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Republic of China (19121949)

Main articles: Republic of China (19121949) and History of the Republic of China
Sun at!sen" the father of #odern China (seated on ri$ht)" and Chian$ %ai!she&" late
r 'resident of the Republic of China
(n 1 )anuary 1912" the Republic of China *as established" and Sun at!sen of the %
uo#intan$ (the %M+ or ,ationalist 'arty) *as proclai#ed pro-isional president./041
Ho*e-er" the presidency *as later $i-en to uan Shi&ai" a for#er 2in$ $eneral *ho
in 1913 proclai#ed hi#self 4#peror of China. 5n the face of popular conde#nation
and opposition fro# his o*n 6eiyan$ 7r#y" he *as forced to abdicate and reestablis
h the republic./031
7fter uan Shi&ai8s death in 1910" China *as politically fra$#ented. 5ts 6ei9in$!base
d $o-ern#ent *as internationally reco$ni:ed but -irtually po*erless; re$ional *arlo
rds controlled #ost of its territory./001/0<1 5n the late 192=s" the %uo#intan$" under
Chian$ %ai!she&" *as able to reunify the country under its o*n control *ith a series
of deft #ilitary and political #anoeu-rin$s" &no*n collecti-ely as the ,orthern 4>pe
dition./0?1/091 +he %uo#intan$ #o-ed the nation8s capital to ,an9in$ and i#ple#en
ted @political tutela$e@" an inter#ediate sta$e of political de-elop#ent outlined in Su
n at!sen8s San!#in pro$ra# for transfor#in$ China into a #odern de#ocratic state.
/<=1/<11 +he political di-ision in China #ade it diAicult for Chian$ to battle the Co#
#unists" a$ainst *ho# the %uo#intan$ had been *arrin$ since 192< in the Chinese
Ci-il Bar. +his *ar continued successfully for the %uo#intan$" especially after the C
o##unists retreated in the Con$ March" until )apanese a$$ression and the 19D0 E
i8an 5ncident forced Chian$ to confront 5#perial )apan./<21
+he Second Sino!)apanese Bar (19D<1943)" a theatre of Borld Bar 55" forced an un
easy alliance bet*een the %uo#intan$ and the Co##unists. )apanese forces co##it
ted nu#erous *ar atrocities a$ainst the ci-ilian population; in all" as #any as 2= #il
lion Chinese ci-ilians died./<D1 7n esti#ated 2=="=== Chinese *ere #assacred in th
e city of ,an9in$ alone durin$ the )apanese occupation./<41 )apan surrendered unco
nditionally to China in 1943. +ai*an" includin$ the 'escadores" *as put under the ad
#inistrati-e control of the Republic of China" *hich i##ediately clai#ed so-erei$nt
y. China e#er$ed -ictorious but *ar!ra-a$ed and Fnancially drained. +he continued
distrust bet*een the %uo#intan$ and the Co##unists led to the resu#ption of ci-il
*ar. 5n 194<" constitutional rule *as established" but because of the on$oin$ unrest"
#any pro-isions of the R(C constitution *ere ne-er i#ple#ented in #ainland China.
/<31