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To obtain characteristics curves of given centrifugal pump at constant speed

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NAME- Ankita Sharma

ROLL NO. 10003001

Course instructor Prof. Vinod Narayanan

EXPERIMENT NO.4a

Centrifugal Pump

Date: 10/09/2012

2 ME 313 Fluid Mechanics Laboratory

Aim:

To obtain characteristics curves of given centrifugal pump at constant speed by plotting following

graphs:

Total Head Developed Vs Mass flow rate

Efficiency Vs Mass flow rate

Experimental Setup:

A variable speed centrifugal pump to obtain characteristics curves at different speed

Valves on suction and discharge line of pipe to adjust corresponding pressures at desired

levels

Mercury manometer to measure suction and delivery pressures

Energy meter to measure power consumed by the pump

Calibrated tank to measure mass flow rate of water

Water reservoir to supply water to the centrifugal pump

Tachometer to measure R.P.M. of motor

Stop watch.

Procedure:

The water reservoirs were filled with water to 90% of its capacity.

Open the valves on the suction and discharge lines of the pump fully and switch on the

pump.

By making use of speed regulator adjust the speed (RPM) of the pump within 50 of the

desired speed.

Remove air bubbles, if any, from suction and delivery pressure tapping lines and connect

them to the respective manometers.

Note down the suction and delivery manometer readings.

Close the valve at the bottom of the calibrated tank and note down the time required for the

water to rise between tow marks. Open the valve at bottom of the calibrated tank as soon as

the water level reaches the top mark.

Note down the energy meter reading.

Repeat the above procedure for different values of volumetric flow but at a constant speed.

Observations:

S.N. Time taken to fill the

measuring tank t

(s)

Height of mercury

level in first pipe

R

M1

(cm)

Height of mercury

level in second pipe

R

M2

(cm)

Height difference

of mercury

R

M

(cm)

Power

(kW)

1 99 64.1 89.3 25.2 0.061

2 101 64.7 89.9 25.2 0.059

3 105 65.1 90.4 25.3 0.057

4 111 66.5 91.9 25.4 0.056

5 132 71.8 97.4 25.6 0.055

6 172 77.6 103.5 25.9 0.054

7 301 80.8 107.2 26.4 0.049

3 ME 313 Fluid Mechanics Laboratory

Calculations:

Following is the list of Formulas used in the calculation:

a) Volumetric flow rate/Discharge (Q): Volume discharged per unit time

Q =

Where, Volume of the measuring tank = Area of cross section of tank (A

c

) Height of water in

measuring tank

b) Mass flow rate ( ) :

Where, V: volume of the calibrated tank

c) Total Head (H): (

) (

) (

)

Where,

Density of mercury

d) Fluid Horse Power (F.H.P.):

e) Brake horse power of the pump (B.H.P.): [

f) Efficiency of the pump ()

Relevant assumed/Given data:

Density of water at ambient conditions, = 1000 kg/m3

Acceleration due to gravity, = 9.80 m/s2

Volume of calibrated tank, = 11 litres

Energy meter reading when the pump is run empty, kW1= 8 W

Constant speed around which experiment is based = 4100 RPM

Calculation Table:

S.N. Mass flow rate

(kg/s)

Discharge

Q (l/min)

Total Head

H (m)

Fluid Horse

Power

F.H.P. (W)

Brake Horse

Power

B.H.P.(W)

Pump

Efficiency

(%)

1. 0.111111 6.666667 30.95397 33.71919 53 63.62111

2. 0.108911 6.534653 30.95397 33.05148 51 64.80682

3. 0.104762 6.285714 31.0768 31.91854 49 65.13987

4. 0.099099 5.945946 31.19963 30.31255 48 63.15115

5. 0.083333 5.000000 31.4453 25.69081 47 54.6613

6. 0.063953 3.837209 31.8138 19.94725 46 43.36359

7. 0.036545 2.192691 32.42796 11.61848 41 28.33775

Sample Calculation:

Consider the first reading:

4 ME 313 Fluid Mechanics Laboratory

Volumetric flow rate-

Q =

Mass flow rate

Total Head (

) (

) (

) (

) (

)

Fluid horse power

Brake horse power [

Pump efficiency

%

Graphs:

Plot: Total Head Vs Discharge

Plot: Pump Efficiency Vs Discharge

30

30.5

31

31.5

32

32.5

33

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

T

o

t

a

l

H

e

a

d

,

H

(

m

)

Discharge, Q(l/m)

Total Head Vs Discharge

20

30

40

50

60

70

2.002 3.002 4.002 5.002 6.002 7.002

P

u

m

p

E

f

f

i

c

i

e

n

c

y

,

(

%

)

Discharge, Q(l/m)

Pump Efficiency Vs Discharge

5 ME 313 Fluid Mechanics Laboratory

Results:

The characteristics curves, i.e. total head Vs discharge and pump efficiency Vs discharge, are

plotted for the constant value of motor speed (RPM = 4100). They are similar to the typical

curves normally obtained for centrifugal pumps.

From the plot of total head (H) Vs discharge (Q), it is observed that total head increases with

an increase in volumetric or mass flow rate.

From the plot of pump efficiency () Vs discharge (Q), it is observed that efficiency increases

when flow rate increases until it reaches the Best Efficiency Point (BEP), and then it

decreases with further increase in flow rate.

It is also observed that the value of power consumed is higher for the higher values of

volumetric flow rate (Q).

Inference:

The total head increases with a decrease in volumetric/mass flow rate because as the

discharge decreases, value of discharge pressure increases and hence water can be supplied

at greater heights because of the larger force. Head becomes zero at maximum flow rate.

Efficiency increases when flow rate increases until it reaches the Best Efficiency Point (BEP),

and then it decreases with further increase in flow rate.

The power input is proportional to the flow rate for the centrifugal pump.

At zero flow-rate, the power input is not zero; this amount of power is to overcome the

rotor inertia of motor and centrifugal pump as well as mechanical frictional loss.

Sources of Error:

The motor speed control knob is very sensitive to adjust hence its difficult to maintain the

motor speed at a constant value throughout the whole experiment.

Other possible sources of errors are human errors like error while observing the time taken

to fill the measuring tank using a stopwatch or while observing the height of mercury level in

manometer pipes.

Precautions:

Use clean water, free from foreign material, in the sump tank.

Use all the controls and switches carefully.

Do not disturb the pressure gauge connections.

Before starting the experiment, priming must be done. Pump should never be run empty.

Frequently grease/oil the rotating parts.

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