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Present Tense 2, 3
Past Tenses Imperfect (in the middle of/used to) 4
Preterit (said & done) 5-8
Continuous verb forms 9, 10
Future/Conditional 11, 12
Perfect Tenses Present perfect 13
Past perfect (pluperfect) 14
Reflexive Verbs 15
Passive Voice 16
Subjunctive Mood 17-20
Commands (Imperative Mood) 21-23
Imperfect Subjunctive Mood 24-26


Present Tense
In order to conjugate a standard present tense verb, following the following steps:

1. Drop the -ar/-er/-ir from the infinitive (original) verb
2. Add the proper ending from the tables below:

Regular -AR verbs

yo -o
t -as
l, ella, ud. -a
nosotros -amos
vosotros -is
ellos, ellas, uds. -an

Regular -ER,-IR verbs

yo -o
t -es
l, ella, ud. -e
nosotros -emos, -imos
vosotros -is, -s
ellos, ellas, uds. -en

Example: trabajar-to work

yo trabajo I work
t trabajas you work
ella trabaja she works
nosotros trabajamos we work
vosotros trabajis you guys work
ellos trabajan they work

Example: comer-to eat

yo como I eat
t comes you eat
l come he eats
nosotros comemos we eat
vosotros comis you guys eat
ellas comen they eat


Example: vivir-to live

yo vivo I live
t vives you live
ud. vive you (formal) live
nosotros vivimos we live
vosotros vivs you guys live
uds viven they live

Common Irregulars in Present Tense
(irregularities shown in red)

ir-to go

yo voy
t vas
l, ella, ud. va
nosotros vamos
vosotros vais
ellos, ellas, uds. van

ser-to be (permanent)

yo soy
t eres
l, ella, ud. es
nosotros somos
vosotros sois
ellos, ellas, uds. son

estar-to be (temporary)

yo estoy
t ests
l, ella, ud. est
nosotros estamos
vosotros estis
ellos, ellas, uds. estn

saber-to know

yo s
t sabes
l, ella, ud. sabe
nosotros sabemos
vosotros sabis
ellos, ellas, uds. saben

tener-to have

yo tengo
t tienes
l, ella, ud. tiene
nosotros tenemos
vosotros tenis
ellos, ellas, uds. tienen

pensar-to think

yo pienso
t piensas
l, ella, ud. piensa
nosotros pensamos
vosotros pensis
ellos, ellas, uds. piensan

decir-to say

yo digo
t dices
l, ella, ud. dice
nosotros decimos
vosotros decs
ellos, ellas, uds. dicen

costar-to cost

(it) cuesta
(they) cuestan


Past Tenses (preterit and imperfect)

Imperfect (In progress/used to/background information)

Use imperfect if you would say used to example: I used to work with him (yo
trabajaba con l).

Use imperfect if you are referring to something that is in the middle of an action,
uses the phrase used to or is background information. Example of in process:
While I was stud.ying... (mientras yo estud.iaba...). Example of used to: Bill used
to eat potatoes Bill (Bill coma papas). Example of background information: When
he was young, his parents would buy him everything (Cuando l era joven, sus
padres se lo compraban todo).

How to do it: Drop the last two letters of the infinitive and add the following
endings: so trabajar becomes trabaj and then -aba is added: trabajaba (I was
working). There are only three irregulars in this tense.

-ar verbs -er, -ir verbs
yo -aba -a
t -abas -as
ella, l, ud. -aba -a
nosotros -bamos -amos
vosotros -abis -ais
ellos, ellas, uds. -aban -an

Imperfect irregulars:

ser-to be ir-to go ver-to see

yo era iba vea
t eras ibas veas
l,ella, ud. era iba vea
nosotros ramos bamos veamos
vosotros erais ibais veais
ellos, ellas, uds. eran iban vean


Preterit (said & done)

Use preterit for all simple past tense (completed actions) such as: I went. He ate
pizza. We worked last night. Any time that the duration of the action is stated,
preterit will be used: I worked with him for fifty-two years.

