You are on page 1of 203

.

A.

. . 2007
. ., ., 2009
., 2012

.............................................................................................................................. iv
........................................................................................................v
........................................................................................................... vi
............................................................................... viii
..................................................................................................................................................1
.............................................................3
1 ..................................................................................................................................................8
: ............................................................................................................................8
2 ................................................................................................................................................14
: ..............................................................................................................................14
3 ................................................................................................................................................19
: , ...........................................................................................19
4 ................................................................................................................................................25
: . .........................................................................................................25
5 ................................................................................................................................................33
. ( ) .............33
6 ................................................................................................................................................40
......................................................................................40
7 ................................................................................................................................................46
............................................................................................................................................46
8 ................................................................................................................................................51
............................................................................................51
9 ................................................................................................................................................57
: .........................................................................57
10 ..............................................................................................................................................62
: . ....................62
11 ..............................................................................................................................................67
...................................................................................................................67
12 ..............................................................................................................................................75
. . h .........75
13 ..............................................................................................................................................80
: ...........................................................................................................80
14 ..............................................................................................................................................86
.................................................................................86
15 ..............................................................................................................................................91

ii

.
tae...........................91

16 ..............................................................................................................................................97
: ................................................................................97
17 ............................................................................................................................................104
........................................................................................................................................104
18 ............................................................................................................................................109
.......................................................................................................................................109
19 ............................................................................................................................................115
...................................................................115
20 ............................................................................................................................................121
- -. .................................................121
21 ............................................................................................................................................127
.....................................................................................................................127
22 ............................................................................................................................................132
................................................................................................................132
23 ............................................................................................................................................136
.............................................................................................................................136
24 ............................................................................................................................................140
/qatal ....................................................................................140
25 ............................................................................................................................................144
/yiqtol ....................144
26 ............................................................................................................................................149
: 1- ................................................................................................149
27 ............................................................................................................................................156
: 2- ................................................................................................156
28 ............................................................................................................................................161
3- . ...............................................161
1 ......................................................................................................................................168
: ....................................................................................168
2 ......................................................................................................................................172
: ...........................................................................172
3 ......................................................................................................................................179
, , ..........179
4 ......................................................................................................................................182
....................................................................................................182
5 ......................................................................................................................................184
............................................................................................................184

iii

................................................................................................................................................186
.........................................................................................................................................................186
........................................................................................................................................................186
.........................................................................................................................................................187
........................................................................................................................................................187
........................................................................................................................................................187
.........................................................................................................................................................187
........................................................................................................................................................188
........................................................................................................................................................188
..........................................................................................................................................................188
.........................................................................................................................................................188
........................................................................................................................................................189
........................................................................................................................................................189
.........................................................................................................................................................189
.........................................................................................................................................................190
.........................................................................................................................................................190
.........................................................................................................................................................190
.........................................................................................................................................................190
.........................................................................................................................................................191
........................................................................................................................................................191
........................................................................................................................................................191
........................................................................................................................................................192

iv

- (19721978)
. 1981 .
,
. ,
,
,
(ESV) (The NET Bible).
-
(ThD) (-).
- (John Solomon Award)
. 1974 1986 .
. 1986 . - ,
,
.
,
. , ,
. , ,
-,
.
, , .
,
.
-
, ,

. , (
) .
:
(. 12:12). ,
(. 12:12).
, , (. 6:9).



,
.
,
.

. ,
, .
,
. ,
,
.

.
, , .
:
.
, .
, .
, , ,
. -,
.
,
: , , , , , ,
, . .

.
, .
, .
(. )
( ).
, ,
.
,
. ,
.
. ,
,
, ,
.
,

.
,
. , Th.D.
. , Th.D.

vi


, 70% ,
( ,
).
(. 1822), ,
. , ,
, ,
.
1. 20-
(1866), . . 1874 .
. .
,

2. ,
, .
, . (.
1908), , .
.
,
.
1996 ., ,
( ),
(1939).
,
. (. . 1998)
1971 . , .
,
.
, , ,
,
,
, ,
.
, , .
,
. ,
3, 4,
. 4070-
.

() 5.
, , .
1

. . . . .: , 1998. . 452.
28- . (1909 .),
. .
3
Bruce K. Waltke M. OConnor. An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns,
1990. . 31.
4
. . 38.
5
. . 354.
2

vii

, 90- . XX .
( ) qatal yiqtol, weqatal,
weyiqtol wayyiqtol. ,
, :
.
.
, .
,
, , , ,
. , , .
2.
, , 4.
78.
, ( 11).
16.
( 17).
19.
21
22. , ,
, .
, .
- , -
. ,
.
, .
,
.
,
, ThM.

viii

1
2
3
BDB
BHS
Chisholm
GKC
HALOT

HBI
Holladay
IBHS
J-M
LXX
MT
NIDOTTE
Q
SP
Syr
TDOT

Tg
TLOT
TWOT
V
Williams
.
.
.

.
..

( )

1- ( )
2- ( )
3- ( )
Francis Brown, S. R. Driver, and Charles A. Briggs, eds., A Hebrew and English Lexicon of
the Old Testament, corrected ed. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1952)
K. Elliger and W. Rudolph, eds., Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (Stuttgart: Deutsche
Bibelstiftung, 1967-77).
Robert B. Chisholm, Jr., From Exegesis to Exposition: A Practical Guide to Using Biblical
Hebrew (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Books, 1998)
E. Kautzsch, ed., Gesenius Hebrew Grammar, 2nd English ed., trans. and ed. by A. E.
Cowley (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966 reprint of 1946 ed.)
Ludwig Koehler and Walter Baumgartner, eds., The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the
Old Testament, 5 vols., rev. by Walter Baumgartner and Johann Jakob Stamm, trans. and
ed. by M. E. J. Richardson (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1994- )
Frederic Clarke Putnam, Hebrew Bible Insert (Quakertown, Pa.: Stylus Publishing, 1996)
William L. Holladay, A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament
(Grand Rapids, Mich.: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1971)
Bruce K. Waltke and M. OConnor, An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax (Winona
Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1990)
Paul Joon, A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, trans. and rev. by T. Muraoka, Subsidia
Biblica 14/I-II (Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1996)


Willem A. VanGemeren, ed., New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology &
Exegesis, 5 vols. (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan Publishing House, 1997)



G. Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren, and Heinz-Josef Fabry, eds., Theological
Dictionary of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans Publishing
Co., 1974- )
(-)
Ernst Jenni and Claus Westermann, eds., Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament, 3 vols.,
trans. by Mark E. Biddle (Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Publishers, 1997)
R. Laird Harris, Gleason L.. Archer, Jr., and Bruce K. Waltke, eds., Theological Wordbook
of the Old Testament, 2 vols. (Chicago, Ill.: Moody Press, 1980)

Ronald J. Williams, Hebrew Syntax: An Outline, 2nd ed. (Toronto: University of Toronto
Press, 1976, reprinted 1992)
; . .

.
.
.
..

.
.
..
.
.
.


(: .)
( : )

( yiqtol)
: . . = , . . =

(: .)
.

..

; =
.
( : )
.

.
(. . = )
.

.
( qatal)
.
(-. = -)
.

.
.

.
(-. = -)
.
,
..
; , .
..
.
(-. = -)
.
(
); . .
.

.
,
.
( )
.

ix


,
, .
,
. , 6,
,
.
.
. ,
,
.
.
, .
6, , .

:
 , ,
.
 (. . ,
, ).
?

, .
, .
( , )
,
.
,
.
, ( )
.
-.
.


: . ,
, . :
31:47, (10:11), (2:4
7:28) (4:86:18; 7:12-26).

. ,
,
.
,
. . ,
, ,
.
.
.
, . ,
, .
:
. , ,
,
. ,
,
, 102.

:

, , -
, .
, ,
, ,
103.
, ,
. ,
, ,
, , , ,
,
104.

102

Stephen J. Andrews. Some Knowledge of Hebrew Possible to All: Old Testament Exposition and the Hebraica
Veritas // Faith & Mission. 13/1. 1995. . 98. , ,
. ,
: Walter C. Kaiser, Jr. The Future Role of the Bible in Seminary Education //
Concordia Theological Quarterly. 60/4. 1996. . 245258 (. . 252254).
103
. / . . //
. .: , 1997. . 169.
104
. . 168169.


0.1

. ,
70 105.
, , .
- .
,
- :

0.2

()
106.
(= w) (= y),
.
(= n)
.
,
107: u108 , i
a .
,
.
,
,
,
.
at
t , .

. -
.
:
0.2.1

105

.
- ,
(c. 8 13 .).
I . . .
, .

Angel Senz-Badillos. A History of the Hebrew Language / . . John Elwolde. Cambridge, England:
University Press, 1996. . 3.
106
- .
() .
Gotthelf Bergstrsser. Introduction to the Semitic Languages / .
. Peter T. Daniels. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1983. . 6.
107
,
. C. Bergstrsser. Introduction to the Semitic Languages. . 17, 60; Senz-Badillos. A
History of the Hebrew Language. . 23.
108
, ,
. , u,
u, .

.

.
.
.
1948 .
.
:
a. , , ;
b. , ;
c. .

0.2.2


.
.
X . . .

. 2300 . . . (c. . 10:10).

0.2.3

X
. . .
70 . . .
, .
( )
.
( ) VI .
. .
. VII . . .

0.2.4


IV . . .

XIII . . .
.
.

0.2.5

,
VIII . . .
, .

0.3

109

- ?110


()


(-,
,
)
0.4


(-,
)



.
:
a. Juddisch, JuddischDeutsch.
b. , , ,
(
). 23:1 (
,
, ):
(
  )

Jehowah ist mein Pastuch (Hirte),
Mir weit gar nicht fllen.

109

: Mansoor. Biblical Hebrew. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1978. . 7.


( )
, ,
. ,
. . I. M. Diakonoff. The Importance of Ebla for History and Linguistics //
Eblaitica: Essays on the Ebla Archives and Eblaite Language / . Cyrus H. Gordon Gary A. Rendsburg. Winona
Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1990. . 2. . 329; . Cyrus H. Gordon. Eblaite and Northwest Semitic // . . 2. .
127139.
110

c.
(. X . . .), ,
.
,
, .
.
(q*m$x P&t&j);
(., berit []
bris).

0.5



a. (
,
). ,
.
.
VII X . . .
b. :
1. .,
.
2. (. ) .,
.
3.
.
4. ( ).
5. ,
(., ).
6. ,
( ,
, ).
7. .

111

111
a. ( ,
). ,
.
b. : .
 ( ,
, ).
,
. ,
III . . .,
(, ) III .
,
, . 63
, 6 ()112:
1. ()
2. ()
3. ()
4. ( )
5. ( , )
6. ( )
 ( , ,
). ,
IIIV .
,

: . .
:
1. (, )
,
.
. 1800 .
2. (, )
, ,
. ,
, .

, .
.
112
36 63 .

1
:

1.1

22 ( ).
,
(. 9, 25, 34, 37, 111, 112 119)113. .
. 14 31:10-31.
.
, , .

1.2

1.

117

114

A*l$p -

2.

B?t -

3.

G!m$l -

113


/
116
b=
b118 =
g=
g = 119

115
1
2
3

. G. R. Driver. Semitic Writing : From


Pictograph to Alphabet. The Schweich Lectures of the British Academy, 1944 / . S. A. Hopkins. London : Oxford
University Press, 1976. . 179185.
114
, , . :
, , , .

(sop't), .
115
.
, II . . .
.
116
A*l$p ( ),
. h ,
.
117
(dagesh lene).
, , , .
4.
118

. : b (= ), k (= ), p (= ), t (= th).
(g, d) ,
g d, ,
.

4.

D*l$t -

d=
d = 120

5.

H@a -

6.

w*w / v*v122 -

7.

Z&y!n -

h =
,
h121
w = w .

z=

8.

j?t -

j123 ch =

9.

f?t -

f t =

10.

yod -

y = 124

10

K&p -

k=
k ch =

20
( = 500)

l*m$d -

l=

30
40
( = 600)
50
( = 700)
60

125

11.

12.

13.

m@m -

m=

14.

nWn -

n=

15.

s*m$k - 

s=

16.

U>y!n

17.

P@a - ( or )

U /

126
p=
p f =

18.

x*d?

119

x ts =

6
7

70

80
( = 800)
90
( = 900)

, , [],
.
120
, , th this,
.
121
( h oh Leah ).
122
, -, w.
- , w (c. Volkswagen =
fks-v-g$n).
123
h (j).
, .
124
(c. y day keynote).
125
: ,
.
126
U>y!n ( ),
. a*l$p U>y!n .
U>y!n , , . U>y!n
G!m$l, ghayin.
LXX, : (Gomorra =
) (Gaza = ) .

10

19.

qop -

q=

100

20.

r?v -

r=

200

21.

127

c'n -
v'n

c s =
v sh =

300

22.

T*w T*v

t=
t th =
th . (anthem)

400

,
:

127

A*l$p

B?t

b B

G!m$l

g G

D*l$t

d D

H@a

w*w

Z&y!n

j?t

f?t

yod

K&p

k K

l*m$d

m@m

nWn

s*m$k

u>y!n

P@a

p P

x*d?

qop

, ,
. , .
, .
(An Introduction to the Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages / . Sabatino Moscati. Wiesbaden: Otto
Harrassowitz, 1969. . 3337) ,
. .
, , . . 675-
195 , .
22 ( 23) , ,
- .

11

r?v

c'n
v'n

c
v

T*w

t T

1.3

,
. . 5:18 :
, . ( yod),
. kerai,a (.
) , ,
.
:


: , ?
?

1.4

, ,
. ,
. ( ) ,
. ,
. ?

12

13

:
5


























20

19

10

13

17

13

16

12

15

18

11

14

18

11

14

17

    
  
22

21b

21a

14

:
2.1

() 500 . . .,
, 128.
1000 . . .
( ).
5 ( , ). :

, ,
,
.


XX . . :
,
129.
800 130.
:


,
.

,
,
.

128

!yhOla oO arb ty`OarobO



!yhla arb ty`arOob
6 7
9 :

: , . ,
: ( m&ss)r$t) 5 ( m*s)r$t). C. Gesenius Hebrew Grammar / .
. E. Kautzsch. 2- . . / . A. E. Cowley. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press, 1946; ., 1966. .
18. . 1. GKC ( ,
: Gesenius, Kautzsch Cowley).
129
Karen H. Jobes Moiss Silva. Invitation to the Septuagint. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2000. . 147.
130
. . 177.

15

X . . .,
.

2.2


. .
- matres lectionis (. ; . . mater lectionis,
; . ) , ,
. , ,
-:
.
, ( ),
matres lectionis:
i e.
o u.
a .

2.3

.
, ,
matres lectionis,
.
mater lectionis, .
. ,
,
: mater lectionis mater lectionis.

131

&

P&t&j131

s+g)l


mater lectionis
C mater lectionis

'

*

q*m$x

@

xr

h'
ye

>

q*m$x H@a
?

x@r? yod

P&t&j : .
P&t&j , q*m$x, .
. P&t&j
. pat, tan . .

'


j'r$q
(

q*m$x
j*fWp133
%

q!BBWx

'132


j'r$q

)

134
j)l$m

W135

q!BBWx

16

yi

'


j'r$q yod

j)l$m w*w

vWr$q


, :

;
'
,
e
i
u
W
{ A
'
132

P&t&j

q*m$x

s+g)l

x@r?

j'r$q

136

q!BBWx

vWr$q

j)l$m

q*m$x j*fWp

i ( ),
( ). , ,
, '. . GKC. . 41 (8b) 47 (9g).
133
q*m$x j*fop, u
( = j(q = j%q), o ( = j(km> = j)km>, ? = K(l = K)l).
, . .
5.
134
, , ,
: 5 5 , .
135
u ( ),
( ). , ,
, W. . GKC. . 48 (9n).
136
i: i ( . sheep)
i ( . pin). , -, XII . . .,
. . Paul Joon. A Grammar of
Biblical Hebrew / . . . T. Muraoka. Subsidia Biblica 14/III. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1996. .
1. . 37. J-M.

17

,
:
 ( ) ( ) .
 () (., ).

, .
., , .
137 , .
,
, (matres
lectionis): , , ,

138

2.4

, III . . .III . . . , ,
, .
(matres lectionis).

:

@ =

i e

o u

2.5


139

A

A

: (
), ,
137

. 8.
; . (
) .
139
: William Chomsky. Hebrew: The Eternal Language. ., Philadelphia: Jewish Publication
Society of America, 1986. . 108.
138

.
, (
, ).

2.6

. .
(.).
.
.

ba;
!d:a;
hm;da: }
yn:dao }
ja;
dj;a,
tj'a'
rj'a'
vyai
lk'a;
!yhili a >
rm'a;
$r<a,

A`b
A`d`m
a ^d`m>
a ^d)n`y
A`j
A$j`d
a &j&t
A&j&r
A'v
A`k&l
A=l)h'm
A`m&r
A$r$x

hV;ai

A!vv>

@yBe
rb;D:
hy:h;
&l'h;
bv'y:
rb'[;
dm'[;

B?n
D`b`r
H`y>
H`l&k
y`v&b
U`b&r
U`m&d

,
(.) ,
, ,

(.)
(.)
, ,
, (. = !yvina
: )}

,

(.) ,
(.) , (. =
!yvin):

, ,
()
,
, ,
,


( )
!

!

!
- ( )

(
)
,
(. . 2:23)

18

19

: .
3.1

, .
[ j h a. , r ,
. ,
.
: .
[ a. [ , ,
( ,
g, ., hr:mo[,} ). r,
, .
j h.
:
(1)

(2)
(3)

( dagesh
forte, 140, . ., b/Fh' [h&Fob =
]);
a ( , );
.

:
r , ,
(., (fR heqfNy-)ol . 11:21).
,
, (heqfNy),
((fR) .
(c. : &L;= hL,aE
. 33:5). .

