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P18.3 As an internal auditor, you have been assigned to evaluate the controls and operation of a computer payroll
system. To test the computer systems and programs, you submit independently created test transactions with
regular data in a normal production run.List four advantages and two disadvantages of this technique.
1. It doesnt require extensive programming knowledge.
2. Invalid data can be submitted to test for rejections.
3. The auditor gains experience.
4. The approach and results are easy to understand.

1. It is impractical to test all error possibilities
2. Preparation of satisfactory test transactions may be time consuming.

P18.9 Melinda Robinson, the director of internal auditing at Sachem Manufacturing Company, believes the
company should purchase software to assist in the financial and procedural audits her department conducts.
Robinson is considering the following software packages:
A generalized audit software package to assist in basic audit work, such as the retrieval of live data
from large computer files. The department would review this information using conventional audit
investigation techniques. The department could perform criteria selection, sampling, basic
computations for quantitative analysis, record handling, graphical analysis, and print output (i.e.,
An ITF package that uses, monitors, and controls dummy test data processed by existing programs. It
also checks the existence and adequacy of data entry and processing controls.
A flowcharting package that graphically presents the flow of information through a system and
pinpoints control strengths and weaknesses.
A parallel simulation and modeling package that uses actual data to conduct the same tests using a logic
program developed by the auditor. The package can also be used to seek answers to difficult audit
problems (involving many comparisons) within statistically acceptable confidence limits.

a. Without regard to any specific computer audit software, identify the general advantages of using
computer audit software to assist with audits.
Audits can be more efficient, saving labor time spent on routine calculations. The routine
operations of footing extensions, transcription between reports, report generation, etc., are
performed by the computer.
The auditor's time spent on the audit is more analytical than clerical.
The auditor can examine more records and extract data more readily through ad hoc reporting.
Computer-generated reports and schedules are more objective and professional, improving data
Audit sampling is improved. Any bias in sample selection is eliminated because of assured
randomness. This has a direct effect on sampling precision, reliability, and audit accuracy.
Possible to check 100% of all records in a file or database

b. Describe the audit purpose facilitated and the procedural steps to be followed by the internal
auditor in using the following:
Generalized audit software package. The purpose of generalized audit software programs is to
perform a variety of auditing operations on the computer files used to store the information. The
steps to be followed by the internal auditor to use generalized computer audit software would include
things such as planning and designing the audit application.
Integrated test facility package. An integrated test facility (ITF) can be used to test both source
data controls and processing controls as follows:
Select and prepare the test transactions to be passed through the ITF. These transactions must
be representative of all of the transactions the dummy unit emulates. All types of valid and
invalid transactions must be used and blended with regular transactions over time to test the
system properly under normal conditions.
Review all output and processing routines including a comparison of actual results to
predetermined results.
Flowcharting package: The purpose of a control flowcharting package is to interpret the program
source code and generate a program flowchart corresponding to it in order to facilitate the review of
internal controls. To use a control flowcharting package, the internal auditor should:
Establish the audit objective by identifying the systems and programs to be tested.
Review manuals and documentation of the system and interview involved personnel to get an
overview of the operations to be tested.
Parallel simulation and modeling package : The purpose of a parallel simulation package is to
ensure that organizational objectives are being met, ensure compliance to technical standards, and
detect unauthorized program changes. To use a parallel simulation package:
Run the same data used in the company's current application program using the "simulated"
application program.
Compare the results from the "simulated" application with the results from the company's
current application program to verify that objectives are being met.