How to do it: Drop the last two letters of the infinitive and add the following
endings: so trabajar becomes trabaj and then - is added: trabaj (I worked) There
are many irregulars in this tense.

-ar verbs -er, -ir verbs
yo - -
t -aste -iste
ella, l, ud. - -i
nosotros -amos -imos
vosotros -asteis -isteis
ellos, ellas, uds. -aron -ieron

Consider the following examples that compare the two past tenses:

Imperfect: Preterit:

comas-you were eating OR you used to eat comiste- you ate
estudiaba- he was stud.ying OR he used to study estudi-she studied
trabajbamos-we were working OR we used to work trabajamos-we worked
pensaban-they were thinking OR they used to think pensaron-they thought


Common Preterit Irregulars
(said & done past tense)

A. Three of them do their own thing:

dar-to give

yo di
t diste
l, ella, ud. dio
nosotros dimos
vosotros disteis
ellos, ellas, uds. dieron

ir-to go AND ser-to be

yo fui
t fuiste
l, ella, ud. fue
nosotros fuimos
vosotros fuisteis
ellos, ellas, uds. fueron

B. Others have a stem change and then use the following endings:

yo -e
t -iste
l, ella, ud. -o
nosotros -imos
vosotros -isteis
ellos, ellas, uds. -ieron

andar-to walk stem: anduv___

yo anduve
t anduviste
l, ella, ud. anduvo
nosotros anduvimos
vosotros anduvisteis
ellos, ellas, uds. anduvieron

caber-to fit stem: cup___

yo cupe
t cupiste
l, ella, ud. cupo
nosotros cupimos
vosotros cupisteis
ellos, ellas, uds. cupieron


decir-to say/tell stem: dij___

yo dije
t dijiste
l, ella, ud. dijo
nosotros dijimos
vosotros dijisteis
ellos, ellas, uds. dijeron

estar-to be stem: estuv___

yo estuve
t estuviste
l, ella, ud. estuvo
nosotros estuvimos
vosotros estuvisteis
ellos, ellas, uds. estuvieron

hacer- to do/make stem: hic___

yo hice
t hiciste
l, ella, ud. hizo
nosotros hicimos
vosotros hicisteis
ellos, ellas, uds. hicieron

poder-to be able to (to manage to)
stem: pud___

yo pude
t pudiste
l, ella, ud. pudo
nosotros pudimos
vosotros pudisteis
ellos, ellas, uds. pudieron

poner-to put stem: pus___

yo puse
t pusiste
l, ella, ud. puso
nosotros pusimos
vosotros pusisteis
ellos, ellas, uds. pusieron

querer-to want (to attempt) stem:

yo quise
t quisiste
l, ella, ud. quiso
nosotros quisimos
vosotros quisisteis
ellos, ellas, uds. quisieron

saber-to know (to find out) stem: sup___

yo supe
t supiste
l, ella, ud. supo
nosotros supimos
vosotros supisteis
ellos, ellas, uds. supieron

tener-to have stem: tuv___

yo tuve
t tuviste
l, ella, ud. tuvo
nosotros tuvimos
vosotros tuvisteis
ellos, ellas, uds. tuvieron

traer-to bring stem: traj___

yo traje
t trajiste
l, ella, ud. trajo
nosotros trajimos
vosotros trajisteis
ellos, ellas, uds. trajeron

venir-to come stem: vin___

yo vine
t viniste
l, ella, ud. vino
nosotros vinimos
vosotros vinisteis
ellos, ellas, uds. vinieron