3.2

y w h a. , ,
. .

3.3

140

. , 3.5.

20

( VI X . . .),

:

ei
ou

h
y
w

;
e

i
W

:
(), . . 2.2.

3.4

()

, . p

3.5

m b141.

142

( vgd 143) ,
. :
3.5.1

141

(. dagesh lene; . @f;q; vgED: lq'

vgED):

3.5.1.1

:
t p k d g b (, : B=g&dK=p&t, tp'Kd
] g] B' )] .

3.5.1.2


,
. ,
(. , , ).
, (.
1). ,
.
.
b (/), k (/) p (/).

b
g
d
k ^144

B
G
D
K+

.
D`g@v; ,
: .
143
GKC. . 55 (12.1b).
142

21

p#
t
3.5.1.3

P
T

,
(t p k d g b) ( ),
.
, (t p k d g b)
.

:
B=g&d-K=p&t ,
145:

 ;nq
i (. 3:8)146
c. lkea;Te ytia
B] K]
c. ytia
 ;nq
i vaEB ] yKi (. 3:8)
,

c. !yhila
> ynEB] Waboy: (. 6:4)
3.5.2

(. dagesh forte; . l/dG: vgED,: qz:j;


3.5.2.1

, , .
.

3.5.2.2

,
( , . 3.1).
, r .

3.5.2.3

.
:

144

vgED):

. ,
@mi (, ) ,
, &l,m, (), n, ,

(&l,m,nm
)i . n
. : &l,Mm
, i147.

: &, *, ( _.
, : +;, +', +, +e.
145
. GKC, 21.
146
. , 3.8.
147
. .,
in- . , l r, n ,
: illegal, irreverent.

22

(
).
: rB,DI ( ).

3.6

148 (hp,
hp,r,: )

.
149.
3.6.1

tp'K]dg] B
' ] ,
. ,
. 150.
: ht;v;

3.6.2

- ,
,
.
, WvQ]Bi
; (Wvq]B
)i ,
, 151.

3.6.3

( , ) ,
, . , yhiYw] "
yhiyw] ."

3.7
(1)

.tazo hc,[ho ; vyaih; tw<mA; @b, yKi hw:hy]Ayj'


(2)

yKi?

(3)

B=g&d-K=p&t
.

3.8

3:8

22 , 5 ,
3:8

148

r`p$h;
.
149
GKC, 14.2e.
150
. . Elias Levita. The Massoreth ha-Massoreth of Elias Levita, Being an Exposition of the Massoretic
Notes on the Hebrew Bible Or the Accent Critical Apparatus of the Old Testament / . . Christian D. Ginsburg //
The Library of Biblical Studies / . Harry M. Orlinsky. New York: Ktav Publishing House, Inc., 1968. . 198.
151
Wvq]B i q,
.

23

? ?








B ?
,
. ,
,
.
(= ). :
4

14

? ?


3.9
.


( )
- ( )

tyIB'
@Be
tB'
l/dG:
ld"G:

B&y!t

152

B@n
B&t
G*dol
G*d&l

y/G
&r,D<
rh'
yj'
b/f
[d"y:

Goy
D$r$k
H&r
j&y
fob

, ,
(.)
,
/ ,
153

,
,

y*d&u

154

bf'y:
dl'y:
ax;y:

y*f&b
y*l&d
y*x*a

152

= ?

tyBe, (, ?), 77% 2100


.
153
(), .

: .
154
Qal (= ) qatal
(: ) (3..).
( ). ,
. .
, qatal
.

dy:
!/y
jq'l;
tWm
tw<m;
@t'n:

155

y*d
yom
l*q&j
mWt
m*w$t
n*t&n

(. )

,
155 ( )

24


=
!

Qal (=
) , .
. .: !yci , , ; a/B , ; !Wr
, .

25

.
4.1
4.1.1

156

, ,
, ( )] ,
. 157.
, ^ (c. &l'h;),
T (c. T]rm
'v); .

4.1.2


, ( ),
.
. (=)158.

2.

rmov]
laeWmv]
!yrIm/] v

3.

Wrm]vy] I

4.

WlF]qi

1.

156

v=m)r
v=mW-a}l
vo-m=r'm
y!v-m=rW 159

q!f-f=lW


.

.


: ,
.

() ,

.
, ,
Wlf]fq
] ,i

aw:v] v+w*a;
.
157
.
158
(SBL),
, , - (The SBL Handbook of Style:
For Ancient Near Eastern, Biblical, and Early Christian Studies. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1999. . 26).
e (),
(IPA) (c. John F. A. Sawyer. A Modern Introduction to Biblical
Hebrew. Stocksfield, Northumberland, U.K.: Oriel Press, 1976. . 13). IPA schwa,
. a
, about, above sofa (Edward Finegan Niko Besnier. Language: Its Structure and Use. San
Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers, 1989. . 48).
159
, .

4.1.3

5.

WrB]DI

D!B-B=rW

6.

Wll]h'

H&-l=lW

26


(3).

4,

()
().
, ,
WrB]BD] .I


, .


, (
), ().

1.

2.
3.

rmovy] I
hb;Kr; m ,
hn:kl] e
hB;gn<
&l,m,

y!v-m)r
m$r-K`-b>
l}k-n>
n$g-B>
m$-l$k

4.

T]rm 'v;

v`-m&rT

5.

Wrm]vy] I

y!v-m=rW

,
, .

160.
,
, .
^
, ^
.

.


:
,
.


XVI . ( ) (1469
1549). ,
161:
. ( ),
.
.
, .

160

. 6 2
. , :
B=g&d-K=p&t, , , (. hb;Kr; m), .
B=g&d-K=p&t ,
. . . 31 (3.5.1.3).
161
Elias Levita. The Massoreth ha-Massoreth . 203.

27

=( ). ,
.
( ). ,
.

(= ).
, .


, ,
162. - (19501995),
, ,
163 , 164.
.
, .
, 2 4.1.3 (,
, , ),
4 ( ), .
: () , (
),
( ) . .
4.1.4

,
([ j h a)165,
.
, ,
: ( } = j`f}p-P&t&j), ( > = j`f}p-s=gol) (
j`f}p-q`m$x):

}
>
?

-
-
-

hm;da: }
!yhila >
hY:naI ?
4.2

a ~d`m>
a=l)h'm
a "n!yy>

(. pathach furtivum)

162

Werner Weinberg. Essays on Hebrew / . Paul Citrin. Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1993. . 275.
. . 280282.
164
. . 284286.
165
. 3.1. r, ,
.
163

?=

28

[ j ( h) ,
:

j'Wr = rW&j
['mov] = v=m)&U
166
H'bGo : = G`b)&h
. ,
.
, ,
.
,
. j'Wr
.
167

4.3


, .
a .
.
i , ,
. ,
.
., rmovy] I (y!vm)r), , *rmuvy] 168
"
169
(y&vm%r) *Wrmuvy] " (y&vm%rW) .

(
)

>

ie

ou

166

i
o

]
]
]

e
e

'&

$
(

h ,

!
%

}
)

h ;>
y i'
WW

170

y e?
/o

h (qyPim' = m&PP'q). , h
, mater lectionis. , j.
167
: Kyle M. Yates. The Essentials of Biblical Hebrew / . John Joseph Owens. New
York: Harper & Row Publishers, s. a. . 9.
.
168
(*) , , . .
.
169
. Bruce K. Waltke M. OConnor. An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. Winona Lake, IN:
Eisenbrauns, 1990. 31.1.1.
170
(>) mater lectionis (., hp;c; =
c`p>), . (^)
( matres lectionis).

29


. mater
lectionis ( ) (., -
,
r}v't).
.
, ,
( , ,
). *lf;q; (= q`f`l ) .

4.4
4.4.1

,

171.
, , ,
. (, )
.
, , , @ybeW (W-b?n ,
W). :

4.4.2

4.4.1.1

rm'v; v; (v`) ,
. rm' (m&r) ,
.

4.4.1.2

bk;/K /K (Ko) ,
(/ 172, ).
bk; (k`b) ,
.


(). ,
(
). ,
. ,
( ),
. , :
,
;
: .
.

171

C. Mario Pei. Glossary of Linguistic Terminology. New York/London: Columbia University Press, 1966. .

172

, , .: w", wI, wE, w: w.

268.

30


(
). ,
. , , ,
(, ). ,
173:
:
+ + ;
: + ;

: +
+
.
, ,
:

.
4.4.3

174
4.4.3.1

4.4.3.2

,
.
. ,
; ,
.
, bk;/K ,
, .
, ds,j, , ,
. ,
.

,
,

,
:
, ,
. ,
, -
(
). ,
.
.

: .

, -, .
174
,
, .
173

31

4.4.3.3

,
175.
!d<Qm
, i (m!q-q#-d#m) ;
. (
q). (
i y )i . ,
, ,
. .
. ,
.
,
, :
a) , , 176.
.:
( y*s@b) 5 ( w^Y`s#b)
b) ,
; -.
, ;
177.
- . , 5.3.
5 (q`m>) 5 ( w^Y`q"<)

4.5.
,
.

za;
la,
H'bGo :
rB,DI
178
hwhy

za;
, la,
H'bo\G:
rB,DI

175


( )

, hw\hy

, mater
lectionis, . ,
.
176
. . . . 41.
177
. . . 38.
178
, (. ., ).
,

.
,


: . y , - .


, ,
7
. , :

(., . 3:24).

!y:
l]

179

&l,m,
ac;n:
ry[i
l['
hl;[;
hc;[;
180
lf'q;
j'Wr
hp;c;
hmolov]
laeWmv]
[m'v;
rm'v;

32


!y:
, ,
;

.
-, (. 20:2)
&l,\m,

, ac;\n:
(.) (., !yrI[); ry[i
(!yrI\[;)
, , l['
hl;\[;
hc;\[;
lf'\q;
(.) , , j'Wr
(.) , , , ,
hp;\c;
\ \
lae\Wm\v]
, ,
[m'\v;
, ,
rm'\v;

, (). . Louis F. Hartman. God, Names of // Encyclopaedia


Judaica / . Cecil Roth. Jerusalem: Keter Publishing House Ltd., 1971. . 7. . 680; . R. Laird Harris. The
Pronunciation of the Tetragram // The Law and the Prophets: Old Testament Studies Prepared in Honor of Oswald
Thompson Allis / . John H. Skilton. Nutley, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co., 1974. . 215224.
179
() .
. l] : , ,
, , -, , , . . Holladay. . 6869.
180
, ,
( ) .

33

.
( )
5.1
5.1.1

181 ,

, .
,
, , .
, ,
.

5.1.2

5.1.3


5.1.2.1

(.
ultima = , ), ., rm'v.;
milrau (. [r'l]mi =
, . . ).

5.1.2.2

(. penultima =
), ., &l,m.,
miluel (. ly[elm
] i = , . .
).

5.1.2.3

, milrau
miluel; .
,
ultima, penultima.

5.1.2.4

,
, ( ) (hl,/[ = uol,
-).
, uol ,
penultima. ,
: &l,m.,
, , .


5.1.3.1

181

- !['f,' , .

34

, .
(
).
.

.

40:3 ,

. 1:3
. :

ar/E q l/q
hw:h y &r<D< WNP' rB;d M Bi '
:
.

5.1.3.2

NA 27:

. .:


:
.
, :
, , , (,
Bohlius 1636 .)182.
,
(. domini),
(. servi).
(a)

. ,
,
. ,
:

(qWLsi) ,
:


.$r<ah: ; taew !yIm'Vh; ' tae !yhilO a ar:B; tyviarEB]

.
,
. (.),
(qWsP; #/s = ).
182

GKC. . 59. . 1 (15f).

35

, ,
.
;
.

(jn:ta
] )' . ,
.

( ) :


.$r<ah: ; taew !yIm'Vh; ' tae !yhil=O a ar:B; tyviarEB]

(@/fq; #qez,: )
, .
.
, ( ):


ar/E q l/q
hw:h y &r<D< WNP' rB;d M Bi '

(b)

(jn"Wm). ,
,
. ( )
:


ar/E q l/q
hw:h y &r<D< WNP' rB;d M Bi '


5.1.3.3


,
3:24:

!ybir% UKh] A' ta, @d<[Ae @g"l] !d<Qm, i @KevY] w" " !d:a= h; A; ta, vr<gy: w "
183
.!yYIj h' ' $[e &r<DA< ta, rmovl] i tk,Ph, 'tM] hi ' br<jh, ' fh'l' taew
, ||||
| , ||
||||184

(
)

5.2

183

!d:a= h; ; !yYIj h' ' . . 5.4.


|||| ( ), ||
. (|) ( %),
().
184

36

,
, 185. ,
, . ,
, .
, , , ( )
. . (5.6).

5.3

186

5.3.1

; (), ( ).
,
.

5.3.2

: , ;,
, ( );
/ , .

5.3.3

sn:T;

T`-n(s

hm;kj] ;

j(k-m>

ynINjE ;

j(n-n@-n


, ,
.?

ylijB? ;

185


.
.

.

187.
n,
;
.
,
.

B(-ho-l

; B
.

? (


),

()

C. . 3536.
, ,
o, u.
187
;, ,
, , .
186

37

.
.
5.3.4

,
.
, {yanzf) ,
}zo). . : {fqfYw {Uqy; $epen-lfK $epen loK.

5.4
5.4.1

(gt,m,, )
, .

5.4.2

5.4.2.1

.
, ;. ,
, , . ,
.

hl;ka] ;

hl;ka] :

5.4.2.2

a(k-l>

a*-k=l>


.
, ;

, .


. , ;

,


. , - ,
, .

WaryI
WaryI

y!-r=aW

y!r-aW

5.4.2.3

(Milrau),
(Miluel),
188.
. ,
,
.

!d:ah; :

h`-a`-d`m

$r<ah; m; E

m}-h`-a`-r$x

ynIbA] hmol v]
/l [b"VY; wI "
!k,yte[bo uv:

v=l)-mo-b=n
w&y-y!v-v`-b&U lo
v`-b%-U)-t?-k$m

5.4.2.4

38

h;

(),

.
Miluel
;

()
.

.

.
,


, .

189. ,
. ,
.

5.5

(. .
), . , ,
( ).
. , ,
, , .

 lf:q
;

188
189

lf'q;
hl;yl '
yrIP]




hl;yl ;
yrIP<

ynIa}

ynIa:

C. . 38 (5.1.2).
C. . 3940.

.
,
.

.

39

hl;fq
] :
Wrm]v:




hl;fq
: ;
Wrm:=v;



(lf'q); ,
.

5.6

!G"
rk'z:
hm;kj] ;
br<j,
arEy:
@heKo
bk;/K
bb;le / ble
hl;yl '
rB;dm i
vp,n<

, !G"
rk'\z:
(.) hm;\k]j;
br<\j,
, arE\y:
@he\Ko
bk;\/K
bb;\le / ble
(.) hl;\yl'
rB;\dmi
(.) , ,
vp,\n<
db,\[,
(.) , ()
@yI\['
!['
![i
yrIP]
, l/q
, ,
ar:\q;
ha;\r:
, , @k'\v;
, ()
jl'\v;

db,[,
@yI['
!['
![i
yrIP]
l/q
ar:q;
ha;r:
@k'v;
jl'v;


( )


40



30:4

j'WrA#s'a; ymi { !yIm'vA; hl;[; ymi


 . -
.
 hl;[; #s'a; (. . 4243).
(A) . , ,
. , !yIm'v; hl;[ , hl;[
, .
 ymi ,
, . ymi
. . . 49 (6.3.1).

6.1
6.1.1

, .
,
.
. , : (1)
(., , , ); (2)
; (3) ,
; (4) (
, )190.
, (5) (.,
!d;a;h;, )191.
, , , (
) . ,
.
190
191

. . . 5253.
. . 53.

41


, .

.
, lh'*.
l .
192.
6.1.2

.
;
.
6.1.2.1

.
,
.

hl;yl '
!/y
l/q
tyIB'
6.1.2.2

192
193

hl;yL h' '


!/Yh'
l/Qh'
tyIB'h'

!d:ah; ;
ry[ih;
varoh;

(h j),
. ,
, ,
.

lk;yhe
lb,h,
&v,jo
6.1.2.4

(a [) r (
, ),
. , ,
193,
() .

!d:a;
ry[i
varo
6.1.2.3

lk;yheh'
lb,hh, '
&v,jho '

h; ( , -)
[;, .
j; ( ), .

. . 26 ( 3.5.2.3).
. . 23 (3.1).

!yrIh;
rp;[;
qz:j;
6.1.2.5

194

42

!yrIhh; ,
rp;[h; ,
qz:jh; ,

h; [;,
195.

b[;

b[;h;

,

196:

$r<a,
rh'
!['
@/ra}

6.2

$r<ah; ;
rh;h;
![;h;
@/ra;h;

197

h.
, . ,
, .
6.2.1

h -.

rm'v;
rm'v; al
6.2.2

194




rm'vh; }
rm'v; alh}

?
?

, h
. ,
( ) .

!T,rm 'v]
hT;a'
6.2.3




!T,rm 'vh] '


hT;ah' '

?
?

,
. h
.

h; .
: !yrIhh; , () . 22:2, @/mh;h, (, ) 1 4:4, rd:hB; , ( )
. 29:4 h;yt,/rh;h, (/ ) 2 15:16.
195
gh' ( ),
. h;, h,: gh;h.,
196
: , ,
.
197
, rh'
(c. 6.1.2.4).

43

db'a;
bz"[;
af;j;





db'ah; ,
bz"[h; ,
af;jh; ,

?
?
?

h ,
, , ,
. ,
,
, h .
,
.

6.3


.
6.3.1

ymi
. ( )
, . ymi
.

