain with solid rocks, only few
portion of it eroded. In June 2, 2012 the quantity of discharge of the spillway was measured to be
0.2758m
3
/s.
1.3.3 Diversion Tunnel
The diversion tunnel is leaking. The inspector failed to measure the quantity of leak because of
the fear of a burst but able to describe it. The water is clear, and it discharges small amount. There is no
monitoring equipment found to monitor this leak.
1.3.4 Access to the Site
The road is inaccessible to vehicles and heavy equipments due to the blocking of vegetation.
1.3.5 General Comments and Recommendations
The general comments stated below were based on the knowledge opinions of the inspector.
The presence vegetation on the Upper Makulapnit Dam is very harmful to the structure. It makes
difficult for the inspector to perform a thorough inspection. The roots can uplift to the materials on its
surface which can result erosion. The large trees could be uprooted during storm which will scour the
surface. This vegetation should be properly removed and disposed immediately.
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The drainage channel found along the downstream toe can pose threat to the structure. It could
possibly undercut the downstream slope of the structure, so this should be immediately diverted way from
the structure.
The debris that blocks the flow of water in the spillway should be immediately removed. This
debris can create serious problems such as overtopping.
The clear water leaking in the diversion tunnel signifies that there is no internal erosion on the
plug of the tunnel. The tunnel should be permanently sealed but if not, should be regularly monitored for
changes.
The access to the structure should be repaired. This road is important since it is the primary
means of accessing the structure for inspection and for emergency response.
The present defects found on the Upper Makulapnit Dam imply that there is no proper
maintenance done to this structure. This only proves the negligence of the concerned groups.
1.4 POTENTIAL ALTERNATIVES
1.4.1 Alternative 1: No Action
With this alternative, no restoration or maintenance will commence. The proponents expect that
doing nothing and leaving the dam as is will weaken the structure and will increase the threat to the lives
of the downstream people. The debris in the spillway will increase and will make the flow hard that may
lead to overtopping. The leak in the diversion tunnel will deteriorate its plug due to internal erosion that
will result to burst. This approach will eventually lead to failure and has a possibility to weaken the
structural integrity of the Lower Makulapnit Dam by which millions of cubic meters of mine waste are
stored. This option is not recommended.
1.4.2 Alternative 2: Removal of the Structure
This structure has potential uses that when utilized may contribute to the development of the
province. It is currently one of the sources of foods of the near-by Barangays such as Makulapnit,
Hinapulan, Kilo-Kilo. The UMD Reservoir is rich with fresh water foods such as Tilapia, Hito, and
Tulya, so its a big loss for the nearby people. Its lost will also greatly affect the unlikely resumption of
the Marcopper mining operation. It was discovered that the mining site has still an 18-year mine life.
UMD is their only source of water which is used in their industrial operation. Building this kind of
structure may cost billions of pesos, so it is a big waste if this structure will be decommissioned
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considering its potential uses and the nearby people whose livelihoods are dependent in this structure,
therefore the removal of this structure is not the option of the proponents.
1.4.3 Alternative 3: Rehabilitation and Utilizing the Structure
Upper Makulapnit Dam is currently holding back 34 million cubic meters of water (Querijro,
2011), and is located 275 meters above sea level (Klohn-Crippen, 2001). With these descriptions, this
dam has a potential to supply domestic water to the province. It can generate large amount of
hydroelectric power since it is located in a high altitude. It is also a good source of irrigation for the rice
fields of the province. The structure has a huge pond area which can be used in the production of fresh
water foods. This can also become a recreational area for Marinduqueos and tourists. This alternative
was chosen by the proponents.