C. A few others have minor stem changes in the third person positions only (l,
ella, ud. and ellos, ellas, uds.), but continue to use the regular preterit endings:

divertirse-to have fun 3
person stem: divirt___

yo me divert
t te divertiste
l, ella, ud. se divirti
nosotros nos divertimos
vosotros os divertisteis
ellos, ellas, uds. se divirtieron

dormir-to sleep 3
person stem: dur___

yo dorm
t dormiste
l, ella, ud. durmi
nosotros dormimos
vosotros dormisteis
ellos, ellas, uds. durmieron

morir-to die 3
person stem: mur___

yo mor
t moriste
l, ella, ud. muri
nosotros morimos
vosotros moristeis
ellos, ellas, uds. murieron

pedir-to request 3
person stem: pid___

yo ped
t pediste
l, ella, ud. pidi
nosotros pedimos
vosotros pedisteis
ellos, ellas, uds. pidieron

seguir-to request 3
person stem: sig___

yo segu
t seguiste
l, ella, ud. sigui
nosotros seguimos
vosotros seguisteis
ellos, ellas, uds. siguieron

Continuous Verb Forms

Continuous verb forms are those that show that an action is taking place right now
in the present or right then in the past. In English (progressive) we do this in the
following manner:

I am speaking English.
I was speaking English.

Compare this to the regular present/past tenses:

I speak English.
I spoke English/I used to speak English.

In Spanish this is very easy to do:

1. Conjugate estar according to the subject and tense*:
present past

yo estoy estaba
t ests estabas
l/ella/ud. est estaba
nosotros estamos estbamos
vosotros estis estabais
ellos, ellas, uds. estn estaban

*although it is rare, estar can also be changed to other forms such as future or conditional before adding
the continuous form (step 2).

2. Change the action (-ing) verb in the following manner:

-ar verbs: drop the -ar and add -ando
-er and -ir verbs: drop the -er/-ir and add -iendo


3. Combine the two:

estoy trabajando I am working
estamos comiendo We are eating
estarn viviendo They will be living

Past tense can also be done using the imperfect alone (see page 4)
yo estaba hablando or yo hablaba I was speaking
t estabas comiendo or comas you were eating
estbamos viviendo or vivamos We were living

Pronouns can be placed at the end of the continuous form as in the following examples:

Estoy dndole dinero. I am giving her money.

Ella estaba contndomelo. She was telling it to me.

Estbamos sirvindotela. We were serving it to you.

Estabais corriendo. You guys were running.

Make sure that you add an accent mark to the continuous verb form when a pronoun is included at the
end of the -ando or -iendo. The stress of the word must remain in its original place (see examples

Pronouns may also be placed before the estar verb as in the following examples:

Le estoy dando dinero. I am giving her money.

Ella me lo estaba contando. She was telling it to me.

Te la estbamos sirviendo. We were serving it to you.


Future Tense
(future will)

Add the appropriate ending to the infinitive:

yo -
t -s
l, ella, ud. -
nosotros -emos
vosotros -is
ellos, ellas, uds. -n

Example: comer-to eat

yo comer I will eat
t comers you will eat
ella comer she will eat
nosotros comeremos we will eat
vosotros comeris you guys will eat
ellos comern they will eat

Conditional Tense
(would-excluding background information which requires imperfect-see pg. 4)

I would like to eat potatoes.
They said that they would come to my house.
If she were president, she would fix the economy.

Add the appropriate ending to the infinitive:

yo -a
t -as
l, ella, ud. -a
nosotros -amos
vosotros -ais
ellos, ellas, uds. -an


yo comera I would eat
t comeras you would eat
l comera he would eat
nosotros comeramos we would eat
vosotros comerais you guys would eat
ellos comeran they would eat

Future and Conditional Irregulars

One very nice thing about these two tenses is that the irregular verbs are the same. Simply add the
endings (previous page) to the irregular stem to show either future or conditional.

verb stem

caber cabr___ + ending
decir dir___ + ending
haber habr___ + ending
hacer har___ + ending
poder podr___ + ending
poner pondr___ + ending
querer querr___ + ending
saber sabr___ + ending
salir saldr___ + ending
tener tendr___ + ending
valer valdr___ + ending
venir vendr___ + ending