6.3.2

hm;.
.
. , hm;
. , hm;
: Ahm.
, 198, , Ahm hm
, .

hZ<Ahm'

6.3.2.1

-:

6.3.2.2

a, h , [ r:

hT;aA' hm;

6.3.2.3

(h j):

ayhiAhm'

6.3.2.4

200
:

t;yci[A; hm,

199

:

. , ,
.

198

. 6.1.2.
, h, (.
6.3.2.3): $r,ah; ; hm; (. 13:19) hy:hA; hm, (. 32:1).
200
(c. t;yair: hm;, . 20:10). .
h, j [ (c. z[' hm,, . 14:18).
, .
199

6.4

bh'a;
lh,ao
#s'a;
@/ra}

lk;yhe
af;j;
&v,jo
hm;
ymi
!yIm'
hk;n:
bz"[;
rp;[;
vd"q;
vd<qo
varo

? ?
?

,
,

bWv

, ,

!yci
!ve

, 201

hn:v;

(.)

201

44

? !
! !

-- ,

= !
()
-
-

-- ,

, .
, ,
. !yci , .
(., !c;, , ) .
, .

45

6.5
:

a, h, j, [
r ?

. h'

:
?

a r

h j

h;

[,
h;

[;

h;

j;

h j

h,

h'

46


7:6a

hw:hyl' hT;a' v/dq; !['


 10.
 , (![') .
:
.
 v/dq; ,
. v/dq; ![' :

7.1

, ,
, .
,
( , ) (
). : , , , , , .
,
.
( ),
. ,
. . :

l = , ,
B = ,
K = ,
7.1.1

7.1.1.1

. ,
, ,
, . .:

&r,D,, &r,d,B,]

47

. :

rq,blo ]
rh;nB: ]
vyaiK]
7.1.1.2

!d:al; ]

rp;[B; ]
f/lK]

,
. ,
(
).

lGErm" l] i
lGErm" B] i
lGErm" ]Ki

lGErm" l] ]
lGErm" B] ]
lGErm" ]K]

y (., ['v/u hyl)i ,


,
: ['v/u hyli.
7.1.1.3

,
. ,
-, .

t/c[}l'
!/da>B,
hy:naI ?K202
;

t/c[}l]
!/da>B]
hy:naI ?K]

: !yhila
> a
. ,
:

!yhila l> ,
7.1.1.4

!yhila le

h
.
, , ,
.

&l,Ml, '
br<[B, ;
!d:a;K;

&l,Mh, l' ]
br<[h, B; ]
!d:ah; ;K]

,
.
:

1)
202

l.

, .

. + l.

3) y> + l.

4) / + l.

5) h; + l.
6) ~yhil{a/ + l.
2)

7.1.1.5

.li
yli
/l, ( . .)
l;
~yhil{ale

203,
, .

.!yIml; ;
.tb,vl< ;

7.2
7.2.1

48

.!yIml" ]
.tb,vl< ]

@mi

. ,
. @mi ,
, . :

&l,M,h'A@mi
7.2.2

@mi
@mi ,
.
7.2.2.1

n (., &l,m,nm
i),
n ,
(. .
).

&l,Mm, i
@heKmo i
l/Qmi
7.2.2.2

204

&l,m,nm i
@heKonm i
l/qnmi
204

(a, h, j, [) r , n
, ,
.
.

!d:am; e
rh'me
203

!d:m; i
rH'mi

. . 4647 (5.5).
r ( , ).

49

j'Wrme
7.2.2.3

j'WRmi

, @mi
,
(B], K] l])205. , ,
.

bb;Lhe m' e
!d:ah; m; e
&v,jho m' e

bb;Lme '
!d:am; ;
&v,jmo '

, @mi
n:

$r<ah;= A; @mi daew


hb;The A' @mi ax;y:
troxje h} A' @mi

= /
=
=

(cp. . 2:6)
(cp. . 8:19)
(. 8:9)

!mi
2) + !mi
3) a + !mi
4) h; + !mi
1)

7.3
7.3.1

205

206 .
,
( , ).

(rj'a)'

209

mi
ame ( . .)
h'me
h;-!mi

207

yrEja} '
la,

lx,ae
(Ata,) tae

, ,
,

/mK]
ynEpl] i

208

lWm
@mi

,
,
,
,

. . 55 (7.1.1.4).
.
207
,
, . . yrEja} .'
208
K], .
209
tae ![i . , , tae
, ![i . . tae 15.
206

@yBe
yliB]
l['
![i
tj'T'

, ,

dg<n<
bybis;
d['
@['ml' ]
rb,[e

!/Yh' rj'a'

210

!yhila > lWm

hV;aI la,
!yIMh' ' lx,ae
211
vyaih; tae
!yI/Gh' @yBe
&l,m, yliB]
ja; /mK]
!yhila > ynEpl] i








(
)

!yIm'Vh; ' @mI


vyaih; dg<n<
$r<ah; ; bybis;
hl;yL h' ' d['
ry[ih; l['
&l,Mh, ' ![i
j'Bze M hi ' tj'T'

7.3.2

,
,
,

7.4


()




/

, .

210

!/y.
: , . . . = .
211
tae () ,
.

50

51



2 23:13

!Ilfi'vW; ry ynEP A] l[' { rv<a } t/mBh; A' ta,w


tyjivM] h' A' rh'l] @ymIy mi rva, }
!ynIdfi yo xi $QUvi tr<Tov][l' ] laer :cy] IA&l,m< hmol v] hn:B; rv<a }
ba;/ m $QUvi v~/mk]lwi
@/M[A' ynBE ] tb"[/} T !Klo m] li W]
.&l,Mh, ' aMef i
 , , 5.
 . , ,
. ? ?
,
.
 t/mBh
; ' :
.
 rv<a
} ,
. .
t/mB;h,' : , .
 !Ilfi'vW; ry , : . ,
, ,
. , -,
!levW; ry212.
!yIl'vW; ry. ,
(. 26:18; . 2:6; 1 . 3:5; 2 . 25:11; 32:9).
 @ymIy mi @ymiy: @mi (. . 5758, 2C, ,
). @ymiy: (.
) . ,
212

HALOT. . 2. . 437.

52

213. , ,
.
, : @ymiY:mi
(., 1 7:39).
 tyjivM
] h' A' rh'l] l, @mi:
() = . l
( ).
 laer
:cy] AI &l,m< hmol v] hn:B; rv<a } ,
(). ,
rv<a, : ,
, .
 , l, , ,
:
!ynIdfi yo xi $QUvi tr<Tov][l' ] = (), ;
ba;/ m $QUvi v~/mk]lwi = (), ;
@/M[A' ynBE ] tb"[/} T !Klo m] li W] = (), 214.
 &l,Mh
, ' aMef i . . ,
,
. ,
.

8.1.
, ,
.
,
, . .

, (, ,
.) ,
.
w,
. : , ,
, , , .215
(w").
, , .
7.

213

C. GKC 130a. . 3. , ,
11.
214
, ynEB] (. ), . . 29.
215
: , , , , , , , , .
. Holladay. . 8485. .

53

8.1.1. w (c. 7.1.1): w.


:

!/y
vyai
rh'
!d:ah; ;






!/yw
vyaiw
rh'w'
!d:ah; w;

.
, .
, ,
.
8.1.2. 216 (B, m P),
.

tyIB'
&l,m,
217
!ynIP;
!T,rm 'v]






tyIbW'
&l,mW,
!ynIpW;
!T,rm 'vW]

, W , B P,
, (c. 3.5.1).
8.1.3. y, w ywI.

!T,[]d'y

!T,[]d'ywI

8.1.4. ,
. , ,
.

hd:/b[}
tm,a>




hd:/b[}w"
tm,aw> <

: !yhila
> a
. ,
(c. . 55, 7.1.1.3):

!yhila w> <

!yhila wE

,
. :

216

, .
( ).
217
2100 (Holladay. . 293).
, (. :
, . .). : , ( ).
().

w>
2) . + w>
3) P/m/B + w>
4) y> + w>
5) / + w>
6) h; + w>
7) ~yhil{a/ + w>

54

1)

.W
p/m/bW
ywI
/w< ( . .)
h;w>
~yhil{awE

8.1.5. ,
( ), ,
(c. . 55, 7.1.1.5).

.hl;yl w; : !m;/y
Whbow= : WhtoAhNEhwi


, ()

(. 13:21)
(. 4:23)

.hl;yl w; !m;/y
WhboW= WhtoAhNEhwi

8.2.
w , ,
:

/a
!ai
#a'
yKi
!ai yKi
@P,

= ( )
= ( )
=
= , , , ,
= ,
=

8.3.
8.3.1. rv,a.}
, ( ) , ,
.
, rv,a} 218,
.
:

#sE/= y tyBEA l[' rv,a} vyaih;


218

BDB. . 81.

,
(. 43:19)

55

hmol v] jq"l ; rv<a } h[orP A' tb'l]

,
[.,
] (1 7:8)

hc;[; rv,a} !yrIbD; h A' lK;

[. ],
(. 24:66)

bh'a% A; rv,a} hV:a IA![i

, (cp. . 9:9)

8.3.2. rv,a} v,
( ).
.
:

!l;vW; ryBi yn"pl; ] hy:h;v, lKo


brol ; !Y:h' tp'cA] l['v, l/jK'

,
(. 2:9)
, ,
(. 7:12)

8.4.

/a
!ai
#a'

rv,a}
a/B

, ,

hn:B;
!D:
bh;z:
vd<jo
br<j,
!Ilv' W; ry
rv,a}K'
yKi
!ai yKi
yliK]
ba;/m
d['
@P,
!ynIP;

, (
= , )

, ,
,
,

,

,

( )
. or
,

!Wq
bro
$Quvi

,
( , )

56

57

:

33:9, 11
?
:

br=: ylAi vy< (. 9).

lkoA= yliAvy< (. 11).

 33:1-11 - , .
 Avy< vyE , .
l (1..)
, .
 br: 219 br": , , .

9.1.
, ? ?
, .
, ? ?
, . ,
, . .
.
, , , .
: .
. , , ,
, , .
9.1.1. ,
, . ,
.
:

219

. 5.5.

sWs
vyai

= (..)
= (..)

58

9.1.2.
h ;, (. .
).
:

sWs

(..)
(..)

hs;Ws

(..)
(..)

9.1.3.
!y I , (. .
).
:

sWs
rb;D:

(..)

(..)

!ysiWs

!yrIbD;

(..)

(..)

9.1.4.
t/220.
:

hs;Ws

(..)

t/sWs

(..)

9.1.5. .
(!yI )" .
, ,
.
, ,
, , (, . .),
(, , . .).
(. .
).
:

@z<ao
dy:
!/y

220

(..)

(..)

(..)

!yInz" a ;

!yIdy" :

!yIm/' y

,
(.)221
,
(.)
(.)

t .:
h .: t
.
221
. = . .

59

, ,
, . .
.

9.2.
9.2.1.
.
9.2.1.1. ,
, ., tB' = !ae = .
9.2.1.2. , , ,
., !yIl'vW; ry = $r<a, = , .
9.2.1.3. , ., @z<ao = dy: = .
,
., ble = , varo = ).
9.2.2. ,
, ., hl;yl
' = . .
9.2.3.
, ,
.
. .

ba;
hV;ai

(..)

(..)

t/ba;

(..)

!yvin:

(..)222

9.2.4. tB' ().



@Be (). t/nB; ().

9.3.
9.3.1.
,
. :
, , . ,
(. . )
, . ,
, .
, ,
:

222

, tVoai (),
, . 23:44.

60

1) , , (
, , ,
-);
2) , , -.
9.3.2. :
..
..
..
..

sWs
hs;Ws
!ysiWs
t/sWs

II

l/dG:
hl;/dG
!yli/dG
t/l/dG

III

!k;j;
hm;kj; }
!ymikj; }
t/mk;j}

IV
bk;/K

!ybik/; K

, ,
.
, ( ),
(), . (
) .
,
. ,
, (
).
, ,
(c. 4.3).
(
), .

9.4.

(
)
(.)

, 5

(.)

(.)

(.)

(.)

, ,

. ,

.  ,

61

62

10

: .


16:27a

{yi$Nahw {yi$nA)fh )"lfm tyaBah


 . )"lfm .

: , .
, .
.

10.1.
, . .
, ?
. .: .
.
10.1.1. ,
,
.
:

b/f sWs
l/dG: vyai223

10.1.2.
. ,
.
,
.
:

223

C. 2 19:33.

b/f sWs

63

hb;/f hs;Ws
!ybi/f !ysiWs
t/b/f t/sWs

10.1.3.
, .
( ), .
( ),
.
:

224





/

b/f sWs
bwo=ah rfbfDah
.. 21:45

hb;/Fh' hs;WSh'
hfbo=ah jerf)fh
. 6:18

!ybi/Fh' !ysiWSh'
{yibO=ah {yirfb:Dah
.. 23:14

t/b/f t/sWs
tolod:Gah toSaMah
. 7:19

10.2.
,
. . , ( )
. .: .
, ?.
.: . , , - (, hy:h);
. - .

.
10.2.1. .
, ,
( ).
:
.
: .
224

sWSh' b/f

21:45 , ;
, rb;D: ( , :
).

64

10.2.2. ,
.
:

:
E

. 7:11

10.2.3. .

(. . ).
:
lOdfG $yi)fh
1 . 25:2

10.3. /
10.3.1. :

hz<

tazo

hL,ae

..
..
..
..
..

aWh

ayhi

hM;he !he
hN:he @he

10.3.2. .
, ,
, , ,
.
10.3.2.1. ,
, :

, ;
;
.

:



.


.

=
=
=
=
=

hZ<h' vyaih;
taZoh' hV;ahi ;
aWhh' sWSh'
ayhih' hs;WSh' hb;/f

heL")fh {yirfb:Dah raxa)


(. 15:1)
hfK:lim hfd:ly heL") hfnom:$
(. 22:23)

65

10.3.2.2. (.,
),
.
:



=
=
=

hZ<h' b/Fh' vyaih;


ayhih' hb;/Fh' hV;ahi ;
taZoh' hb;/Fh' $r<ah; ;

(. 4:22)
t)oZah hf(frfh hfd"(fh
(. 14:35)

10.3.2.3. ,
, :

;
;
.


.
:
.
()
.

.
225
.

=
=

vyai hz<
vyaih; hz<

b/Fh' vyaih; hz<

jerf)fhw {yamf<ah twod:lOt heL")

(. 2:4)

10.4.

, (.)

, (.)

, (.)

, (.)

(.)

(.)
225

, ,
.

(.) ,

(.) ,

66

67

ay

11



19:10226

da(fl tedemO( hfrOh:+ hfwhy ta):ry


;wfD:xy Uq:dfc temE) hfwhy-y"+:P:$im
 . / .
 hfwhy ta):ry (. . ) . ,
, . ta):ry ;
.
: (?) .
 hfrOh:+ , : .
, 227.
(. . ) rOhf+228.
: , , .
.
 hfwhy-y"+:P:$im .
. ,
, .

11.1.
,
229. , , ,
. , , ,
, . ,

226

,
( , 9- 10- , ,
). , , , ,
.
227
C. . 71 (10.2).
228
. Holladay. . 121122.
229
. . 45.

68

, .
230, .
11.1.1. yBiAvy<A!ai (2 . 14:32) ,
. ,
,
. , ,
231.
11.1.2. , ,
, . ,
, 232.
11.1.2.1. , lKo !yvina
: h} ; 11:2
: !yvina
: h} ; lkol] ([] )233.
, lKo
(AlK;): !yvina
: h} A; lK; (. 4:19).
11.1.2.2. , matres lectionis,
, (/, W, y i y )e
234. .: lkoAyliAvy< (. 33:11)235.

11.2.
, , ,
.
.
, , : .
,
, , .: (?)
(?) . ,
( ),

.
,
. :
230

, :
(1) 6 ?:( . 1:4; : ( )
, [] .
(2) B?
H IH 6 ? : ?
E ( . 1:11; (
) ;
; : .
.
231
, , :
. .
232
. 4.4.3.2.
233
l , (
).
234
C. 4.3.
235
. 9.

69

, 236,
. ,
237.

11.3.
,
,
. ,  H E( 238 , 2
. 14:26) ( E)
.
( H ) . ( [?])
(), .
(),
().

11.4.
11.4.1. .. .. .
:
.
.
.

.
()
240
-

.
- 239
241

- 242

11.4.2. , , (
)243:

236

,
( ),
(. 11.4.4.).
237
,
(c. IBHS, 9.2a). regens (, )
rectum (, ) c. GKC, 128a.
 ( ),  ( ).
( ) c. J-M,
129a, . 2.
238
., .
239
.. . :
(1) , .. : ( . 0.1,
. 71, . 220). ,
. . (2)
,
, : .
240
.. , .
241
.. ,
mater lectionis .
242
.. , .. 5
, . 5 , ..
243
. . 11.1.

70

?*
- ,
. ,
(. 9.3.1):
1) , , (
-);
2) , , 244.
,
.
11.4.3.
245:
.
..

244

.
..
?246

247

248

.
..

.
..
?

..
./.

5 /?

249

5 /? 254

250

253

? 255

251

252

J
J
J

. 4.4.3.2.
,
, .
246
,
.
247
. ( -) ,
. ( -) , , -
, .
248
( ) . ,
, .
249
( ) ,
.
250
( ) , ,
. ,
,
.
251
,
, : .

() ,
(. 7.1.1.2).
252
.. ,
matres lectionis .
253
, .
254
( ) , .
255
, , .
, , -.
245

71

11.4.4.
:

..

.
..
?

..

.
..
? 256

? 257

258

? 261

? 262

263

5 /

? /?

259

264

260

11.5.
11.5.1.
, .
11.5.2.
,
265.
11.5.3. () .
,
. : ( )
|eleMah }ebe), |eleMah }ebe)fh.
, () ,
,
. , |eleMah }ebe)
256

( ) , -
. ,
(. 3.1).
257
( ) (. 0.1).
- , (. 3.1).
, , ( ): ? .
258
( ) .
259
.
260
.
261
. .
262
,
,
. ,

. ,
.
. C. GKC, 96.
263
, .
264
, ,
.
265
. ,
. ,
, ( - ).