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2.0 TECHNICAL STUDY
2.1 PROJECT PURPOSE
The purpose is to make a proposal for the Provincial Government of Marinduque about the
rehabilitation of Upper Makulapnit Dam. The rehabilitation only includes the solution to the present
problems in this structure which should be immediately remediated.
2.2 SCOPE OF THE PROPOSED REHABILITATION OF THE UPPER MAKULAPNIT DAM
The rehabilitation only includes the immediate solutions to the identified problems on the
structure. The proposed solutions composed of two phases, these are:
Phase I
Clearing and Repairing of Upper Makulapnit Dam Access Road (UMDAR),
Removal of the debris blocking the spillway,
Removal of the vegetations on the dam,
Installing water level sensing device in the reservoir, and
Installing surveillance camera in the structures Diversion Tunnel
Phase II
Monitoring, Inspection and Maintenance Program
2.3 SOURCE OF INFORMATION
No information about the structure is on public, it is kept private by the MR Holdings. The only
information used in this proposal was gathered from the copy of report of the University of Arizonas
Engineers entitled Engineering, Health, and Environmental Issues Related to Mining in Marinduque,
Final Report of the Independent Assessment Team: Engineering Assessment (2003). Other information
was based on personal interview made to the residence of Makulapnit and on the inspection made by the
inspector.
2.4 DESCRIPTION OF DEFECTS
The defects were described based on the results of inspection made on June 2 and September 1,
2012. Stated below are the parts which need immediate repair and their description and approximate
quantity of the defects which is needed in the technical and financial analysis of the proposal.

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2.4.1 Upper Makulapnit Dam Access Road
The road is block with small trees brushes, and branches of trees growing in the sides of the road.
The route was approximately traced by following the descriptions of the Makulapit residence. Using the
software Google Earth, the length and the location of the road was approximately measured and located.
From the accessible road, near the Tapian Pit, 132448.59 North 1215829.20 East, the route will go
towards the Lower Makulapnit Dam, will pass across it then will go up to the berm of the spillway wall
until the left side of the Upper Makulapnit Dam reached at 132426.14 North 1215842.32 East. The
length was approximately 1460 meters. The width of the road was actually measured on the site which is
5 meters.
2.4.2 Spillway
The spillway is approximately 400 meters and 14 meters wide. The debris blocking the flow was
estimated to be covering approximately 50% of the spillway surface.
2.4.3 Embankment Dam
The exposed surface of the dam was estimated using the Upper Makulapnit Dam Plan (see
Figure 1 at Appendix A). The surface was approximately 60,100 square meters. It is assumed that 100%
of the dam surface is covered with vegetation.
2.5 DETAILS OF ACTIVITIES
2.5.1 Phase I
Repairing and clearing of the UMDAR
This activity will be performed first to have an easy access to the different components of the
structure. Clearing involves the removal of trees and brushes on the road and trimming the branches that
are blocking the way. Then, after that is the resurfacing of the roadway.
This activity is proposed to be done by the DPWH. They are the only government agency that has
the most experience in doing such activity. They have the most knowledge and experienced manpower
and have the necessary equipments and tools need.
A more detail of this activity should be made by DPWH such as the accurate survey of the site,
the necessary treatment to the road, etc.