Example: hacer-to do, to make


yo har I will make
t hars you will make
ella har she will make
nosotros haremos we will make
ellos harn they will make


yo hara I would make
t haras you would make
ella hara she would make
nosotros haramos we would make
ellos haran they would make


Perfect Tenses

Present Perfect (I have worked / he has eaten / they have read)

Step 1: conjugate haber properly:

haber-to have (helping verb)

yo he (I have...)
t has (you have...)
l, ella, ud. ha (he/she has or you formal have...)
nosotros hemos (we have...)
vosotros habis (you guys have)
ellos, ellas, uds. han (they or you guys have...)

Step 2: add the participle

-ar verbs drop -ar add -ado trabajado
-er, -ir verbs drop -er,-ir add -ido comido


yo he trabajado I have worked
t has hablado you have spoken
l ha comido he has eaten
nosotros hemos aprendido we have learned
vosotros habis corrido you guys have run
ellas han vendido they have sold

Irregular participles (dont follow the -ado/-ido pattern)

abrir - abierto
cubrir - cubierto
decir - dicho
escribir - escrito
frer - frito
hacer - hecho
imprimir - impreso
morir - muerto
poner - puesto
resolver - resuelto
romper - roto
ver - visto
volver - vuelto

Example: yo he escrito I have written

Past Perfect [pluperfect] (I had worked /she had eaten /you guys had read)

Step 1: conjugate haber properly:

haber-to have (helping verb)

yo haba (I had...)
t habas (you had...)
l, ella, ud. haba (he/she/you formal had...)
nosotros habamos (we had...)
vosotros habais (you guys had)
ellos, ellas, uds. haban (they or you guys had...)

Step 2: add the participle (same as present perfect!)

-ar verbs drop -ar add -ado trabajado
-er, -ir verbs drop -er,-ir add -ido comido

This tense is identical to the present perfect except that the verb haber is conjugated into the
imperfect. The irregular participles are the same as present perfect (see previous page).


yo haba entendido I had understood
t habas tenido you had had
ella haba ganado she had won
nosotros habamos vendido we had sold
vosotros habais esperado you guys had waited
ellos haban muerto (irregular) they had died

Other Perfect tenses:

Use proper form of haber followed by the participle (-ado/-ido).


Future habr ganado I will have earned
Conditional habras ganado you would have earned
Subjunctive hayamos ganado (indicator) we have earned [see pages 17-20]
Imperfect Subjunctive hubieran ganado (indicator) they would have earned [see pages 24-26]


Reflexive Verbs

Reflexive verbs are verbs that, as I like to explain, reflect back on their subject. In
English we often do this by adding one of the following after a verb: myself, yourself,
herself, himself, itself, ourselves, themselves.

English Examples:

Reflexive Non-reflexive
I hurt myself. He hurt me.
They burned themselves. The sun burned them.
She helped herself. We helped her.

In Spanish reflexivity is shown using the following pronouns:

yo me
t te
l, ella, ud. se
nosotros nos
vosotros os
ellos, ellas, uds. se

Spanish Examples:

Reflexive Non-reflexive
Me quem. (I burned myself.) La vela me quem. (The candle burned me.)
Se mira en el espejo. (He looks at himself La mira en clase. (He looks at her in class.)
in the mirror.)

Also in Spanish one must be careful to account for reflexives that are not so obvious in English:

Se cepilla los dientes. He brushes his teeth. (Reflexive-he brushes his own teeth.)
El dentista cepilla nuestros dientes. The dentist brushes our teeth. (Non-reflexive)

Se cas con un hombre rico. She married (herself off to) a rich man. (Reflexive)
El cura cas a la pareja. The priest married the couple. (Non-reflexive because the priest doesnt
marry himself off to someone else in this sentence)

Se ahog en el ro. He drowned in the river. (Reflexive-he drowned himself-not necessarily suicide.)
Me ahog en el ro. He drowned me in the river. (Non-reflexive-he drowned another person-in this
case ME!! Thats murder!!!)