72

. ,
, 266.
11.5.4. : ,
.
. ,
,
.
.
, -
:

1.
2.

3.


267

dwID: t/nb]W ynEB*]
wyt;nbO W] dwID: ynEB]
t/nB;hw' dwID: ynEB] (

, . .
268)
dwIdl: ] rv,a} t/nB;hw' !ynIBh; ' ,


6

?
: E ?

. 41:8

hepo)fhw {yar:cim-|elem h"q:$am



. 40:1
{yar:cim |elem:l re$A) hepo)fhw heq:$aMah

. 40:5

. :

yatobA) y"Yax yn:$ y"my
. 47:9
rfd"q-y"n:b y"rOBiG te$eq-raP:sim rf):$U
269

266


, :
|eleMal }ftfx ( [ ] , 1 . 18:18), {yixfBa=ah ra&:l debe( ( [ ]
, . 41:12), hfwhyal )yibn ( [ ] , 1 18:22), lU)f$:l re$A) vfnfK
( [ ] , 1 . 24:6).
267
(*) , . . .
33, . 67.
268
, -, (c. HBI, 1.4.3b).
269
.

73

. 21:17
11.5.5.
, . ,
: hf(fr {yiholE)-axUr ( 270
, 1 . 16:15).
:
, .
., l/dG: &l,m, tyBe :


().

. - ,
271.

11.6.

(.)

, ,

( .), ( .)

(.) ,

, ,

(.)

. ,

. ,

. ,

, ;


5
270

,
.
271
}OrAxa)fh heZah tyaBah dOb:K (. 2:9), -, (. . )
, .
, tyaBah,
(}OrAxa)fh). . J-M, 139a.

.

5

(.) ,

(. )

, ,

, ,

( ) +
()
( ) + 5 * (?)

. ,
. ,
( ) + ( )

. ,

74

75

by

12

. .
h

21:26

L ?6 9 ? : E M
9
B H E :
E N O P 9 ?

 . - .
 , 272
.
 !/Yh' ; ,
.

12.1.
, , .
.
, ,
.
: .
,
.

1
2
2
272

(ykina
O );
276
(T;a)'

ynIa}
hT;a'
T]a'

273

..
(.)274
(.)
(.)

..
(Wnj]n)"
Wnj]na" } (.)
!T,a' (.)
277
hn:Tae ' (.)
(@Tea)'
275

. . 5.
1- .. ynIa} (870 ); ykinaO ;
(358 ).
274
, , .
.
275
Wnj]na" } (125 ). 6 . Wna}
, 42:6.
276
5 . hT;a' 743 .
273

.
3
3

aWh
ayh279
i

278

(!he)

hM;he
hN:he

76

(.)
(.)

12.2.
12.2.1.
,
tae (Ata,), .
( : ) .
, 280.
, .
,
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .
,
. , ,
, . .
12.2.2.
12.2.2.1.
.

tae ( Ata,),

!yIm" @heKho '


r/NKihA' ta, dwID:
&l,Mh< '
* &l,Mh
, A' ta,

jq'l;
jq'l;
jq'l;
jq'l;

= .
= 281.
=
= 282.

(. 5:17)
(1 . 16:23)
(2 . 8:8)

12.2.2.2. tae ( Ata,) ,


, .
:

&m,lA: ta, dl'y: laevW; tm]


laevW; tm]Ata, dl'y:
277

= () .
(. 4:18)
= . (. 4:18)

hn:Tae ' 4 ; @Tea' 34:31.


hM;he 282 , !he 269 .
279
: awhi.
280
)(.
281
: ().
282
, ,
.
278

77

12.2.2.3. , tae
.
:

.$r<ah: ; taew !yIm'Vh; ' tae !yhilO a ar:B;


@roha} A' ta,w hv,mAo ta, hc;[;

= .
(. 1:1)
= 283 .
(1 . 12:6)

12.2.2.4. tae ymi,


, ,
: . tae
hm;.
:

yTiq]v'[; ymiAta,
t;yci[; hm<284

= ?
= ?

(1 . 12:3)
(. 31:26)

12.3. ( h)
12.3.1.
, , , :
u (W), i (y )I
a (h ): 285. ,
, ,
.
. h :
( ),
?.
12.3.2.

h (. h-locale),
. :
12.3.2.1.
( )
.
:

hm;ym 'Vh; '

(. 15:5)

12.3.2.2. .

283

hc;[; . ,
. 1 12:6 .
284
. 6.3.2.4.
285
C. 0.1.

.
:

hm;ymiy : !ymiYm: i

= ( )
(. 13:10)

12.3.2.3. h .
la,.
:
286
287
}"hoKah-le) OT:$i)-te) $yi)fh [xaqfl]w =

(. 5:15)
hf<i)fh-le) $fxNah [ramf)w] =
(. 3:4)

12.3.2.4. h : ,
.
, .
:

!yIrx" m] i
hm;yr x" m] i
ry[ih;
hr:y[Ih ;

=
=
(. 12:10)
=
= , (. 44:13)

12.3.3.

. .
:

$r,a,
!d,q,
!y:

hx;ra'
hm;dqe
hM;y:

12.4.
(. 12.1).

(., )

, ,

.: ; .:
286


( )

. . 8.1.
/Tv]ai 3..: . hV;ai
(. ) . .
287

78

79

288

(.) ,

288



: ,
: []

,

,
. .: *Db][' &l'hA; al (2 5:25).

80

gy

13

:

31:16

tfBa<ah-te) l")fr:&y-y"n:b Ur:mf$w


;{flO( tyir:B {ftorod:l tfBa<ah-te) tO&A(al
 . - .
 , Ata, 289.
 Ur:mf$w . .
 l")fr:&y-y"n:b: y"n:b (?). ,
, -
. , laer:cy] AI ynEB] ()290.

13.1.
13.1.1. ()
, ,
291. , , ,
, .
.
. ,
,
. (
2628).

1..
yTilf] q
' ;

yTirm] 'v;
yTib]t'K;
289

. 12.2.
. 11.5.4, . 265.
291
. 0.1.
290

lfq
rmv
btk

81

yTikl] m' ;


3..
lf'q;

rm'v;
bt'K;
&l'm;

^lm

lfq
rmv
btk
^lm

, 3.. ,
.
.
13.1.2.
:
1. , qatal (
lfq).
2. , yiqtol (
lfq).
,
.
.
292
() :
13.1.2.1. (. Aktionsart): , qatal,
. , yiqtol,
293. ,
(, ,
) .

.
13.1.2.2. - : , qatal,
, . , yiqtol,
, 294.
13.1.2.3. -
wayyiqtol,
295.
292

.
Bruce K. Waltke and M. OConnor. An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. Winona Lake, Ind.:
Eisenbrauns, 1990. 29.6. IBHS.
294
Paul Joon. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew / . . T. Muraoka. Subsidia Biblica 14/II. Rome: Pontifical
Biblical Institute, 1996. 111. J-M.
295
C. E. Lipinski. Semitic Languages: Outline of a Comparative Grammar. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 80.
Leuven: Uitgiveij Peeters en Departement Oosterse Studies, 1997. . 341.
293

82


(13.1.2.1). ,
296 wayyiqtol
297.
(qatal) rm'v; 298:

..

..

yTirm 'v;
T;rm 'v;
T]rm 'v;
rm'v;
hr:m]v:

1..

/-

2..

2..

3..

3..

Wnrm'v;
!T,rm 'v]
@T,rm 'v]
Wrm]v:

1..

2..

2..

3..

13.1.3.
Qal (). lq'
, . . . ,
, -
.

:

Qal ()
296

299

lq'

G = Grundstamm

C. Chisholm. . 86: ;
. , , ,
(U. Cassuto. A Commentary on the Book of Genesis: Part
II From Noah to Abraham / . . Israel Abrahams. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1964; . 1992. . 91.
297
C. Chisholm. . 95: ()
, ,
.
,
.
298
: , , , .
.
299
. ,
, , ,
, .
.

83

l['p]n300
I
ly[iph] i

Niphal ()

Hophal ()

l['ph] ;

Piel ()

l[ePi
Pual ()

l['Pu

Hithpael

l[eP'th] i
()


Poel ()

l[e/P
Poal ()

l['/P

Hithpoel

l[e/Pt]hi
()

Polel ()

lle/P
Pulal ()

ll'Pu

Hithpolal

ll'/Pt]hi
()

Pilpel ()

lPelP] i
Pulpal ()

lP'lP] u

Hitpalpel

lPelP] 'th] i
()

Hishtaphel

lpeT'vh] i
()

Hiphil ()

N = N-stamm
H = H-stamm
Hu = Hu-stamm
D = Doppelungsstamm
Du = Doppelungs-stamm
u
Dt = Doppelungsstamm
t

[
301]

.
.

13.2. , qatal
13.2.1.
qatal , ,
- 302. ,
, ()

300

l['P; ( ) ,
. l['P; ,
, , .
lf'q; ( ). ,
, dq'P; ( ), &l'm; (
) bt'K; ( ).
301
- : z, s, x, c v.
. : rMev'th] i*
rMeT'vh] .i , .
302
Gary A. Long. Grammatical Concepts 101 for Biblical Hebrew: Learning Biblical Hebrew Grammatical
Concepts through English Grammar. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2002. . 92.

84

: , 303. ,
qatal ,
304. , ,
305.
, ,
:
  306.
(.:
307) .
: .

(3..) , , 308.
13.2.2. Qal ( )

[..]
1..
2..
2..
3..
3..

[..]
1..
2..
2..
3..

yTirm] 'v;
T;rm] 'v;
T]rm] 'v;
rm'v;
hr:m]v:

yTi
T;
T]

yna}
h T;a'
T]a'

---

h:

Wn
!T,
@T,
W

Wnj]na" }
!T,a'
@Tea'

Wnr]m'v;
!T,rm] 'v]
@T,rm] 'v]
Wrm]v:

13.2.3. : 309,
.
:

!h;rb: a] ' rb'q;


$r<ah; ; hv;by] :
303

=
=

(. 23:19)
(. 12:10)

Duane A. Garrett. A Modern Grammar for Classical Hebrew. Nashville, TN: Broadman and Holman, 2002. .

49.
304

IBHS. . 480 (30.1d).


Garrett. A Modern Grammar . 49.
306
: (, , ).
, :
.
307
// / . . . . .: , 1986. .
25.
308
. . 83, .
309
. 10.1.2.
305

85

laer:cy] AI ynEb] Wkl]h;

= 310

(.. 5:6)

13.3.
311
, .
, . :

, ;
matres lectionis312.

fP;vm] i
hm;j;lm] i
yKelm] '
yTiqd] x" ;
q/jr:
WqyDIxh] i
t/dl]/T


mi
mi h :
y E
yTi
/
hi; y ;I
W
T t/

fpv
!jl
^lm
qdx
qjr
qdx
dly313

13.4.
(qatal) .

(
rm'a); ; =

( ?)

,
, .
a/B, !Wq !yci .
312
.
, (. 2628).
313
/ W. ,
w, .
w y.
310
311

86

dy

14



55:8

{eky"tOb:$:xam yatOb:$:xam )ol yiK


;hfwhy {u)n yfkfr:D {eky"k:rad )olw
 . - .
 . ,
9599.
 yatOb:$:xam ,
m (hb;vj
; m} '/tb,vj, m} ').
1..: .
 {eky"tOb:$:xam , 2..:
. .
: .
, , ,
(yatOb:$:xam )ol), .
, : .
 ,
(&r<D)< :
.

14.1.
.
, (c. 11)
. ,
. , 1.. (ysiWs)
(?) = .

14.2.

14.2.1.

sWs =

rb;D: =

87

.
1 .
2 .
2 .
3 .
3 .
.
1 .
2 .
2 .
3 .
3 .

sWs =
ysiWs =
*s]Ws =
&seWs =
/sWs =
Hs;Ws =
WnseW s =
!k,sW] s =
@k,sW] s =
!s;Ws =
@s;Ws =

(?)









rb'D =
yrIbD; =
*rbD: =
&rEbD; =
/rb;D =
Hr:bD; =
WnrEb D: =
!k,rb D' =
@k,rb D' =
!r:bD; =
@r:bD; =

(?)









:
14.2.1.1.
.
14.2.1.2. :
sWs (W) : (1)
(2) ,
.
rb'D () .
, (
),
.
14.2.1.3. .
sWs (
).
rb'D, , ,
2.. 2 ..: !k,rb
D' @k,rb D' .
b . ? ,
b' ,
: b;.
14.2.1.4. 3.. Hs;Ws ( ) h .
, .
(qyPim' = ). ,
, , (hs;Ws) (Hs;Ws).
h ,
mater lectionis .
14.2.1.5. ,
.
,
,

.

b/Fh' sWSh'
b/Fh' ysiWs

=
=

88

14.2.1.6.
:
{fhfr:ba) yinodA) y"holE) hwhy |UrfB

yinodA) {i("m OTimA)w OD:sax bazf(-)ol re$A)


, ,
.
(. 24:27)
14.2.2.
, .

.

1
2

2
3

..
.

( ykni a
O ); ynaI }
(T a
; )' hTa; '

y-I
*&/H-:

Ta] '
a Wh
ayhi

..
.

( Wnj]n)"

Wnj]na" }
!Ta, '
( @Tea)' h n:Ta
e '
( !he) h Mh
; e
h Nh: e

Wn!k,@k,!-:
@-:

, 2-
k.

( 3..) -
.

14.2.3.
, , ,
.

.
1 .
2 .
2 .
3 .
3 .
.
1 .
2 .

hs;Ws =

hx;[e =

ts'Ws =

(?)

tx'[} =

(?)

ytisW; s =
*t]sW: s =
&tesW; s =
/ts;Ws =
Ht;sW; s =
Wntes W; s =
!k,ts] W' s =

ytix;[} =
*t]x:[} =
&tex;[} =
/tx;[} =
Ht;x;[} =
Wntex ;[} =
!k,tx] '[} =

89

2 .
3 .
3 .

@k,ts] W' s =
!t;sW; s =
@t;sW; s =

@k,tx] '[} =
!t;x;[} =
@t;x;[} =

:
14.2.3.1. hs;Ws,
ts;Ws314.
, t.
14.2.3.2. hx;[e ()
, rb;D: (.
).
. ,
.
14.3.
,
.
.

.
1 .
2 .
2 .
3 .
3 .
.
1 .
2 .
2 .
3 .
3 .

!ysiWs =
yseWs =
ys'Ws =
*ys,W s =
&yIsW' s =
wys;Ws =
h;ys,W s =
WnyseW s =
!k,yseWs =
@k,yseWs =
!h,yseWs =
@h,yseWs =

t/sWs =

(?)

t/sWs =

(?)

yt'/sWs =
*yt,/ sWs =
&yIt/' sWs =
wyt;/sWs =
h;yt,/ sWs =
Wnyte/ sWs =
!k,yte/sWs =
@k,yte/sWs =
!h,yte/sWs =
@h,yte/sWs =

:
14.3.1. ,
.
!y i
. :
, 315.
14.3.2. t/
.
314
315

. . 78, . 247.
. . . 161162.

90

14.3.3. 3. !h, @h, ,


.
4A.

:

rb;D: =
rb'D =
yrIbD; =
*rbD: =
&rEbD; =
/rb;D =
Hr:bD; =
WnrEb D: =
!k,rb D' =
@k,rb D' =
!r:bD; =
@r:bD; =

sWs =
sWs =

(?)









ysiWs =
*s]Ws =
&seWs =
/sWs =
Hs;Ws =
WnseW s =
!k,sW] s =
@k,sW] s =
!s;Ws =
@s;Ws =

(?)









, ,

(.; . )

, ,

, ,

, + ,
= ,

(,
)
,

.
,

91

316

wf

15


tae

. . 1:15

hfM"h-{ag U$:ryw
{ehfl }"tn {eky"holE) hfwhy-re$A) jerf)fh-te)
HftO) {eT:$iryiw {ek:ta<ury jere):l {eT:ba$w
hfwhy debe( he$om {ekfl }atn re$A)
 . - .
 .
(15.115.2).
 U$:ryw: , ? w?
U U$:ry? , $ry,
:
1. (, , , , , ?).
2. ( = qatal = yiqtol?).
3. (3-, 2- 1-?).
4. (, ?).
5. ( ?).
6. ( ).
, , 317.
 hfM"h-{ag ({aG) = .
? ,
(. . ).
, .
 {ek:ta<ury jere):l : . - ,
,

316

15 , . . 10 ( ) 5 (),
(). ,
15 9 ( ) 6 ().
317
3.. < .

92

. hf<ury,
.

15.1.

, .
(tae)
. tae tao ( t/a).
(!k,, @k,, !h,, @h,)
ta, ( ),
tao.
.

..

..

1- .
2- .
2- .
3- .

ytiao
*t]ao
&t;ao
/tao

3- .

Ht;ao

Wnt;a o
!k,ta] ,
@k,ta] ,
!t;ao
!h,ta] , (.)
@t;ao
@h,ta] , (.)

15.2.
15.2.1. tae (= )
.
. 15.1 ,
.
:

=
=

tae

1- .
2- .
2- .
3- .
3- .

15.2.2. l] B]

..

yTiai
*T]ai
&T;ai
/Tai
HT;ai

..




WnT;a i
!k,Ta] i
@k,Ta] i
!T;ai
@T;ai

93

,
. ,
.

yli
*l]
&l;
/l
Hl;
Wnl;
!k,l;
@k,l;
!h,l;
@h,l;

1- .
2- .
2- .
3- .
3- .
1- .
2- .
2- .
3- .
3- .

yBi
*B]
&B;
/B
HB;
WnB;
!k,B;
@k,B;
!h,B;
@h,B;

15.2.3.