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Removal of the Debris Blocking the Spillway and Vegetations on the Dam
Removal of debris in the spillway is important in the continuous flow of water to prevent the risk
of overtopping. This involves removing of the weeds and brushes growing in the spillway, eroded rocks,
logjams, and other debris blocking the spillway.
In the dam, there are two activities involve. The first is the removal of all vegetation such as
deep-rooted trees, brushes and other unlikely vegetations which are affecting the access and stability of
the dam. The second is planting vegetation such as Bermuda grass that will help in blocking the growth of
unwanted vegetation.
After the removal of vegetation, the cuttings should be hauled off the dam to allow for a clear
view of the embankment. Its disposal should be properly planned to eliminate any risk it may cause.
The most crucial part of this activity is the removal of deep-rooted tress. Its removal might uplift
the surface that will cause the weakening the slope also, it will cause hole on the surface. This part should
be planned well to eliminate any risk that will affect the dam.
This activity is proposed to be performed by an experienced contractor. In Marinduque, there are
no contractors who have experience and specialty in doing this activity, so it will came from other place.
The contractor must have experience and specialty in the said activity and must have the appropriate tools
and equipments.
A more detailed plan should be made by the chosen contractor.
Installing water level sensing device and Surveillance Camera
It is proposed to put monitoring devices on the critical parts of the structure as was identified
during the visits. These devices are the water level sensing device to monitor the water level in the
reservoir and a surveillance camera to monitor the leakage in the diversion tunnel. The proposed two sites
are most critical part which needs to be monitored at any time by the downstream people.
The proposed water level sensing device will serve as eye of the downstream people to warn them
in case the water level is in critical during heavy rains. The sensing device will automatically report or
warn the concerned people when the critical level has reached by transmitting it to computers or
cellphones.
The proposed surveillance camera will be the eye of the concerned inspector in the UMD
Diversion Tunnel to monitor the leak. An increase in the quantity or changes in the turbidity of the leak
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might indicate a problem in its plug. So this should be monitored more often by the inspector. This
proposed device is wireless and remotely controlled so that it can be monitored at any time and place.
The proposed devices will be powered by solar energy and battery at night which is charged by
solar energy during days.
Details such as the critical water level, the type of devices should be determined and planned.
2.5.2 Phase II (Monitoring, Inspection and Maintenance Program)
Monitoring Program
Since Upper Makulapnit Dam is located in a very remote place, it is difficult to visit, especially
when there is storm. Some critical things such as the water level of the reservoir that needs to be regularly
monitored were difficult to do. Using the proposed devices, monitoring the critical part would be easy.
These parts should be monitored as often as possible to immediately inform the concerned individual.
Inspection Program
The proposed inspection plan should be regularly done three times a year and every after a storm,
heavy and long duration rains and seismic events. The reports of the proposed inspection will be regularly
send to the concerned groups such as the DENR, Provincial Government and the Municipality of Boac, to
have a regular update to the structure.
The inspection will be made by expert from the Mines and Geosciences Bureau. They should use
the standard way of inspecting a rock-field dam.
Maintenance Program
The proposed maintenance program involves the maintaining the Upper Makulapnit Dam Access
Road passable, removal of the unwanted vegetation on the dam, repairing for the seen defects during
inspection such as spillway blockage, erosion, etc. and the monitoring devices.
The maintenance of the roadway will be made three times a year to assure the structure will
always be accessible especially during emergencies. This is proposed to be managed by the DPWH
Marinduque District.
The vegetation control will also be done regularly to the dam three times a year to assure an easy
access for the inspector and the stability of the dam. Repairs on seen defects on the dam should be done
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immediately after discovered. The maintenance done to the monitoring equipments is indicated to its
manual and should be followed. This is proposed to be managed by the DENR.





















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3.0 FINANCIAL ASPECT
3.1 COST
3.1.1 Phase I
Clearing and Repairing of Upper Makulapnit Dam Access Road (UMDAR),
The estimation of clearing and repairing of UMDAR was based on the following information:
Approximate length: 1460 m
Approximate width: 5 m
Description: Block with small trees brushes, and branches of trees growing in the sides of the road.
There are portion needs to be resurfaced.
The standards used by the DPWH - District of Marinduque in road maintenance were used in the
estimation.
Table 1 - Removal of Vegetation
QUANTITY
DURATION
(days)
UNIT
PRICE
(Php.)
AMOUNT
(Php.)
1 12 506.16 6073.92
20 12 283.36 68006.4
6800.64
Rent of Service Vehicle
(transportation of workers)
1 12 505.87 6070.44
Diesel 10 L 12 54 6480
Rent of Loader (disposal of cut
vegetation)
1 5 833 4165
Operator 1 5 366.48 1832.4
Diesel 15 L 5 54 4050
16178.88
119657.68 TOTAL
DESCRIPTION
Other Cost 10% of Total Cost
10 % of Labor Cost Tools
Laborers
Foreman





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Table 2 - Resurfacing of Roadway
QUANTITY
DURATION
(days)
UNIT
PRICE
(Php.)
AMOUNT
(Php.)
1 5 506.16 2530.80
1 5 366.48 1832.40
3 5 283.36 4250.40
Rent of Road Grader 1 5 833 4165.00
Diesel 80L 5 54 216.00
1116.22
12278.42 TOTAL
DESCRIPTION
10% of Total Cost
Foreman
Laborer
Other Cost
Heavy Equipment Operator