Passive Voice
Passive voice is where there is no specific subject present. Here are some examples in

Spanish is spoken. (who speaks it?)
Smoking is prohibited. (who prohibits it?)
Bird is said el pjaro in Spanish. (who says it?)
The building was destroyed by an earthquake. (by an earthquake is a prepositional
phrase and therefore the subject remains unstated. Compare to active voice: An earthquake
destroyed the building)

Passives are formed much like reflexives (see previous page) only there is no yo, t,
nosotros etc. form. There is only a third person singular or plural form.

Se habla espaol. Spanish is spoken.
Se prohbe fumar. Smoking is prohibited. or One prohibits smoking.
Se dice bird en ingls. One says bird in English.
Cmo se dice...? How does one say...?
Se enviaron las cartas. The letters were sent.
Se venden libros aqu. Books are sold here.

Passives are also formed with a conjugated form of ser + participle form (-ado, -ido
from perfect tenses). Unlike the perfect tenses, the form must agree in number and
gender with the object (see the last example below). These are most commonly done
in the past tense:

El edificio fue destrudo. The building was destroyed.
Yo fui encarcelado por dos das. I was jailed for two days.
Las cartas fueron enviadas. The letters were sent.


Subjunctive Mood
The subjunctive tense is rarely used in English today and is often very difficult for English speakers
to master. The following will give you basic guidelines for subjunctive indicators and with sufficient
practice you will find that it is really not difficult. There are other uses for the subjunctive but they
are less common.

Bear in mind that the subjunctive mood is for present or future context only. For past or conditional
context, see imperfect subjunctive mood on pages 22-24. How to form the subjunctive:

1. Take the present tense yo form (pongo from poner for example) and drop the o.
2. Add the following on the new stem: (the example would be ponga)

-ar verbs -er, -ir verbs

yo -e -a
t -es -as
l, ella, ud. -e -a
nosotros* -emos -amos
vosotros -is -is
ellos, ellas, uds. -en -an

* In verbs whose yo form reflects a stem change from e to ie such as pensar, the nosotros form
should maintain the original e: yo form of pensar: pienso- but subjunctive we form: pensemos.
The same situation applies to verbs whose yo form reflects a stem change from o to ue such as poder.
In this case maintain the o: yo form of poder: puedo- but subjunctive we form: podamos.

When do you use it?

Always after the following:

para que-so that Ir para que no se queje mi madre. Ill go so that my mom doesnt complain.
a fin de que-so that Trabajo a fin de que mi familia pueda comer. I work so that my family can eat.
a menos que-unless No como a menos que tenga hambre. I dont eat unless I am hungry.
con tal que-provided that Comer con tal que traigas comida. I will eat provided that you bring food.
sin que-without (that) Comerermos sin que ella venga. We will eat without her coming.
(without that she comes)

After the following when a specific action still is in the future:

cuando Hablaremos cuando vengas. We will speak when you come.
despus (de) que Hablaremos despus que vengas. We will speak after you come.
antes (de) que Hablaremos antes que vengas. We will speak before you come.
en cuanto que Hablaremos en cuanto que vengas. We will speak as soon you come.
hasta que Hablaremos hasta que vengan. We will speak until they come.


In conjunction with verbs that show doubt, need or preference:

querer que Quiero que hable. I want that he speak. (I want him to speak).
preferir que Preferimos que hable. We prefer that he speak. (We want him to speak).
necesitar que Necesitan que yo hable. They need that I speak. (They need me to speak).
esperar que Esperamos que hablen. We hope that they (will) speak.
dudar que Dudo que hable bien. I doubt that she speaks well.
ojal que Ojal que hable conmigo. Hopefully he will speak with me.