() /mK;.

1- .
2- .
2- .
3- .
3- .

..
318

ynI/mK;
*/mK;
&/mK;
Wh/mK319
;
h;/mK;

..




Wn/mK;
!k,K;
@k,K;
!heK320
;
@heK;
hN:heK;

15.2.4.
@mi :

1- .
2- .
2- .
3- .

318

..

yNIMm, i
*M,m i
&Memi
WNM,m 322
i

..



321

WNM,m i
!K,mi
@K,mi
!h,m323
e

ynI ynIa.}
Wh h; / H ,:
.
320
!k,, @k,, !he @he.
321
, 1.. 3.. .
, . 1 ..
nMm, i + Wn, 3.. nMm, i + Wh.
319

94

hM;hm
e e
3- .

hN:Mm, i

@h,me
hN:hm
e e

15.2.5. la,, l[' rj'a' ( tj'T' d[')


., la, (, ), l[' (, ), d[' (,
), rj'a' (, ), tj'T' (, )
( )324.
,
(
).


1- .
2- .
2- .
3- .
3- .

1- .
2- .
2- .
3- .
3- .

la,
yl'ae
*yl,a e
&yIla' e
wyl;ae
h;yl,a e
Wnylea e
!k,ylea}
@k,ylea}
!h,ylea}
@h,ylea}

ylea>









l['
yl'[;
*yl,[;
&yIl'[;
wyl;[;
h;yl,[;
Wnyle[;
!k,yle[}
@k,yle[}
!h,yle[}
@h,yle[}

yle[}









15.2.6. vyE @yae



325 326.
-
vyE @yae.

vyE

- ,
, ( ) . .: .

@yae @yIa,' vyE.


, , . .: . @yae
(., ).

,
. 5 5 5 5 ,

.
323
,, , e .
324
. . 14.
325
. . 11.
326
. . 14.
322

95

:
(. 18:24) ryi(fh |Ot:B {iqyiDac {yi<imAx $"y yalU)
,
(. 14:1) {yiholE) }y") OBil:B lfbn ramf)
: .
;yiT:$i) rab:D-la( ynUgfrAhw heZah {woqfMaB {yiholE) ta):ry-}y") qar yiT:ramf) yiK
(. 20:11)
[]:
.

15.3.

()

(.) ,

10
,
(1 . 25:25)

:
.

1.

2.
3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

96

: 3 10 :
h ;,( ),
( )

97

556

zf

16

:
(, , )

37:29

;fhyelf( da(fl Un:K:$yw jerf)-U$:ryiy {yiqyiDac


 jerf)-U$ryiy {yiqyiDac: (557).
. :
. ,
, . . , ,
.
. ,
- (. .
, ).
 da(fl l da(: ,
.

16.1.
, ,
. qatal ()
, , yiqtol ()
558. Yiqtol , 559.
,
(
), .
:
1) 560;
2)
( , , )561;

556

16 , 10 ( ) 6 (),
().
557
. 13.2.1.
558
Long. Grammatical Concepts 101 for Biblical Hebrew. . 94.
559
Garrett. A Modern Grammar . 54.
560
IBHS. . 511513 (31.6.2). . Garrett. A Modern Grammar . 54.
561
IBHS. . 502 (31.1.2).

98

3) ( ,
)562.
, , .
(
),
(
). ,
. ,
: a, y, n t.

16.2. , yiqtol
(qatal), (yiqtol)
563. ()

.
( ).

2..

Wlf]q]Ti
Wrm]v]Ti
Wbt]k]Ti
Wkl]m]Ti

lfq
rmv
btk
^lm

16.2.1. () Qal

[..]
1..

rmova] ,

a,

2..

rmov]Ti

Ti

2..

yrIm]v]Ti

y i Ti

3..

rmovy] I

yI

3..

rmov]Ti

Ti

562


564

.
. 13.2.
564
,
qatal. ,

.
563

99

[..]
1..

rmov]nI

nI

2..

Wrm]v]Ti

W Ti

2..

hn:rm ov]Ti

hn: Ti

3..

Wrm]vy] I

3..

hn:rm ov]Ti

565

W yI

hn: Ti

: ,
(3.. 2..; 3.. 2..),
.
(yiqtol) rm'v; -:
, , . ,
.
.
.
16.2.2.
()
.
566.
16.2.2.1.

h : .
: , ,
.
:


rmova] ,

rmov]nI

565


;
hr:m]va] ,
-
;
hr:m]v]nI
-

3.. 2.. : @Wrm]v]yI @Wrm]v]T.i


.
. ,
.
566

100

16.2.2.2.
, , 567.

. :
, , , , .

, .
:


rmovy] I

rmov]Ti

Wrm]vy] I

568
;
dyqipy] "

ba;h; rmovy] I



rmovy] I

rmov]Ti

Wrm]vy] I

ba;h; rmovy] I
dqepy] "

16.3.
16.3.1.
( )
.
.
:
..
..
..
..



rmov]Ti

yrIm]v]Ti

Wrm]v]Ti
hn:rm ov]Ti

rmov]
yrIm]vi
Wrm]vi
hn:rm ov]

: ,
(.. ..),
569.

, : .

3.. < dqp. , (


) (y I ) ( ).
,
.
569
. 7.1.1.2.
567
568

101

16.3.2. 570 hf

hf ,
. -
. ,
.
, .
)fn,
(. -: -).
:

qd<c, hw"hy> h['mv. i

= , , .
( 16:1)

`yMi[( i hb'kv. i

= .
( 39:7)

yvipn. : hr"mv. '

571

= .

( 24:20)

16.4.
16.4.1.
, ,
,
.
.

1-

6 : = - (.
37:17)

2-

3-

H ?
:  E = ,
(. 9:14)

6 ? 9 H : =
(. 6:14)

@ M 9 ?

S T U =
, (1 . 10:8)

6 9 = (. 1:3)
: N
H O 9 =

(. 2:15)572
570

,
.
.
571
Qal ..
.
572
,
, .
. -, ,

102

16.4.2.
( !)
, al
la'573.
al
( !).
la', , ( !). la'
.
:
;Ob-Ur:B:$it )ol {ece(w =

(. 12:46)

;bon:giT )ol = !

(. 20:15)

|"bzf(:l yib-yi(:G:piT-la) = ()
.
(. 1:16)
Urom:$iT-la) {ehy"+:P:$im-te)w = ()
(. 20:18)

16.5. @mi

@mi, .
:
{yiYax"m !:D:sax bO+-yiK = ,
.
(. 62:4)
!:Mim {yimucA(w {yilod:G {iyOG = ,

(. 4:38)


lKom.i
:
hedf>ah taYax loKim {Urf( hfyfh $fxNahw =
(=
)
(. 3:1)

{yiholE)fh-lfKim hfwhy lOdfg-yiK yiT:(ady = ,


(= )
(. 18:11)

(IBHS. . 567 [34.2.1b-d]).


O (IBHS. . 566 [34.2.1a]).
573
. IBHS. . 565 (34.1b).

103

16.6.
Qal (yiqtol) rm;v'.

(.)

(. )

+ ( + )

(.)

(.)

104

zy

17


66:12

{Olf$ rfhn:K fhyel")-he+n yinnih hfwhy ramf) hok-yiK


{iyOG dwob:K v"+O$ laxan:kU
 he+n yinnih hNEhi (1..),
.
 v"+O$:
.

17.1. Qal
17.1.1.

. ,
.
. ,
Qal:

rm'v;
rmevo
tr<m<vo hr:m]vo
!yrIm]vo
t/rm]vo

..
..
..
..

bv'y:
bvey
tb,vy, hb;vy]
!ybivy]
t/bv]y

17.1.2.
17.1.2.1.
().
/ , .
17.1.2.2. Qal
:
(1)

.
,
rme/v. , bvey v

105

(2)
(3)

, v
c.
, .
( ).

17.1.2.3.
(hr:m]vo) .
17.1.2.4.
(, ),
( ) .
:

()

@?

H P H 9 =
(. 16:18)

@
H E
:  E =
(1 20:22)

6 : E@ 7
M 9 W =
, , (. 4:24)


( = ), ( =
) ( = ).
17.1.2.5.
() /
,
. ,
, ,
,
( ).
:
b"$y )Uhw =
;tebf$Oy )yih =

( 14:12)
(.. 2:15)

17.1.2.6. ,

.
:

!ybivy] !yvina: h} *;
t/rm]vo !yviNh: *'
&l,Mh, ' rmev*o
rmevo &l,Mh, *'

=
=
=
=

17.1.2.7. (
, ),

106

(
).
:

rmevo &l,Mh, *'


rmeVho ' &l,Mh, *'

=
= ,
O):siK-la( b"$Y ah ho(:raP = ,

(. 11:5)
: , ,
.

17.2. Qal
17.2.1.
, .

.
Qal:
..
..
..
..

rm'v;
rWmv;
hr:Wmv]
!yrIWmv]
t/rWmv]

bv'y:
bWvy:
hb;Wvy
!ybiWvy
t/bWvy

17.2.2.
17.2.2.1. Qal,
:
(1) .
(2) , .
(3) (
).
17.2.2.2. ,
.
,
.
Qal
( )
. , rmevo vyaih; ( )
() , , .
Qal
( ) .
, rWmv; vyaih; ( )

107

, ,
: (?) .
17.2.2.3. ,

( ).
:

rWmv; &l,Mh, *'


rWmV;h' &l,Mh, *'

=
= ,
{yibUt:Kah t)oZah hfrOTah y"r:biD-lfK = ,
heZah rep"SaB (: )
(. 28:58)

17.2.2.4. Qal ,
, .
: , .

17.3.

(.)

()

(.) , ,

,
(
;

)

()

.
5

(. )

(),

( )

 5

(. ),
:
( )

108

109

jy

18


25:27

bO+-)ol tOB:rah $ab:D lokf)


;dObfK {fdob:K req"xw
 lokf): Qal (, )
,
, . $ab:D () .
 $ab:D
Hiphil ( hbr).
 bO+-)ol : .
 ;dObfK {fdob:K req"xw . :
(?).
3..: . , ,
.
: .

18.1.
18.1.1.
, ?
? (.: , , . .). ,
, .
,

. 84% - .
69%
l.
.
, :
(. 2:18); :
. :

110

.
: ,
(. 19:10).
18.1.2. :
rom:$il =
lo$:m =
roKzil =
axol:$il =
axol:$ =

( 3:24)
( 19:10)
( 9:16)
(1 26:23)
( 22:15)

;{yiYaxah j"( |ereD-te) rom:$il =


( 3:24)

{flO( tyir:B roKzil =

( 9:16)

|eleMah-le) Oto) axol:$il =

(2 24:29)

18.1.3. :
18.1.3.1. ,
574. ., j'lvl
] i ['movl] .i
18.1.3.2. ,
. ,
.
18.1.3.3.
(c. 18.1.2).

18.2.
18.2.1.
,
. 55%
575.
,
.
( ).
, .

( ).
18.2.2.
18.2.2.1. ( )
574

. 4.2.
C. IBHS. . 581, . 8; . 585 . 25. .
875 . 470 .
575

111

{eky"holE) hfwhy tO:cim-te) }Ur:m:$iT rOmf$ = 576

(. 6:17)

!yeholE) hfwhy hf&f(-re$A) t") roKziT rokz = 577,

(. 7:18)

18.2.2.2. ( )
;|"rfb [fT:karfB] h"Nihw !yiT:xaq:l yabyo) boqfl =

,

(. 23:11)

lOkf) {eT:lakA) =
(. 2:26)

18.2.3. :
18.2.3.1.
:
(1)

(2)


( ,

. );
(, ).

18.2.3.2. ,
, (.,
['/mv); .
18.2.3.3. ,
, . ,
.
18.2.3.4. ,
:

18.3.
18.3.1.

.
578.
18.3.2.
(
.)
576

,
: , . .
577
: , . .
578
.
24 25.

1.

yTil]ka' ;

2.

yrIm]v]Ti

3.

Wrm]vi

4.

dleYhO '

5.
6.

t/bWvy
dqopl] i

7.

['/mvh; }

112

,
.
,
(a, t, n y),
.

,
.
, ,
(
).
, 4.
,
, .
(a) ,
.
(b) ,
.
(c) h.

18.4.

(.)

- ( )

, ( ) (.)

, (
)

, ( )

( )

, ,

, (
)

: .

113

() ,

114

115

fy

19



32:11579

temE)fh-lfKimU {yidfsAxah loKim yiTno+fq


!eD:ba(-te) ftyi&f( re$A)
 yiTno+fq: 1.., .
 {yidfsAxah loKim 580: 581.
-:
, . . .
 temE)fh-lfKimU , :
.
 !eD:ba(-te) ftyi&f( re$A): (
) : .

19.1.
19.1.1.
, :
(1) ;
(2) .
, (
) .
,
,
.
19.1.2. :
19.1.2.1.
579

..
&l,m,

..
!ykilm; ]

10.
. 16.5.
581
.
580

jb'z<
$r<a,
r['n"
vd,qo
@z<ao

19.1.2.2.
19.1.2.3.
19.1.2.4.
19.1.2.5.
19.1.2.6.

!yjibz;
t/xr:a}
!yrI[;n
!yvid;q?
!yInz" a ;

19.1.3. :
19.1.3.1.

&l,m,

19.1.3.2.

jb'z<


,
.

19.1.3.3.

$r<a,

:
1. ,

.
2. ,
,

.

19.1.3.4.

r['n"

19.1.3.2 (jb'z)< ,
-
.

19.1.3.5.

vd,qo


..
-. ,
: !yvid;q;.

19.1.3.6.

@z<ao


:
!y i ; ] (
).
. (,

: ,
. . 9.)


:
1. (c. . 9).
2. .. -
,
(,

).

116

117

19.1.4.
19.1.4.1.

:

&l,m,
rp,se
r['n"

&l,m,
rp,se
r['n"

:
M  9 (. 2:23)
M 9 (. 24:7)
6  9 (. 15:9)
19.1.4.2.

582.
a, i o, .: malk, sipr, or.

(!y i ; ], . ),

,
583:
1) e a,
a;
2) ,
i;
3) ,
o.

..

..

. ..

&l,m,
rp,se
vr,vo
vp,n<
jr'ao

ykel]m'
yrep]si
yverv;
t/vp]n"
t/jra;

:
 :? H (. 2:2)
582
583

. . . 148.
.

118

6 9 (2 . 17:6)
H E (. 49:16)
9 : [] (. 36:30)

19.2.
19.2.1.
,
:
(1)
(2)
(3)

a, ., rm'v,; 584 (
); - ;
e, ., dbeK,; 585 ( );
, ;
o, ., lkoy:, ().


-:
( ) .
, ,
- :
( ) = ( )586.
19.2.2.
,
. .
QAL

. .

1 .
2 .
2 .
3 .

584

yTilf] q
' ;
T;lf] q
' ;
T]lf] q
' ;
lf'q;

yTidb 'K;
T;db 'K;
T]db 'K;
dbeK;

yTinf q
o ;
T;nf q
o ;
T]nf q
o ;
@foq;

, :
. :
. ( ,
). (, ).
, , , .
. (1) ().
, . (2)
, , ( ).
. ,
.
585
, , .
., = , = .
586

, - .
., = , = , =
. .

119

.
3 .
.

1 .
2 .
2 .
3 .

. .

1 .
2 .
2 .
3 .
3 .

1 .
2 .
2 .
3 .
3 .

. .

. .

hl;fq
] :
Wnl]fq
' ;
!T,lf] q
' ]
@T,lf] q
' ]
Wlf]q:
lfoqa] ,
lfoq]Ti
ylifq
] ]Ti
lfoqy] I
lfoq]Ti
lfoq]nI
Wlf]q]Ti
hn:lf] q
o ]Ti
Wlf]qy] I
hn:lf] q
o ]Ti
lfoq]
lfeqo

hd:b]K;
Wndb'K;
!T,db 'K]
@T,db 'K]
Wdb]K;
dB'ka] ,
dB'k]Ti
ydIB]k]Ti
dB'ky] I
dB'k]Ti
dB'k]nI
WdB]k]Ti
hn:dB 'k]Ti
WdB]ky] I
hn:dB 'k]Ti
db'K]
dbeK;

hn:fq
] :
WNfoq
;
!T,nf q
; ]
@T,nf q
; ]
Wnf]q:
@f'qa] ,
@f'q]Ti
ynIfq
] ]Ti
@f'qy] I
@f'q]Ti
@f'q]nI
Wnf]q]Ti
hN:fq
' ]Ti
Wnf]qy] I
hN:fq
' ]Ti
@f'q]
@foq;

19.2.3. :
1.

2.

3.

4.

,
3.. ,
. , :
(), () ().
,
, ,
.

. , ,
,
. .
.
- 2.
. -,
(c. . 5).
()

1.., 2.. 3..
( )
.

120

19.4.

( ) ,

, ,

;
( ., pluralis majestatis)
,

. ,

. ,
- (,
)

121

20

- -.

23:10

!yebyo)-la( henAxam )"c"t-yiK


;(fr rfbfD loKim fT:ram:$inw
 )"c"t-yiK: )"c"T 2.. )cy:
.
 !yebyo)-la(: :
.
 fT:ram:$inw: weqatal,
-. 2..
. (in) , .
: , .
 (fr rfbfD loKim: ,
?: , .

20.1. -
20.1.1.

. (. . qatal).
,
. , ,
, , -
weqatal.
.
,
.
-,

122

- wayyiqtol.
(. . ) 587.

. ,
. , .
20.1.2.
20.1.2.1. - (weqatal).
(. 8.1).
20.1.2.1.1. w:

[m'vw; vyaih; rmovy] I .