The estimated cost of repairing the UMDAR is Php. 131,936.10.
Removal of the Debris Blocking the UMD Spillway and Removal of Vegetations on the UMD
The estimation was based on the following information:
Approximate area of the spillway: (14m x 400m) = 5600 m
2

Description of the debris: Blocked with debris such as brushes, weeds, logs, and eroded rocks and it
is assumed that 50% of the spillway is covered with it.
Approximate exposed surface area of the UMD: 60100 m
2

Description of the Vegetation: Vegetated with deep-rooted tress and brushes, and it is assumed that
100% of the dam surface is covered with it.
There is no information found about the estimation of this activity, so to have a close to reality
estimation, the estimates used in the removal of vegetation on a roadway was used as a basis of this
estimation. Because the activity involved in the dam is more complex than in the road, since it requires
more equipment and more details in work, an additional of 20% of the cost in the roadway repair will be
added in the dam works and 10% will be added in the spillway works.
The estimated cost in repairing the UMDAR is Php 16.4/m
2
.
Estimated cost in vegetation removal of UMD
= (60100m
2
x Php 16.4/m
2
x 1.2) = Php 1,182,768.00
Estimated cost in debris removal of UMD Spillway
= (5600 x .5 x 16.4/m
2
x 1.1) = Php 50,512.00
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Installing Water Level Sensing Device in the Reservoir, and Surveillance Camera in the UMD
Diversion Tunnel
The costs of the devices were based on the prices seen in various site found in the internet and on
the cost assumption made by the proponents.
The overall cost of the devices including its installation, accessories and other works such as
programming, and the determination of critical level were estimated to be Php 100,000.00

The total estimated cost for the proposed Phase I of the Project is Php 1,465,216.10

3.1.2 Phase II (Monitoring, Inspection and Maintenance Program) Cost
The cost in the monitoring and inspection is not included in here since it is proposed to be
monitored by the government.
Annual Maintenance Cost
After the Phase I of the project has completed, it is important to maintain it. The scope of the
proposed maintenance includes the maintenance of UMDAR, vegetation control of UMD, Removal of
debris in the UMD Spillway, maintenance on the monitoring devices and the emergency repair. The
estimation was based on the proponents knowledge, since there are no estimation guidelines available or
found in the internet for this type of structure. The estimation was done only to have a initial knowledge
about the possible cost, and should not be actually used.
The determination of cost was based on cost estimate for the Phase I of the project. The proposed
maintenance work is not as complex as the works in the Phase I, so a huge deduction was made.

UMDAR Maintenance: Php. 131,936.10. x 30% = Php 39580.83
UMD Maintenance: Php 1,182,768.00 x 30% = Php 354830.40
UMD Spillway: Php 50,512.00 x 10% = Php 5,051.20
Emergency Repair per year: Php 1,182768.00 x 10% = Php 118,276.80
Monitoring Devices Maintenance: 25% of the total price = Php 25, 000.00

The annual maintenance cost is Php 1,391664.09



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4.0 ECONOMIC ASPECT
Since the Marcopper Mining Company seized their operation, UMD has not been properly
maintained. This causes fear and threat to the lives and livelihood of people living in the downstream
areas. This structure is holding back 34 million cubic meters of water that if happen to fail will bring
severe flash floods on the affected areas.
According to Magalang, (2011), the collapse of this structure will be a major catastrophe, with a
very large magnitude of devastating effects in crops and lives of almost 50% of the population of Boac.
Boac is an agricultural land with 16,208 hectares of its 21,272-hectare land area devoted to agriculture.
Any disaster it could cause will greatly affect its economy as a whole.
Upper Makulapnit Dam has potential uses, that when utilized, might contribute to the
development of Marinduque. Of all the Marcopper dams, only this dam does not retain mine wastes. It
was built to impound storm water originating from Makulapnit River. According to Querijro (2011), it
carries 34 million cubic meters of water or more. It has an elevation of 275 meters above sea level and a
catchment area of approximately 11 square kilometres. Klohn-Crippen (2001) With these descriptions,
this dam has a potential to supply domestic water to the province. It can generate large amount of
hydroelectric power since it is located in a high altitude. It is also a good source of irrigation for the rice
fields of the province. The structure has a huge pond area which can be used in the production of fresh
water foods. This can also become a recreational area for Marinduqueos and tourists. Building this kind
of structure may cost billions of pesos, so it is a big waste if this dam will be decommissioned or
destroyed and end up with nothing.
The loss of this structure will greatly affect the unlikely resumption of the Marcopper mining
operation. It was discovered that the mining site has still an 18-year mine life. UMD is their only source
of water which is used in their industrial operation.
This structure is also one of the sources of foods of the near-by Barangay such as Makulapnit,
Hinapulan, Kilo-Kilo. The UMD Reservoir is rich with fresh water foods such as Tilapia, Hito, and
Tulya. This structure is a big lost for them.