In the following types of constructions that have no specific subject:

es posible que Es posible que coman. It is possible that they eat.
es probable que Es probable que l trabaje. It is probable that he work.
es mejor que Es mejor que vivamos aqu. It is better that we live here.
es increble que Es increble que no entiendas. It is incredible that you dont understand.
es razonable que Es razonable que yo necesite dos. It is reasonable that I need two.
es preciso que Es preciso que aprenda todo. It is necessary that she learn it all.
es necesario que Es necesario que diga adis. It is necessary that she say goodbye.
es una tragedia que Es una tragedia que no lea. It is a tragedy that he doesnt read.

But the following do not require subjunctive because they show certainty:

es cierto que Es cierto que vivimos aqu. It is true that we live here.
es seguro que Es seguro que hablamos ingls. It is sure/certain that we speak

When giving orders or showing expectation etc.:

mandar que-to command that Os mando que vayis. I command you all to go (that you go.)
esperar que-to expect that Esperamos que coman. We expect that they eat.
ordenar que-to command that Ella te ordena que trabajes. She orders you to work.
pedir que-to request/ask that Le he pedido que te escriba. I have asked her to write to you.

With negative sentences that would be indicative if positive:

no creer que-to not believe that No creo que pueda venir. I dont believe that he can come.
no pensar que-to not think that No pienso que quiera venir. I dont think that he wants to come.

With statements of emotion:

sorpender que Me sorprende que tengas tanto dinero. It surprises me that you have so much $
qu bien que Qu bien que haya venido hoy. It is well (good) that he has come today.
qu triste que Qu triste que no haya podido acompaarte. How sad that he hasnt been able
to accompany you.

Depending on the degree of certainty/uncertainty**, you may use subjunctive
after the following:

quizs Quizs l tenga trece aos. OR Quizs l tiene trece aos.
tal vez Tal vez t juegues mejor que yo. OR Tal vez tu juegas mejor que yo.
aunque (meaning even if) is always subjunctive Aunque venga, no lo invitar.
aunque (meaning although) is never subjunctive Aunque viene, no lo invit.

**Note: when determining certainty/uncertainty keep in mind that all events that are still in the
future must be uncertain and would therefore require subjunctive.

When describing something that is being sought or needed (always follows que) or
when describing something that is unknown:

Estoy buscando un persona que tenga trece aos. BUT Tengo una hermana que tiene trece aos.
Necesito un sndwich que cuestemenos de $1.00. BUT Este sndwich cuesta menos de $1.00.
Hay una persona aqu que hableespaol? BUT Hay dos personas aqu que hablan espaol.

With "narrated commands" (often with past context using imperfect subjunctive)

Est diciendo que te vayas. He is telling you to leave.
Qu tengas un buen da! Have a nice day! ([I hope] that you have a nice day)

When emphasizing something (to make it appear extreme)

Es la mejor sopa que yo haya probado! It is the best soup that I have ever had!
El Diablo es el carro ms rpido que haya visto la autopista. The Diablo is the fastest car the
freeway has ever seen.


Subjunctive Irregulars*:

dar-to give

yo d
t des
l, ella, ud. d
nosotros demos
vosotros deis
ellos, ellas, uds. den

estar-to be

yo est
t ests
l, ella, ud. est
nosotros estemos
vosotros estis
ellos, ellas, uds. estn

haber-to have (aux), there is/are

yo haya
t hayas
l, ella, ud. haya
nosotros hayamos
vosotros hayis
ellos, ellas, uds. hayan

ir-to go

yo vaya
t vayas
l, ella, ud. vaya
nosotros vayamos
vosotros vayis
ellos, ellas, uds. vayan

saber-to know

yo sepa
t sepas
l, ella, ud. sepa
nosotros sepamos
vosotros sepis
ellos, ellas, uds. sepan

ser-to be (permanent)

yo sea
t seas
l, ella, ud. sea
nosotros seamos
vosotros seis
ellos, ellas, uds. sean

* Note that all irregular verbs have
odd yo forms that do not allow the
rule (stated on page 16) for formation of
the subjunctive mood. That is, the yo
forms do not end in -o in present tense:



Commands (Imperative mood)
+ POSITIVE commands:

t form: simply use the third person (he/she etc.) present (see page 2):

Come! (you) Eat!
Trabaja! (you) Work!

vosotros form: simply drop the final -r and add a -d:

Hablad! (you guys) Speak!
Escribid! (you guys) Write!