20.1.2.1.2. (p, m, b) W:
&l'mW; &l,Mh, ' lvomy] I .
20.1.2.1.3. W:
!T,rm 'vW] WrK]zTi .
20.1.2.1.4. w
:

!T,dm '[w} " Wrm]v]Ti .


20.1.2.2. - (wayyiqtol).
:
20.1.2.2.1. :
):

Iw" (

lvomY] wI " &l,Mh, ' &l'm; .


20.1.2.2.2. ,
:

rmova] w, : yTirkz' : .
20.1.3. :
20.1.3.1. - (weqatal), (wayyiqtol).
20.1.3.2. .
.
20.1.3.3. - (weqatal)
, ,
, :
.

587

. . 89, . 296.

123

20.1.3.4. -
( 1..
2..).

T;r m 'vw;
- , ,
( ).
:

rm,aYo w"
!q;Y:w"
20.1.3.5. (hy:h); , (hy<hy] )I
: hy:hw;
yhiyw " .
.
,
, :

hy:hw;
yhiyw 588
"
, hy:hw;
, yhiyw " . ,
(
).

20.2.
20.2.1.
13 , (. .
:
). , ,
, (. .
:
,
).
, .

, .
, , , .
n .
20.2.2. (. ).

588

. ,
. yhiy hy<hy] .I , .

124

20.2.2.1. 589
20.2.2.1.1. : n .
20.2.2.1.2. : .
(a) ,
(b)
(c) .
:
1.

,
, n
. @mi590, n

, n ,
.

rmeVy; I  rmev;ny I
2.

, ,
,
.

dbe[y; E  dbe[iyI;
20.2.2.1.3.
(a) h .
(b) ( ).
20.2.2.1.4.
(a) .
(b) , 3.., ,
.
(c) , (
).
20.2.2.1.5. : , ..,
(
).
20.2.2.1.6.
(a) .
(b) n.
(c) (
).
589
590

. .
. 7.2.2.1.

125

20.2.3.
, ., !j'l]nI ( ).

( , ,
-).

591
lf'q; / dbeK; / @foq;
. .
1 .
2 .
2 .
3 .
3 .
.

1 .
2 .
2 .
3 .

. .

1 .
2 .
2 .
3 .
3 .

1 .
2 .
2 .
3 .
3 .

. .

.
.

.
.

. .

. .

. .

. .
. .
591

C. J-M. . 2. . 658.

QAL
.

NIPHAL

yTilf] q
' ;
T;lf] q
' ;
T]lf] q
' ;
lf'q;
hl;fq
] :
Wnl]fq
' ;
!T,lf] q
' ]
@T,lf] q
' ]
Wlf]q:
lfoqa] ,
lfoq]Ti
ylifq
] ]Ti
lfoqy] I
lfoq]Ti
lfoq]nI
Wlf]q]Ti
hn:lf] q
o ]Ti
Wlf]qy] I
hn:lf] q
o ]Ti
lfoq]
ylifq
] i
Wlf]qi
hn:lf] q
o ]
lfeqo
lWfq;
l/fq;

yTidb 'K;
T;db 'K;
T]db 'K;
dbeK;
hd:b]K;
Wndb'K;
!T,db 'K]
@T,db 'K]
Wdb]K;
dB'ka] ,
dB'k]Ti
ydIB]k]Ti
dB'ky] I
dB'k]Ti
dB'k]nI
WdB]k]Ti
hn:dB 'k]Ti
WdB]ky] I
hn:dB 'k]Ti
db'K]
ydIb]Ki
Wdb]Ki
hn:dB 'k]
dbeK;

lfoq]

db'K]

yTinf q
o ;
T;nf q
o ;
T]nf q
o ;
@foq;
hn:fq
] :
WNfoq
;
!T,nf q
; ]
@T,nf q
; ]
Wnf]q:
@f'qa] ,
@f'q]Ti
ynIfq
] ]Ti
@f'qy] I
@f'q]Ti
@f'q]nI
Wnf]q]Ti
hN:fq
' ]Ti
Wnf]qy] I
hN:fq
' ]Ti
@f'q]
ynIfq
] i
Wnf]qi
hN:fq
' ]
@foq;

@f'q]

yTilf] q
' ]nI
T;lf] q
' ]nI
T]lf] q
' ]nI
lf'q]nI
hl;fq
] ]nI
Wnl]fq
' ]nI
!T,lf] q
' ]nI
@T,lf] q
' ]nI
Wlf]q]nI
lfeQa; ,
lfeQ;Ti
ylifQ
] :Ti
lfeQy; I
lfeQ;Ti
lfeQ;nI
Wlf]Q:Ti
hn:lf] Q
' ;Ti
Wlf]Qy: I
hn:lf] Q
' ;Ti
lfeQh; i
ylifQ
] h: i
Wlf]Qh: i
hn:lf] Q
' h; i
lf;q]nI
lfoQh; i
lfoq]nI
lfeQh; i

20.3.

. ,

( )

, ,

( )

( )
(.)

();

(.)

( )
,

. ,

126

127

ak

21


1:2

{Oh:t y"n:P-la( |e$oxw Uhobw Uhot hftyfh jerf)fhw


;{yfMah y"n:P-la( tepexar:m {yiholE) axUrw
 hftyfh . hy:h; ( ,
).
(= ) (qatal)
(= )
(yiqtol) 592.
 {Oh:t y"n:P-la( |e$oxw: -
: . y"n:P-la( ,
. ,
, 593.
: .
 ;{yfMah y"n:P-la( tepexar:m {yiholE) axUrw
(tepexar:m). ,

. axUr
, . ,
, , , (,
).
() 594: 595.

21.1.
.
,
().

592

. J-M, 113p.
. HBI, 1.4.2b.
594
. HBI, 2.2.5b.
595
({yfMah)
(- ?). . HBI, 1.1.3b.
593

128

, .
, ,
( ,
). ,
( ) ,
(., =
).
,
, - -
. ., ,
(. . ).
, (. .
).
,
, . ,
, (. .
). ,
(. . ), . . . .

21.2. ( )
21.2.1. (. )
21.2.2.
21.2.2.1.
(a)
(b)
21.2.2.2.
(a)
(b)

.
() (
).

.
.

21.2.2.3.

: .

21.2.2.4.

(a)
(b)
21.2.2.5.
(a)
(b)
21.2.2.6.
(a)
(b)

m.
.

.
.

.
.

129

21.3. ( )
21.3.1.

(. )

21.3.2.

21.3.2.1.
(a)
(b)

.
() (
).

21.3.2.2.

: ( ).

21.3.2.3.

: .

21.3.2.4.

(a)
(b)

m.
.

21.3.2.5. :
596.

21.4.
21.4.1. -,
(), . , rMevy'
rMevy' w ," rMevY' w ".
21.4.2. , ()
,
(a)
(b) l, m, n q.
, .

596

.
597

lf'q;
.

1..
2..
2..
3..
3..
1..
2..
2..
3..

1..
2..
2..
3..
3..
1..
2..
2..
3..
3..
..

..
..
..
. .

..

. . ..
. .
. .

597

. J-M, 2:658-59.

yTilf] q
' ;
T;lf] q
' ;
T]lf] q
' ;
lf'q;
hl;fq
] :
Wnl]fq
' ;
!T,lf] q
' ]
@T,lf] q
' ]
Wlf]q:
lfoqa] ,
lfoq]Ti
ylifq
] ]Ti
lfoqy] I
lfoq]Ti
lfoq]nI
Wlf]q]Ti
hn:lf] q
o ]Ti
Wlf]qy] I
hn:lf] q
o ]Ti
lfoq]
ylifq
] i
Wlf]qi
hn:lf] q
o ]
lfeqo
lWfq;
l/fq;
lfoq]

yTilf] q
' ]nI
T;lf] q
' ]nI
T]lf] q
' ]nI
lf'q]nI
hl;fq
] ]nI
Wnl]fq
' ]nI
!T,lf] q
' ]nI
@T,lf] q
' ]nI
Wlf]q]nI
lfeQa; ,
lfeQ;Ti
ylifQ
] :Ti
lfeQy; I
lfeQ;Ti
lfeQ;nI
Wlf]Q:Ti
hn:lf] Q
' ;Ti
Wlf]Qy: I
hn:lf] Q
' ;Ti
lfeQh; i
ylifQ
] h: i
Wlf]Qh: i
hn:lf] Q
' h; i

yTilF] q
' i
T;lF] q
' i
T]lF] q
' i
lFeqi
hl;Fq
] i
Wnl]Fq
' i
!T,lF] q
' i
@T,lF] q
' i
WlF]qi
lFeqa' }
lFeq'T]
yliFq
] 'T]
lFeqy'
lFeq'T]
lFeq'n
WlF]q'T]
hn:lF] q
e 'T]
WlF]qy'
hn:lF] q
e 'T]
lFeq'
yliFq
] '
WlF]q'
hn:lF] q
e '
lFeqm' ]

yTilF] q
' u
T;lF] q
' u
T]lF] q
' u
lF'qu
hl;Fq
] u
Wnl]Fq
' u
!T,lF] q
' u
@T,lF] q
' u
WlF]qu
lF'qau }
lF'quT]
yliFq
] uT]
lF'qyu
lF'quT]
lF'qun
WlF]quT]
hn:lF] q
' uT]
WlF]qyu
hn:lF] q
' uT]

lf;q]nI
lfoQh; i
lfoq]nI
lfeQh; i

lF;qmu ]
lFoq'
lFeq'
lFeq'

lFoqu

130

131

21.5.

, !

. ,

(.)

(.) ,

. -,

132

bk

22


22:16

yfxOq:lam qfB:dum ynO$:lU yixoK &erexaK $"bfy


;yn"t:P:$iT twfm-rapA(al:w
 yixoK &erexaK $"bfy: .
, 3.. vby: () . &erexaK ,
() ?
&erex , .
(
) k: . yixoK .
1..: .
 yfxOq:lam qfB:dum ynO$:lU: (qfB:dum):
/ . ( ) ynO$:l. yfxOq:lam
1..: ,
, , .
 ;yn"t:P:$iT twfm-rapA(al:w: 2.. tpv
1.. : / .
(twfm-rapA(al:w) .

22.1.
.
, .
, ,
, - - / .
:

(.. ,
- )

133

(. 21.1),
598.
,

.
: ,
.

22.2.
22.2.1.

(. )

22.2.2.

22.2.2.1.
(a)
(b)

h.
() (
).

22.2.2.2.

: .

22.2.2.3.

: h ( ).

22.2.2.4.

: m .

22.2.2.5.

(a)
(b)
22.2.2.6.
(a)
(b)

h ( ).
.

h .
.

22.3.
22.3.1.

(. )

22.3.2.

22.3.2.1.
(a)
(b)

598

h.
( ).

22.3.2.2.

: .

22.3.2.3.

: .


/ / (. IBHS. . 355), .
.

22.3.2.4.
(a)
(b)

m .
.

22.3.2.5. : h (
3..).
22.3.2.6. :
.

22.4.
, , .
, .
, lyfiqy] " lfeqY] w" ."

22.5.

( ) ,

( )
,

,
( , )
,

, ,

(.)

, ,

134

135

lf'q;

yTilF] q
' i
T;lF] q
' i
T]lF] q
' i
lFeqi
hl;Fq
] i
Wnl]Fq
' i
!T,lF] q
' i
@T,lF] q
' i
WlF]qi
lFeqa' }
lFeq'T]
yliFq
] 'T]
lFeqy'
lFeq'T]
lFeq'n
WlF]q'T]
hn:lF] q
e 'T]
WlF]qy'
hn:lF] q
e 'T]
lFeq'
yliFq
] '
WlF]q'
hn:lF] q
e '

yTilF] q
' u
T;lF] q
' u
T]lF] q
' u
lF'qu
hl;Fq
] u
Wnl]Fq
' u
!T,lF] q
' u
@T,lF] q
' u
WlF]qu
lF'qau }
lF'quT]
yliFq
] uT]
lF'qyu
lF'quT]
lF'qun
WlF]quT]
hn:lF] q
' uT]
WlF]qyu
hn:lF] q
' uT]

..

yTilf] q
' ;
T;lf] q
' ;
T]lf] q
' ;
lf'q;
hl;fq
] :
Wnl]fq
' ;
!T,lf] q
' ]
@T,lf] q
' ]
Wlf]q:
lfoqa] ,
lfoq]Ti
ylifq
] ]Ti
lfoqy] I
lfoq]Ti
lfoq]nI
Wlf]q]Ti
hn:lf] q
o ]Ti
Wlf]qy] I
hn:lf] q
o ]Ti
lfoq]
ylifq
] i
Wlf]qi
hn:lf] q
o ]

..

lfeqo

..

lWfq;

lf;q]nI

.
.

l/fq;

lfoQh; i
lfoq]nI

lFoq'
lFeq'

.
.

lfoq]

lfeQh; i

lFeq'

1..
2..
2..
3..
3..
1..
2..
2..
3..

1..
2..
2..
3..
3..
1..
2..
2..
3..
3..

..
..
..

.
.
.
.

yTilf] q
' ]nI
T;lf] q
' ]nI
T]lf] q
' ]nI
lf'q]nI
hl;fq
] ]nI
Wnl]fq
' ]nI
!T,lf] q
' ]nI
@T,lf] q
' ]nI
Wlf]q]nI
lfeQa; ,
lfeQ;Ti
ylifQ
] :Ti
lfeQy; I
lfeQ;Ti
lfeQ;nI
Wlf]Q:Ti
hn:lf] Q
' ;Ti
Wlf]Qy: I
hn:lf] Q
' ;Ti
lfeQh; i
ylifQ
] h: i
Wlf]Qh: i
hn:lf] Q
' h; i

lFeqm' ]

yTilf] q
' h] i
T;lf] q
' h] i
T]lf] q
' h] i
lyfiqh] i
hl;yfiq
h] i
Wnl]fq
' h] i
!T,lf] q
' h] i
@T,lf] q
' h] i
Wlyfiq
h] i
lyfiqa] '
lyfiq]T'
yliyfiq
]T'
lyfiqy] "
lyfiq]T'
lyfiq]n"
Wlyfiq
]T'
hn:lf] q
e ]T'
Wlyfiq
y] "
hn:lf] q
e ]T'
lfeqh] '
yliyfiq
h] '
Wlyfiq
h] '
hn:lf] q
e h] '

yTilf] q
' h] ;
T;lf] q
' h] ;
T]lf] q
' h] ;
lf'qh] ;
hl;fq
] h] ;
Wnl]fq
' h] ;
!T,lf] q
' h] ;
@T,lf] q
' h] ;
Wlf]qh] ;
lf'qa] ;
lf'q]T;
ylifq
] ]T;
lf'qy] :
lf'q]T;
lf'q]n:
Wlf]q]T;
hn:lf] q
' ]T;
Wlf]qy] :
hn:lf] q
' ]T;

lyfiqm] '
lF;qmu ]
lFoqu

lf;qm] ;
lfeqh] '

lfeqh] ;

lyfiqh] '

lf'qh] ;

136

gk

23


3:8

}fGaB |"Lah:tim {yiholE) hfwhy lOq-te) U(:m:$Yaw


OT:$i)w {fdf)fh )"Bax:tYw {OYah axUr:l
;}fGah j"( |Ot:B {yiholE) hfwhy yn:Pim
 {yiholE) hfwhy lOq-te) U(:m:$Yaw: ?
, ? ?
, lOq ,
.
 }fGaB |"Lah:tim (|"Lah:tim) .
{yiholE) hfwhy.
 {OYah axUr:l: , :
[] .
 OT:$i)w {fdf)fh )"Bax:tYw:
wayyiqtol. )"Bax:tYw )bx,
(, , , )599.
 {yiholE) hfwhy yn:Pim .
()"Bax:tYw). : . yn:Pim
( ).
 ;}fGah j"( |Ot:B: , ,
. j"( }fGah.

23.1.
.
:

599

Holladay. . 93.

137

(a)
(b)

(t]h)i
() ( ).

23.2.
23.2.1.

(. )

23.2.2.

23.2.2.1.
(a)
(b)

t]h.i
() (
).

: t]a,, t]T,i t]yI t]nI ( t]ha


i ,, t]hiT,i
t]hyi I t]hin)I .

23.2.2.2.

23.2.2.3. : t]hi ( )
( ).
23.2.2.4.

: t]mi ( t]hm
i )i .

23.2.2.5. ( ): t]hi ( )
, .

23.3.
23.3.1. - ( ,
), z, s, x, v c, t
600. ,

&Pev'th] i &PeT'vh] i601


rMev'ta] w, : rMeT'va] w, 602
:
603
lBes'ty] wI lBeTs' y] wI
23.3.2. x, t, t
f. ,

WndYx" 'th] i WndYf" x' h] 604


i
23.3.3. (d, f, t, n z), t
.
. ,

Wrh}f'th] i Wrh}Fh' 605


i
600

.
. 2:12
602
. 18:24
603
. 12:5
604
. . 9:12
605
. 6:20
601

138

23.4.

() (),

( )

-;

( )
,

-,

. , ;

139

lf'q;
.

..

yTilf] q
' ;
T;lf] q
' ;
T]lf] q
' ;
lf'q;
hl;fq
] :
Wnl]fq
' ;
!T,lf] q
' ]
@T,lf] q
' ]
Wlf]q:
lfoqa] ,
lfoq]Ti
ylifq
] ]Ti
lfoqy] I
lfoq]Ti
lfoq]nI
Wlf]q]Ti
hn:lf] q
o ]Ti
Wlf]qy] I
hn:lf] q
o ]Ti
lfoq]
ylifq
] i
Wlf]qi
hn:lf] q
o ]

..

lfeqo

..

lWfq;

1..
2..
2..
3..
3..
1..
2..
2..
3..

1..
2..
2..
3..
3..
1..
2..
2..
3..
3..

..
..
..

.
.
.
.