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5.0 SOCIAL IMPACT ANALYSIS
The proposed maintenance and monitoring of Upper Makulapnit Dam is essential and will greatly
affect the society. Without this project, there is a great chance that the Upper Makulapnit Dam will
collapse due to rapid deterioration. When this eventually happen, much of the surrounding villages will be
inundated by flash floods.
With the proper maintenance of the dam, the water will flow freely reducing the pressure develop
in the dam that increase its risk of failure and through monitoring, the residents, young or adult, will be
inform on its condition regularly resulting to ease their worries.
But the access to the dam is difficult and needs further improvement. On the process of cleaning
the structure and its access, trimming, cutting and uprooting bushes, weeds and trees will be conducted. In
doing these preliminary activities in the maintenance of the structure, several equipments will be use
which may bring noise pollution. But since the location of the structure is far from the neighbouring
houses, the residents will not be affected by the use of these equipments.
But Upper Makulapnit Dam is owned by Marcopper Mining Company who abandoned it after
their operation and denying their responsibilities on the structures left at the site without considering its
dangerous effect not only to the residents but also to environment. If the ownership of this structure was
transferred to the local government, everyone will be benefited.
Marcopper Mining Companys responsibility with the structure will gone. The government can
utilize and use the potential of the dam as a source of hydroelectric power and water supply. The
proponents will be able to maintain and monitor the structure and inform the residents with its condition
regularly.








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6.0 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS
Maintaining and monitoring of the Makulapnit Dam in Sta. Cruz is not hazardous to the
environment and the community near the project site in such a way that it sustained the impacts examined
by the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) which are the biological, socio-economic, human health,
geophysical impacts, and the risks it may take.
The maintenance and monitoring of the Makulapnit Dam will not emit any pollution because
removal of deep rooted vegetation and organic debris from the spillway, installing of monitoring devices
and regular inspection are the only to be done.
Removing of deep rooted vegetation with the use of power saw can emit a minimal amount of
smoke and chemical reaction to air. But the other trees can resist it all to prevent air pollution. Marine,
terrestrial animals and even the endangered species near the project site will not be affected by the
proposed activities in a way that no chemical will penetrate and flow with the water. The trees that will be
removed are only those trees located near the dam that affect the strength of the dam and approve by the
DENR.












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REFERENCES

Dioceses of Boac (2008 Febuary 28), Pahayag ng Pagkabahala at Panawagan Para sa mga Kongkretong
Aksiyon Hinggil sa mga Panganib na Maaaring Idulot ng mga Malalaking Dams ng Marcopper
Mining Corporation sa Kabundukan ng Lalawigan ng Marinduque from (internet, failed to show)

Klohn-Crippen (2001). Engineering, Health, and Environmental Issues Related to Mining in Marinduque,
Final Report of the Independent Assessment Team: Engineering Assessment. The only copy
available on public is at MACEC, Boac, Marinduque.
Magalang, M., (2011 November 21), Leak at Marcopper Mine Site again Raises Fears. Retrieved May 8,
2012, from http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/97513/leak-at-marcopper-mine-site-again-raises-fears
Padolina, M. R., & Ordillano, S. D., (2003). Physical Condition of Marcopper Dams
Querijro D., (2011 November 21), Leak at Marcopper Mine Site again Raises Fears Retrieved May 8,
2012, from http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/97513/leak-at-marcopper-mine-site-again-raises-fears