All other forms: use the subjunctive form (see pages 15, 17) that coincides with the entities being

Venga! (you formal) Come!
Comamos! Lets eat!
Hablen! (you guys) Talk!

With all positive forms, additional pronouns are added on to the end of the command:

Cmelo! (you) Eat it!
Dgalo! (you formal) Say it!
Dgaselo! (you formal) Say it to him!
Dnselas! (you guys) Give them (feminine items) to her!
Mrenla! (you guys) Look at her!
Preparadlo! (you guys-vosotros) Prepare it!

nosotros commands:

For nosotros commands (lets stud.y, lets work etc.) you may use the subjunctive form (see above) or
you may simply use vamos a (+ unconjugated verb). This form is more common is colloquial

Vamos a comer! Lets eat!
Vamos a estudiar! Lets buy!
Vamos a estudiarlo! Lets study it!


- NEGATIVE commands:

All forms: use present subjunctive form that coincides with the entity being
commanded after the word no.

No comas! (you) Dont eat!
No trabajemos/No vamos a trabajar! Lets not work!
No mire! (you-usted) Dont look!
No gritis! (you guys-vosotros) Dont shout!
No hagan eso! (you guys) Dont do that!

With all negative forms, additional pronouns are NOT added to the verb. Place them before the
command in the traditional order: indirect object THEN object THEN verb.

No lo comas! (you) Dont eat it!
No se lo digas! (you) Dont tell it to her!
No me la den! (you guys) Dont give it (feminine item) to me!
No los guardemos! Lets not keep them!
No les hablis! (you guys-vosotros) Dont talk to them!

Irregulars for Commands

All these irregulars are only related to the positive t form commands. Instead of using the third
person present for these verbs, you will need to use the alternative. Again, you will need to add
pronouns to the end of the form because it is positive.

poner use pon Ponlo aqu! (you) Put it here!
tener use ten Ten tres galletas! (you) Have three cookies!
salir use sal Sal cuanto antes! (you) Leave as soon as possible!
venir use ven Ven ac! (you) Come here!
ser use s S un hombre! (you) Be a man!
ir use ve Ve al supermercado! (you) Go to the supermarket!
decir use di Dilo claramente! (you) Say it clearly!
hacer use haz Hazme sonrer! (you) Make me smile!

The only others would be verbs that have different stems hooked onto these verbs such as:

proponer use propn
suponer use supn
retener use retn


Positive Reflexive nosotros Commands:

When using a positive reflexive nosotros command you have two options:

Option 1: Use vamos a ... with the nos pronoun attached to the end of the unconjugated verb

Vamos a sentarnos! Lets sit down!
Vamos a peinarnos! Lets comb (our hair)!

Option 2: Use the subjunctive form and then remove the final s before adding the nos pronoun.

Vamos + nos = Vmonos Lets leave!
Sentemos + nos = Sentmonos Lets sit down!

The only common use of this type of reflexive command in todays spoken language is vmonos. I
would recommend that you use Option 1 for all other reflexive nosotros commands.

Positive Reflexive vosotros Commands:

When using a positive reflexive vosotros command you must drop the final -d before adding the
reflexive -os.

1. form the vosotros command: preparad
2. drop the final -d prepara
3. add the reflexive -os preparaos! (prepare yourselves!)

The only exception to this is the verb irse which must retain the final -d thus:

idos! (you guys leave!)