.
.

l/fq;

.
.

lfoq]

yTilf] q
' ]nI
T;lf] q
' ]nI
T]lf] q
' ]nI
lf'q]nI
hl;fq
] ]nI
Wnl]fq
' ]nI
!T,lf] q
' ]nI
@T,lf] q
' ]nI
Wlf]q]nI
lfeQa; ,
lfeQ;Ti
ylifQ
] :Ti
lfeQy; I
lfeQ;Ti
lfeQ;nI
Wlf]Q:Ti
hn:lf] Q
' ;Ti
Wlf]Qy: I
hn:lf] Q
' ;Ti
lfeQh; i
ylifQ
] h: i
Wlf]Qh: i
hn:lf] Q
' h; i

yTilF] q
' i
T;lF] q
' i
T]lF] q
' i
lFeqi
hl;Fq
] i
Wnl]Fq
' i
!T,lF] q
' i
@T,lF] q
' i
WlF]qi
lFeqa' }
lFeq'T]
yliFq
] 'T]
lFeqy'
lFeq'T]
lFeq'n
WlF]q'T]
hn:lF] q
e 'T]
WlF]qy'
hn:lF] q
e 'T]
lFeq'
yliFq
] '
WlF]q'
hn:lF] q
e '

yTilF] q
' u yTilf] q
' h] i
T;lF] q
' u T;lf] q
' h] i
T]lF] q
' u T]lf] q
' h] i
lF'qu
lyfiqh] i
hl;Fq
] u hl;yfiq
h] i
Wnl]Fq
' u Wnl]fq
' h] i
!T,lF] q
' u !T,lf] q
' h] i
@T,lF] q
' u @T,lf] q
' h] i
WlF]qu Wlyfiq
h] i
lF'qau }
lyfiqa] '
lF'quT]
lyfiq]T'
yliFq
] uT] yliyfiq
]T'
lF'qyu
lyfiqy] "
lF'quT]
lyfiq]T'
lF'qun
lyfiq]n"
WlF]quT] Wlyfiq
]T'
hn:lF] q
' uT] hn:lf] q
e ]T'
WlF]qyu Wlyfiq
y] "
hn:lF] q
' uT] hn:lf] q
e ]T'
lfeqh] '
yliyfiq
h] '
Wlyfiq
h] '
hn:lf] q
e h] '

lFeqm' ]

lyfiqm] '

lf;q]nI
lfoQh; i
lfoq]nI
lfeQh; i

lF;qmu ]
lFoq'
lFeq'
lFeq'

lFoqu

yTilf] q
' h] ;
T;lf] q
' h] ;
T]lf] q
' h] ;
lf'qh] ;
hl;fq
] h] ;
Wnl]fq
' h] ;
!T,lf] q
' h] ;
@T,lf] q
' h] ;
Wlf]qh] ;
lf'qa] ;
lf'q]T;
ylifq
] ]T;
lf'qy] :
lf'q]T;
lf'q]n:
Wlf]q]T;
hn:lf] q
' ]T;
Wlf]qy] :
hn:lf] q
' ]T;

yTilF] q
' 'th] i
T;lF] q
' 'th] i
T]lF] q
' 'th] i
lFeq'th] i
hl;Fq
] 'th] i
Wnl]Fq
' 'th] i
!T,lF] q
' 'th] i
@T,lF] q
' 'th] i
WlF]q'th] i
lFeq'ta] ,
lFeq't]Ti
yliFq
] 't]Ti
lFeq'ty] I
lFeq't]Ti
lFeq't]nI
WlF]q't]Ti
hn:lF] q
e 't]Ti
WlF]q'ty] I
hn:lF] q
e 't]Ti
lFeq'th] i
yliFq
] 'th] i
WlF]q'th] i
hn:lF] q
e 'th] i
lFeq'tm] i

lf;qm] ;
lfeqh] '

lfeqh] ;

lFeq'th] i

lyfiqh] '

lf'qh] ;

lFeq'th] i

140

dk

24
/qatal

4:14

hfmfdA)fh y"n:P la("m {OYah yito) fT:$ar"G }"h


jerf)fB dnw (fn yityiyfhw r"tfSe) !yenfPimU
;yn"g:rahay yi):com-lfk hfyfhw
 $rg .
 (fn dn . ?
 hfmfdA)fh y"n:P la("m ,
, . ,
(y"n:P la("m = ). hfmfdA)fh ?
 r"tfSe) !yenfPimU: ?
 jerf)fB dnw (fn yityiyfhw: (qatal) hyh. ,
(), ().
 ;yn"g:rahay yi):com-lfk: .
1.. (). , ,
1.. (ynIa} ykina
O ;)606.

24.1.
, ytia,o *t]ao
..607,
.
(, ). (, ,
) (
, ).

606
607

. 12.
. 15.1.

141

24.2.
24.2.1.

:
,
,
,
.

(a)
(b)
(c)

608

...

1..
2..
2. .
3..
3..
1..
2..
2..
3..
3..

ynI
*
&
/ Wh
H : h;
Wn
!k,
@k,
!
@

yTirm 'v]
T;rm 'v]
yTirm 'v]
rm'v]
T]rm" ;v]
Wnrm'v]
Wtrm 'v]
Wrm;v]

yTirm 'v;
T;rm 'v;
T]rm 'v;
rm'v;
hr:m]v:
Wnrm'v;
!T,rm 'v]
@T,rm 'v]

. 1..

Wrm]v:

. 3..

. 2..
. 2. .
. 3..
. 3..
. 1..
. 2..
. 2..

608

... = , ,

!k,yTil f] q
' ]
@k,yTil f] q
' ]
!yTilf] q
' ]
@yTilf] q
' ]
!T;lf] q
' ]
@T;lf] q
' ]

!yTilf] q
' ]
@yTilf] q
' ]

!l;fq
; ]
@l;fq
; ]

Wnl;f q
; ]

WnTl; f] q
' ] WnyTli f] q
' ]

*Wnlf] q
' ]
&Wnl]fq
' ]

Wnl]fq
' ;
ynIWTlf] q
' ]

!T,lf] q
' ]
@T,lf] q
' ]

h;Wnlf] q
' ]

!k,Wnlf] q
' ]
@k,Wnlf] q
' ]
!t'lf; q
; ] !Wnl]fq
' ]
@t'lf; q
; ] @Wnl]fq
' ]

Wnt]lf' q
; ]

hT;lf' q
; ]

!WTl]fq
' ]
@WTl]fq
' ]

WnTul f] q
' ]

h;WTlf] q
' ]

Hl;Fq
] i

/lF]qi

ynIlF' q
] i
*l]Fq
, i
&leFq
, i

lFeqi

3.
.

Hl;yfiqh] i

/lyfiqh] i

ynIly' fiqh] i
*l]yfiqh] i
&leyfiqh] i

lyfiqh] i

3..

Wnl;F q
] i Wnl;y fiqh] i
!k,ly] fiq]
!k,lF] q
, i
hi
@k,lF] q
, i @k,ly] fiqh] i
!Wlf;q] !l;Fq
] i !l;yfiqh] i
@Wlf;q]
@l;Fq
] i @l;yfiqh] i

WnWlfq
; ]

h;Wlfq
; ]

WhWlfq
; ]

ynIWlfq
; ]
*Wlfq
; ]
&Wlf;q]

Wlf]q:

2..
3.
2..

Wht]lf' q
; ]
WhWnlf] q
' ] WhWTlf] q
' ]
/Tl'f q
; ]

ynItl] f' q
; ]
*t]lf' q
; ]
&t,lf; q
; ]

hl;fq
] :

1..

:
1. , . , -
, .
2. ( ) . ,
r Wnr;m
;v] ( ).
3. 2.. 1.. , .
3.. h : t " t ,: 2.. T] yTi Ti. 2.. 1..
4. 2.. 2.. , !T,rm
v' ] @T,rm v' ] !WTrmv' ]
@WTrm'v.] , .

3..

3..

2..

2..

1..

Hl;fq
; ]

h;yTli f] q
' ]

HT;lf] q
' ]

h;yTli f] q
' ]

Whl;f q
; ]
/lf;q]

3..

ynIlf' q
; ]
*l]fq
: ]
&lefq
; ]

ynITl' f] q
' ] ynIyTil f] q
' ]

WhTl; f] q
' ]
WhyTil f] q
' ]
/Tl]fq
' ]

lf'q;

3.. 3..

T]lf] q
' ;

T;lf] q
' ;

WhyTli f] q
' ]
wyTilf] q
' ]

*yTil f] q
' ]
&yTilf] q
' ]

yTilf] q
' ;

2.. 2..

3..

2..

2..

1..

1..

.
142

143

24.2.2.

1.

,
. , !k, *,
, .

2.

(
). :
,
.
,
, .
,
, , . . .

3.

:
,
h.

4.

1, .
, . ,
.

24.3.

(.)

, ,

(.) ,

() ,

(
)
609

( ,
)

609

. Holladay. . 365.

= ,

144

hk

25
/yiqtol


30:7

!yeholE) hfwhy }atnw


heL")fh tOlf)fh-lfK t")
;!Upfd:r re$A) !ye)no&-la(w !yebyo)-la(
 !yeholE) hfwhy }atnw: ,
(, ,
).
 heL")fh tOlf)fh-lfK t") .
heL")fh?
 !ye)no&-la(w !yebyo)-la(:
tOlf)fh. ?
 ;!Upfd:r re$A): #dr. 23.

25.1.
25.1.1.
, , (, , )
.
.

...

610

1..
2..
610

rm]va] ,
rm]v]Ti

rmova] ,
rmov]Ti

ynI
*
... = , , .

. 1..
. 2..

145

&
Wh
h;
Wn
!k,
@k,
!
@

2. .
3..
3..
1..
2..
2..
3..
3..

E
E

yrIm]v]Ti
rm]vy] I
rm]v]Ti
rm]v]nI
Wrm]v]Ti
Wrm]v]Ti
Wrm]vy] I
Wrm]v]Ti

yrIm]v]Ti
rmovy] I
rmov]Ti
rmov]nI
Wrm]v]Ti
hn:rm ov]Ti
Wrm]vy] I
hn:rm ov]Ti

. 2. .
. 3..
. 3..
. 1..
. 2..
. 2..
. 3..
. 3..

25.1.2.
1.

,
( ).
.

2.

, .

3.

, 2.. 3.. .
, , .

4.


. :
(a)

:
., yNIrm
< ]vy] I *r<m ]vy] I

(b)

, h, , h :
., WNr<m
]vy] I ( WhrEm ]vy] )I hN:rm< ]vy] I ( h;rm< ]vy] )I

.
25.1.3.

3..

3..611

rmovy] I

rMevy'

3..

lyvimy] 612
"

1..

ynIrmE ]vy] I

ynIrME ]vy'

ynIlye vimy] "

2..

*rm;vy] I

*rM,vy'


*l]yvimy] "

2..

&rEm]vy] I

&rEM]vy'

&leyvimy] "

WhrEm ]vy] I

h;rm< ]vy] I

WhrEM ]vy'

h;rM< ]vy'


Whley vimy] "

h;ly, vimy] "

3..
3..
611

: .. 2:9.
(. Holladay. Lexicon. . 378).
612
rmv , lvm .

1..
2..
2..
3..
3..

146

WnrEm ]vy] I

WnrEM ]vy'

Wnley vimy] "

!k,rm ;vy] I

!k,rM ,vy'


!k,ly] vimy] "

@k,rm ;vy] I

@k,rM ,vy'

@k,ly] vimy] "

!rEm]vy] I

@rEm]vy] I

!rEM]vy'

@rEM]vy'


!leyvimy] "

@leyvimy] "

25.1.4.
1.

, ,
.

2.

.
, .
.

3.

,
.
.

25.2.
25.2.1. : ,
.
.

..
..
..
..

rm]v;
yrIm]vi
Wrm]vi
Wrm]vi

rmov]
yrIm]vi
Wrm]vi
hn:rm ov]

rM]v'
yrIM]v'
WrM]v'
WrM]v'

rMev'
yrIM]v'
WrM]v'
hn:rM ev'

rymivh] '
yrIymivh] '
Wrymivh] '
Wrymivh] '

rmevh] '
yrIymiv h] '
Wrymivh] '
hn:rm evh] '

25.2.2.
1.

, , .
.. .

2.

,
..

25.2.3.

147

1..

..

..

..

rmov]

rMev'

lvemh] '

ynIrmE ]v;

ynIrME ]v'

ynIlye vimh] '

WhrEm ]v;
h;rmE ]v;
WnrEm ]v;

WhrEM ]v'
h;rME ]v'
WnrEM ]v'

Whley vimh] '


h;lye vimh] '
Wnley vimh] '

!rEm]v;
@rEm]v;

!rEM]v'
@rEM]v'

!leyvimh] '
@leyvimh] '

2..
2..
3..
3..
1..
2..
2..
3..
3..

25.3.
25.3.1.

613

1..
2..
2..
3..
3..
1..
2..
2..
3..
3..

yrIm]v;
*rm]v;
&rEm]v;
/rm]v;
hr:m]v;
WnrEm ]v;
!k,rm ;v]
@k,rm ;v]
!r:m]v;
@r:m]v;

ynIrmE ]v;
*rm;v]
&rEm]v;
/rm]v;
hr:m]v;
WnrEm ]v;
!k,rm ;v]
@k,rm ;v]
!r:m]v;
@r:m]v;

25.3.2.
1.

2.

, (., B]
l]), (., la,).

25.3.3.
613

,
.
.

.

614

615
616

148

9 : Y ( 1)
BH E( 2)
6 ? :( 3)
6 :@( 4)


617

25.3.4. :
,
, , .
., Od:mf(:B (1 25.3.3 ) :
.. . b . 3.. dm[

25.4.

(
)

, ,

( )
,

( ) ,

( )
,
, ()

( 618)

614

41:46.
10:9.
616
34:29.
617
23:20.
618
.
615

.
.
.
; ,

149

wk

26
: 1-

10:7

{yibUr:Kal tOny"Bim wody-te) bUr:Kah xal:$Yw


{yibur:Kah tOny"B re$A) $")fh-le)
{yiDaBah $ub:l y"n:pfx-le) }"TYw )f>Yw
;)"cYw xaQYw
 tOny"Bim (@yBe + @mi) , @yBem:i .
 y"n:pfx .
, : @p,jo (
).
 $ub:l .
vbl. ,
()
: {yiDaBah.

26.1.
, :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

( ) ,
,
,
,
.


619:

619

.
. (, ,

. 3.1.

150

h j
.)620
, a.
.

26.2.
.
l['P; ( , , )621.
p, [, l.
.

p- ap622
[-
l- al
[[

l
s
a
l

k'
a'
le
l'

a;
m;
m;
q;

II
k'
a'
le
l'

I
a;
m;
m;
q;

:


I- I-a
II-
III- III-a
II=III,

III
l
s
a
l

26.3. ,
26.3.1.

I- (p-)
: .

, ,
.
-:

gr"h;
bv'j;
620

&p'h;
ql'j;

&l'h;
af;j;

hy:h;
ld'j;

hg:h;
rb'j;

. 6.1.2.3.

. . 13.1.3.
622
-, -.
621

151

hc;[;
hx;r:
!v'a;

hl;[;
ap;r:
rm'a;

dm'[;
sm'r:
lk'a;

rb'[;
qj'r:
hb;a;

db'[;
ha;r:
623
db'a;

26.3.1.1. ,
,
.

abejh; e

Wrz[y: E

26.3.1.2. ,
.
.

dm;[m? :

qz"j}

dmo[y} "

: ,
,
.

dmojy] "

rs'jy] <

26.3.1.3. ,

.

dymi[h> <

hn:qz] j" >T<

26.3.1.4. ,
.

!dEb][;n:

Wdb][y' "

26.3.1.5. - (I-a) ,
I-. ,
.

hp;a; rm'a; lk'a; zj'a; hb;a; db'a;


1.

a ,
.

rm,aYo w"

lkeaoT

2. -
.

rmoale

623

ht,aTe

,
. - I-.

152

3. a a
.

rm'ao

lkeao

4. a .

#seTo (. 104:29)

.WnpEL m] ' (. 35:11)

5. , .
, , .
26.3.2.

I-y (yp) I-w (wp)


: y w ,
,
, .
I-w (wp)

26.3.2.1.

1. ,
.
1: , w ( 9 ):

a.

&l'h; bv'y: dr"y: [q'y: ax;y: #s'y: dl'y: dj'y: [d"y:


:
b.

&le bveTe axeyE td<l, [d"

2: , w ( 50% wp):

rt'y: @vey: vr"y: arEy: rx'y: $['y: #[ey: ds'y:


y,
:

@v'yyI vr"yyI WaryyI


2. w y, :

, ,
,
,
, ,
:

T;[D] y" I dL'yU [d"y:

3. w /
:

t/bv;/n bv;/n bv'/n dl'/n


4. w / :

153

dyli/h T;[D] /" h ['ydI/y


5. , w W :

lb'Wy dr"Wh t['dW" m


6. , ,
, / :

dleWy: I [D"w"ta] , /dl]Wh: i


I-y (yp)

26.3.2.2.

1. I-y: 6 .

rv'y: $q'y: qn"y: @m'y: ll'y:


a.

y ,
:

bfeyyE
b.

bf'y:

bf'yyI

t;/xyqih} (. 6:22) $yqihe (. 29:8) Whqey nITw] " (. 2:9)


rvi/a (. 45:2) rv'/h (. 5:9) @ymihle ] (2 . 14:19)
c.

(I-y I-w):

vbey: ( )
rx'y: ( )
rvi/a (. 45:2) rv'/h (. 5:9) @ymihle ] (2 . 14:19)
2.
a.

b.

y .
,
( I-n).
- ( x).
:
( ) [x'y: <
( ) tx'y: <
( ) gx'y: <

c.

I-y:
( ) qx'y: <
( ) rx'y: <

d.

['yXiy"
tX"Ti
gXoyI

qXoa,
WhrEXy] I

-:
(3 . 3:15) $Q'YwI "
(. 40:20) td<Lh
, u

26.3.2.3.

154

I-y (yp) I-w (wp):

,
,
, I-y I-w.
(. 40:30) Wp[}yI (1)
(. 65:23) W[gyI (2)
(4 . 17:28) WaryI (3)
(. 37:4) WaryI (4)
(. 47:11) bve/y (5)
(. 10:5, 11) Wvybiho (6)
26.3.3.

I-n (@p)
: , ,
, .

26.3.3.1. , y
, :
1. :

yaic] W[s] WnT] hq;v] vG" [G" lv' @Te


2. (
t:

taecB] i /Tv]GI t['fl' ; tv,G< tTe


26.3.3.2. , y
, :
1. , :

jP'yI dG"nI dG:nI @TeTi


2. :

dyGIhi
26.3.3.3.

dG"hu

1. :

['senO lxeN:nI d/gn:


2. n I-n, II:

155

ljon #a'ny I &le[}na w, :


3.

jq'l; I-n :
jQ'yI tj'q' jQ'yU

4.

@t'n: :

ttel; tteB] tTemi tTe

WnT] @Te @Tea, WnT]Ti WnT]yI


@:
T;t'n: !T,t'n yTit'n:
26.4.
1 (1 ) 16:1-10.
. ,
. , ,
. , ,
.

26.5.
1 (1 ) 16:1-10 .
, ,
.

156

zk

27
: 2-

6:10

heZah {f(fh-b"l }"m:$ah


(a$fh wyfny"(w d"B:kah wyfnzf)w
(fm:$y wyfnzf):bU wyfny"(:b he):ry-}eP
;Ol )fpfrw bf$w }yiby Obfb:lU
 heZah {f(fh-b"l }"m:$ah: ,
. ., (}m$).
.
 (a$fh wyfny"(w ,
(, ). ,
, , (a$fh ((($).
 he):ry-}eP: (}eP) ,
. ha;r.:
 Ol )fpfrw bf$w (qatal),
(yiqtol). bf$ , ,
624. ? Ol
)fpfr 625.

27.1. ,
27.1.1.

II- ([-)
: .

624
625

. . 62 (8.1.4).
.: Holladay, 344 (qal 1).

157

, , II-
-:

fj'v; la'v; !j'l; q['z: la'G: &r"B; r['B; rj'B;


.

27.1.1.1.

1. ( )
, :

@aemy;
&rEBe
&r"byo

rMevy'
rMevi
rM'vyu

2. :

a:

Wlaevi

(. 29:23) Wpa}nY" w "

[:
(1 . 16:14) WTt'[b
} WI

(h j):

!jeny" !jenI rh'mi


27.1.1.2.

.
:

27.1.1.3.

Wbh>a<

hb;ha} ;v, !yqij}cm' ] Wfj}v: Wrj}B:

a.
:

fj'vy] I !j'nI

:
27.1.2.

626

Wd[}s' yTiqj] 'ci q['xa] ,

r[eby' laeGy: I &rEby;

II- ( )
: .

, (y ,I / W),
.
w[ y[:

tWm @yBi a/B !yci !Wq v/B rWG


: w y ,
II- ( ):

626

v, , , rv,a.}
(hb;ha} ;v), 1:7; 3:1, 2, 3, 4.

158

jw"r: hw:q; hw:x; hy:j; hy:h;


27.1.2.1. II-
, ,
3 . .
.
27.1.2.2. II- ,
.
1. a-:

(!Wq) !q;

(!yci) !c;

2. i-:

(tWm) tme

(@yBi) @yBi

3. o-:

(v/B) v/B

(a/B) aB;

27.1.2.3.
.
1. :
2. :

@/kn:

3. :

aybihl; ]

@ybiy: Waboy:
@/bn:
!yqihe

!yqiy:

@ybiy:

: II-y (y[)
.
(. 28:9) @ybiy:
4. :
27.1.2.4.

!r:Wm

(. 48:12) hn:lg] ET;

!q'Wh

1.
:

@/kn: @/bn: @/qn:


2. ,
:
( .) hn:ym,W qT] (. .) hn:ya,y biT]
(. .) yti/mWqn (. .) t;/myqih} ( .) t;/nyB}
27.1.2.5.

1. :

ymim/] q lfelf] i gvegvi


2. :

!m'/q Wnn:/ K

3. :

@nE/Bt]a, rrE/Gt]mi

159

: ,
.
27.1.3.

II- ([[)
:
(1)
.
(2)
.

[[:

!m'v; dd"v; ll"P; bb's; @n"j; ll"j;


: II-

, II-
.
27.1.3.1.

, () :

lLeqi dD:vu @NEj'tm] i b/bs; ll'B; Wll}Gw: !mevh] '


: 3- ,
:

rr"x;

( , , )

, 1:

rx'
27.1.3.2.

( , , , )

1. , :

lle/my lq'lq
] i lGElG] I

2. :

ll'/[

3. :

lle/qt]hi

27.1.3.3.
:

lqey: lQ'yI lqoy: bsehe lq'Wh


27.1.3.4.
:
() t;/Bs'

() hn:yB,s
W' T

27.2.
1 (1 ) 16:11-23.
. ,

160

. , ,
.

27.3.
1 (1 ) 16:11-23 .
, ,
. , 1
16:1-10, ,
.

161

jk

28
3- .

42:25

rfB {ehy"l:K-te) U):lamyw v"sOy wacyw


OQa&-le) $yi) {ehy"P:saK byi$fh:lU
;}"K {ehfl &a(aYw |erfDal hfd"c {ehfl t"tflw
 42:25 .
, 28.2.3, .
.
 ? ,
- , .

28.1. 3-
28.1.1.

III- (l-)
: a.

() III -:

[m'v; jl'v; [v'P; Hb'G: jb'z: jf'B;


: r , r
, . , r

.
627.
, a, III-a (al),
, h III-h (hl),
( ) .

627

(, ),
.
(, ): .

162

H (h ),
.
28.1.1.1. a,
:

[B;v]nI jk'v]nI h[;qb] h] ; jL'vu jL'vyu


1. a:

[q'bY] wI " !jevm; y] I [g"P]


2. , ,
( ,
, 2C).

[d"Wy: I [G"ny" w " jK'vi [S'v' [m'Vh; i


28.1.1.2. ,
.
:

j'/lv]nI j'Wlv; j'Tpo l] i ['mevo ['ymivh] i H'yGIy" .['QBE i


28.1.1.3. , ,
, :
1. 2 :

t['Gh" i T]j'k'v;

t['m'v;

T][m' 'v;

2. 2 3
hn: :

hn:jL] 'v'T] hn:j]K'v'Ti


28.1.1.4.
( , ).
,
:

*j}l:v] !k,[m} ]v;K] *j?vm; l] i


28.1.2.

III-a (al)
:
(1) a a.
(2) a ,
.

, a, III- -:

alem;
28.1.2.1.

ar:B; ar:q; ac;n: ax;y: anEc; ax;m;

a:

163

ax;m] ax;m]Ti af;j>T, ar:q] ar:qy] I


a :

28.1.2.2.

1. :

ax;m; ar:q]nI ar:qo tace ac; aF;j'ty] I ha;xW; h

,
: afij}Tw' "

alem; arEy: anEc;

2. :

t;ax;m ; !t,ax;m]

( ):

hn: :

- :

ytiaxem ]nI t;aFej i


@;ax,m W] hn:yaC,T i

*a}xm: ]Ti !k,ay} rIb h] '


28.1.2.3. t.
:

talm] aroq] axoml] i taxe


28.1.2.4.

a :

ytixm; ; hN:Fj, a' } !t,mfe ]nI


28.1.2.5.

III-a III-h:

tmix; talm]
28.1.3.

III-h (hl)
:
(1) .
(2) h
y w.

, h, III- -:

hy:h; hn:B; hl;K; ha;r: hc;[; hl;G: hd:r: hw:x;


28.1.3.1.

y:

yWlG: yWnB;
28.1.3.2.
1.

, h mater lectionis:

h : : hy:h;

hL;Ki

hl;gh ;

2.

164

h < (
):

hk,Bo hn<Qho ' hL,ka' } hc,[}n" hW<xa' } hl,G:Ti hy<hy] I


3.

h E , ,
:

hle[h} '
4.

hnEBo h[ero hce[}

h O ( , , ,
):

hkoB; hlgnI
28.1.3.3. t/ (
w):

t/ar

t/c[} t/LG"th] i

28.1.3.4. h/y (
),
:

Wdr: WDryI Wyh;w


28.1.3.5. h/y
( ) :
1.

y E ( c. ytiyLeK)i :
t;ymed nI ytiyCe[u

2.

y I :
WnynIq
; t;yci[;
:
( ):

t;yle[h> < t;yli[h> <


3.

y < hn::
hn:yc,[}T" hn:yk,B ]

28.1.3.6. 3 h/y , h :
t:

ht;yh ;
28.1.3.7.

(c. 2 t;yair):

ht;ar: :

1. , :

165

rG:th] wi l['h' lG" wx'


:
:
(. 20:38) br<h, < B]rh
' < hBerh '
(. 8:1) l['h' < hle[h
} "
2. wayyiqtol:

T]pY] wI " lG:Ti @b,YwI " c['Yw" " wx'yw "


28.1.3.8. III-h (hl) III-y (yl). y
628 :

bky
ly
qny

hkb
hl[
hnq

wl 3:26: yTiwl
'v.;

28.2. 629
28.2.1.
, . (.
, 2.)

:
E
I
"
/
;
e
'


II- II-
I-w III-h
III-h
III-h
I-w ( )
II-
I-w
II-


;
.

628

. . 13 (1B) . 15 (3A).
: John H. Marks Virgil M. Rogers. A Beginners Handbook to Biblical
Hebrew. New York: Abingdon Press, 1958. . 7678.
629

.
28.2.2.

166

28.2.2.1.

:
a)
i)

(. .
),
;

ii)

,
, .

b) ,
, .
c) -, ,
, .
d) , , ,
, .
28.2.2.2. ,
90% :
a) :
i) ( -),
, , II- (90%)
II- (10%), .
ii) , ,
, I-w () III-h,
.
iii) , ,
, III-h, .
iv) , ,
, III-h,
:
(1) ,
;
(2) ,
.
v) - (/),
I-w,
.
b) :
i) ,
II-.

167

ii) ,
I-w.
iii) ,
II-.
28.2.3.


1) .
2) ,
.
3) .
-
. , ,
.
a) ?

I-n I-y ?
jq'l; ?

b) ,
?

III-a III-h ?
, h III-h y (. ytiyar: <
ha;r): .

c) , . ,
, II-.

II-W II-/, II-y I = II-? C. !q;Yw: " < !Wq, !t,aB; < a/B, T;nB
'
< @yBi

d) , ,
(II-).

., WMvoy: < !m'v;

28.3.
37:1-11. ;
, . ,
. , , ,
.

28.4.
37:1-11 . ,
, .

1
:
I.

I-
-:
,

3
3

. .
. .
II.

II-
-:
,

2
2
1

. .
. .
III.

III-
2
:
,

3
3
2

. .
. .

168

169

IV.

III-
(1) ( );
(2) ;
(3) begadkefat .
,

. .
. .
V.

III-
III- ( ) ,
.
(1) .
(2) .
(3) 3 .
,

. .
. .
VI.

(II-)
(1) .
a: ,
( 3, ).
( )
( )
( )

.
II- :
( )
(2) 3 3 .
,

.
3

2
2
1

. .
, .
:
. .
. . , .
VII.

(II=III)
:
(1) 2- 1- .
(2) .
,

3
3

. .
. .
:
(1) 2- 1- , .
(2) , 3 3.
(3) 3 .
,

2
2

.
5

170

171

1
VIII.

III- III-
, .
,

3
3

. .
. .
IX.

,
.
, (II-) III-.
,

3
3
2
2
1

.
5

. . ( )

172

2
:
I.

I- ( )
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

- .
.
1 - -.
(2, 3, 2) -
,
.
,

..

..

. :

II.

I-
(1) -.
- .
(2) ( ) .
,

..

..

. :

III.

I-
, ()* ,
, .

173

..

..

. :
:
IV.

II-
(1) ,
( ).
(2) , , -
-.
,

..

..

. :
:
V.

III-/
- (
).
,

..

..

. :

174

: .
VI.

III-
(1) ,
.
(2) , ,
, .
(3) (2 3 )
.
,

..

..

. : .
:
VII.

I-
, , I-.
.
.
,

..

..

,
: 5.
: .
.-I- .
 ,

..

..

175

: 5
: 
VIII.

I-
, I-
.
,

..

..

, I-:

5 .
: .
IX.


(1) .
(2) .
,

X.

176


,
.
,
I-. ,
I-.
,

-
..
..

-I-
..

..

3
3

: .
: .
() .
(1) (2) .
,

3
3
2
2
1

,
..
..

: .
XI.

III-
(1) (3, 3, 2, 1, 1),
.
(2) (2, 3, 2), .
(3) (3, 2), ,
.

177

3
3
2
2
1

..

..

: .
: .
XII.

, .
,

3
3
2
2
1

..

..

: ( ;
).
: .
XIII.

I-( I-).
III-, - .
,

3
3
2
2
1

..

..

,
: 5
:
XIV.
, , :

.
,

..

..

3
2

: .
: .
XV.

3
3
2
2
1

..

..

: , .
: .

178

179

3
, ,

I.

I-
, ,
.
.
,

;
:

3
3
2
2
1
.
3
3
2
2
1
/

II.

.-I-
,
.
, .
,

3
3
2
2
1
.
3
3
2
2
1
/

III.

180

.-I-
.-I-
.
,

: ,

3
3
2
2
1
3
3
2
2
1

IV.

III-
-, , III-
. -,
-.
,

3
3
2
2
1
.
3
3
2
2
1
..
..

,
:

181

V.

II-. III-.
(1) II-. :
(., ) ,
(., ) .
(2) III-.
, (., ) .
,
:

:  ,

 / 

,
:

3
3
2
2
1
3
3
2
2
1
3
3
2
2
1
3
3
2
2
1
..
..

182

4

1. ,
.
., ( 2/3 + 3)
2.
., ( 2/3 + 3)
3. , ,
.
:
a) , , , I-.
., ( 2/3)
I- : ( 3)
b) , .
., ( 2).
4. , ,
:
a. III-, ., ( wayyiqtol 3)
b. II-/ , ., ( wayyiqtol 3)
c. (II=III), ., ( 3)
* , , .
, I-/, I-.
5. (, , , , , ) ,
:
a. I-/, .,

( 3).


( 3).

,
.
b. , /
(., . . )
* :
- ( ) (), I-/.
, ,
.
6. 3 , (
, .: ),

183

.
, (II-/).
II-/.
., ( 2).
* II-/ (,
) , .
, .

184

5

,
, :

Qal

Piel
Pual

Nipal

Hipil
Hopal
Hitpael

t- (
Hitpael ).
( )630,
631:

Peal
Peil
Hitpeel

Pael
Hitpaal

Hapel / apel / apel


Hopal
Hitapal

632:

Peal
Etpeel

Pael
Etpaal

Apel
Ettapal

?
. :

= (1) 633 (2)


= (1) (2)

(- ),
() , . 1
- , 2
.
1

630

Hipil
Piel
Hopal
Pual

Alger F. Johns. A Short Grammar of Biblical Aramaic. . 37.


. . 38.
632
W. M. Thackston. Introduction to Syriac. Bethesda, ML: IBEX Publishers, 1999. . 106.
633
, , ,
. ,
.
631

185

.
/, 2
( ), :
= ;
= .
,
() /.

186



5
(.)


( )

,

, ,

(.) ,

, ,


5
,

5
(.)


(.); 5 (.)

(.)

,
5
, ,
5
, ,

,

?
5


,

?

, (.
)


, ,


( )

,

5
(.)
7

,


(.)

, (
) (.)



(.)
5
5

(.)
(.)



,


(.)
5
,

,

, ,
5
(.) ,

(.) , (.

)

,

, ,


(.)
(.)

(.)
(.)

5
5

, .

(.) ,
, (
, )

187







5




.
,



,
,

(. )
, ,
, ,

() ,

(.)

(.)

, ,
,
,

( )

,

 5


, ,

(. )

(.) , ,




5

,
,
()
,
,
, (.)

, (.)


,
.: ; .:
,
,

5
5

 5

,
()

,

(.) ,
,

,

(.)

()
( )

,
, (.
)

,
, ,

,
(. )

,

, ,

,

,
,



(.)
,

,
,
, ,
()


, ,
,

, ,
,
, ,

,
,

,
,

188

189

.
,

()

5
,

5


( ?)
5
,

5
,

,

,

(.)

? ( + )

? ?

,
,

(),

5



 5




5




,
,
(.) ,

,
,

(.) (. )

(. )

, ,

,


(
;

)

() ,
,

,
,
( , )

,
,
,

,

.
5

5


(.) , ,
() ,
,
,

, (
, )

, ,
,
,
()

5

5




?
?

,
,
,
,
,
(.) ,
,
,
, ,
,
(.) , ()
(.) (. )
, ,







5
5




(.)

(.)
(.)

(.)
,



,
(,
)

(.) ,
(.)
,
, ,

()

190

191


5


5




5

5

,
,


()
(),
, ,

,
,
(.) (. )

(.)
,
(.) , ,
,

( )

;
( ..
) ,

, ,
, ,

, ,

7
7


,

()

,
, ()

,
, ,

(, )
() ,
,


, ,
,
, ()
() ,
() , ,
()
() ,

,
, ,
, ,


(.)

.
5

5









(.) 5 ( .)

(.) , , ,
,

, ,


()

 5

()
,
(.: )
(.) ,
(.) ,
,

192