I mperfect Subjunctive Mood
How to form it:

1) Take the preterit ellos, ellas, uds. form of the verb (see pages 6-8): pudieron,
trabajaron, etc.
2) Drop the -on.
3) Add the following:

-ar, -er, -ir

yo -a
t -as
l, ella, ud. -a
nosotros -amos
vosotros -ais
ellos, ellas, uds. -an


poder-to be able to hablar-to speak

yo pudiera yo hablara
t pudieras t hablaras
l, ella, ud. pudiera l, ella, ud. hablara
nosotros pudiramos nosotros hablramos
vosotros pudierais vosotros hablarais
ellos, ellas, uds. pudieran ellos, ellas, uds. hablaran

The imperfect subjunctive is used in ALL of the same situations as the subjunctive
with some additional uses. The difference is that the context is in the past or
conditional tenses instead of the present or future. Notice the difference between
the following examples:

Imperfect subjunctive Subjunctive
Quera que tuvieras buena suerte. Quiere que tengas buena suerte.
Me gustara que vinieras. Me gusta que vengas.
Saba que mi padre estara enojado cuando volviera. S que mi padre estar enojado cuando



A. Use the imperfect subjunctive in hypothetical if/then clauses along with
conditional. Use the imperfect subjunctive after the if and the conditional for the

Si yo fuera presidente, comprara un avin. If I were president, (then) I would buy a plane.
Si pudieras ver, sabras que estoy aqu. If you could only see, youd know that Im here.
Les gustara ir, si tuvieran tiempo. They would like to go, if only they had time.
Si tuvieras un milln de dlares, qu haras? If you had a million dollars, what would you do?

B. Always use after the following even if the context is the present tense:

Como si-as if

Ojal-when used with the meaning if only (do not put a queafter ojal-compare to ojal quein
subjunctive mood on pg. 17)

El hombre habla como si supiera todo. The man speaks as if he knows everything.
Mi hermano come como si su vida se acabara. My brother eats as if his life were ending.
Trabajaban como si nesecitaran dinero. They were working as if they needed money.
Ojal estuvieras aqu conmigo. If only you were here with me.
Ojal tuviramos tanta suerte. If only we had so much luck.

C. Use the imperfect subjunctive to show politeness or emphasis with querer,

Yo quisiera tener otro carro. I would really like to have another car.
Pudiera pasarme la pimienta? Could you (formal) pass me the pepper?

-SE variant

In some regions and in older texts the final -ra may be replaced with an -se. The meanings are
exactly the same. There is really no need to learn to speak the variant, but it is helpful to recognize it
when reading.

comer-to eat hablar-to speak

Standard Variant Standard Variant
yo comiera comiese hablara hablase
t comieras comieses hablaras hablases
l, ella, ud. comiera comiese hablara hablase
nosotros comiramos comisemos hablramos hablsemos
ellos, ellas, uds. comieran comiesen hablaran hablasen


There are NO irregulars in the imperfect subjunctive. Here is a sample of a few
regulars that are somewhat harder to recognize. If you have learned your
preterit irregulars, these will not be much of an issue. Learn to recognize and
ultimately use the following:

anduviera - andar El hombre dobl como si anduviera a la biblioteca.
cupiera - caber Compramos un carro ms grande para que todos cuperian.
diera - dar El ladrn nos mand que le diramos nuestro dinero.
dijera - decir Sera bueno que dijera la verdad.
estuviera - estar yo fui para que ellas estuvieran contentas.
fuera - ir AND ser Era necesario que fueran al supermercado.
hubiera - haber Si me hubieran prestado el carro, yo habra llegado a tiempo.
hiciera - hacer Si t hicieras ms de estas lecciones, aprenderamos ms.
pudiera - poder Trabaj para que pudiramos comprar un carro nuevo.
pusiera - poner Era preferible que ellos pusieran sus abrigos en la cocina.
quisiera - querer ella no necesitaba venir a menos que vosotros quisierais.
supiera - saber l hablaba como si supiera todo.
tuviera - tener Le pedimos que tuviera paciencia.
trajera - traer Le dije que trajera sus juguetes.