Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 26

Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations

Address:
Rue Washington 40
1050 Brussels
Belgium
www.rehva.eu
info@rehva.eu
Tel: +32 2 514 11 71
Fax: +32 2 512 90 62




Federation of European Heating, Ventilation
and Air-conditioning Associations
Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations
Use of REHVA Guidebook Power
Point Presentations
This Power Point Presentation can be freely used for
training purposes by REHVA members.
It is prepared by the main author to the REHVA
Guidebook.
Please refer the original author always when making
the presentation.
Inform REHVA secretariat each time the presentation
is used: info@rehva.eu
Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations
Ventilation Effectiveness
REHVA Guidebook no 2

AUTHORS
Elisabeth Mundt, Professor, KTH-
Royal Institute of Technology,
Stockholm, Sweden (editor)
Hans Martin Mathisen, Ph.D.,
Sintef, Trondheim, Norway
Peter V. Nielsen, Professor,
Aalborg University, Denmark
Alfred Moser, Ph.D., ETH, Zrich,
Switzerland
Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations
CONTENTS
1. VENTILATION EFFECTIVENESS IN A NUTSHELL (3 p)
2. SYMBOLS AND TERMINOLOGY (4 p)
3. WHY VENTILATION EFFECTIVENESS (5 p)
4. TYPICAL CONTAMINANTS AND CONTAMINANTS
DISTRIBUTION IN VENTILATED ROOMS (6 p)
5. THEORY AND DEFINITIONS (8 p)
6. MEASUREMENTS (12 p)
7. PREDICTION OF AIR QUALITY BY COMPUTATIONAL FLUID
DYNAMICS (4 p)
8. CASE STUDIES (21 p)
9. DEFINITIONS OF VENTILATION EFFECTIVENESS IN
DIFFERENT COUNTRIES (1 p)
10. APPENDIX 1 (1 p)
11. REFERENCES (4 p)

Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations
VENTILATION EFFECTIVENESS
includes
A
Indices representing the
ability of a system to
exchange the air in the room
air change efficiency,
local air change index,
B
Indices representing the
ability of a system to remove
air-borne contaminants
contaminant removal
effectiveness (CRE),
local air quality index,
a
c
a
P
c
c
P
c
c
c
Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations
INTRODUCTORY CHAPTERS
1. VENTILATION EFFECTIVENESS IN A NUTSHELL
2. SYMBOLS AND TERMINOLOGY
3. WHY VENTILATION EFFECTIVENESS

Keep concentration low
Point source Q c
s
c
e
Point sensor P
c
s
c
e
Point source Q
Concentration field resulting from point source Q
Distributed source Q
c
s
c
e
Point sensor P
Distributed source Q, mean concentration
c
s
c
e
a
c
a
P
c
c
c
c
P
c
Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations
-5 0 5 10 15 20
0
1
2
3
4
e s
u u
e P
c c
4 TYPICAL CONTAMINANTS AND CONTAMINANTS
DISTRIBUTION IN VENTILATED ROOMS
Return opening
The location of a return
opening may have a very
large influence on the
concentration
distribution, although it
only has a small influence
on the velocity
distribution.
Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations
4 TYPICAL CONTAMINANTS AND CONTAMINANTS
DISTRIBUTION IN VENTILATED ROOMS
Displacement ventilation and vertical concentration gradient
The idea behind displacement ventilation is to accept a variation in the
concentration distribution with a high value below the ceiling and a low
value in the occupied zone.
0,95
0,90
0,80
0,70
0,95
0,90
0,80
0,70
73 , 0
exp
=
-
c 76 , 0
exp
=
-
c
Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations
5 THEORY AND DEFINITIONS
Air Change Efficiency
q
v
q
v
Age
0 t
n
=V/q
v
P
What is the mean age of the air in the
room?
Mean age of air in the exhaust
2 x Room mean age of air
c
a
=

The mean age of air in the exhaust
is always equal to the nominal time constant
n
t
c
a


The room mean age of air can not be less than half the nominal time constant!
Thus the air change efficiency < 100 %
2
n
t
t
=

Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations


5 THEORY AND DEFINITIONS
Air Change Efficiency
Fully mixed flow
n
t
n
t t =
% 50 =
a
c
Displacement flow
n
t
n n
t t t < < 2
% 100 % 50 s s
a
c
Short-circuit flow
n
t
n
t t >
% 50 s
a
c
Piston flow
n
t
2
n
t t =
% 100 =
a
c
Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations
Contaminant Removal effectiveness, CRE

5 THEORY AND DEFINITIONS
Concentration in the exhaust
Mean concentration in the room
CRE =

e
c
c
=
Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations
Contaminant Removal effectiveness, CRE

e
c
e
c c <
Contamination source close to exhaust
e
c
e
c c >
Contamination source in a stagnant zone
Contamination source close to exhaust
e
c
e
c c <
Contamination source in a stagnant zone
e
c
e
c c >
5 THEORY AND DEFINITIONS
Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations
6 MEASUREMENTS
Injection of tracer gas





Flowmeter
(Rotameter)
or mass flow
controller
Injection
point
Closing
valve
Pressure control valve
Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations
6 MEASUREMENTS
Routines for how to measure and calculate the ventilation effectiveness
Alternative 2
Tube from gas bottle
Alternative 1
Tube from gas bottle
Exhaust air
concentration
Local room air concentrations
Switch
Analyser
5 10 15 20
Time (minutes)
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

(
p
p
m
)
This part of the curve could be
used to calculate the decay
For calculation of the tail the
calculated decay is used
c
n
c
i-1
c
i
t
i
t
i-1
c
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations
6 MEASUREMENTS
Commissioning
2. Incorporate commissioning
specificati ons
Design
3. Review project design
4. Develop commissioning plan
5. Develop prefunctional checklist
6. Execute prefunctional checklist
8. Approve prefunctional checklist
9. Develop functi onal tests and
di agnostic monitoring pl an
10. Execute monitoring and
functional pl ans
12. Accept equi pment performance
13. Develop final commissioning report
1. Develop team
Installation
Acceptance
Post-acceptance
11. Is equi pment
in compliance?
7. Are expected
results realised?
7A. Correct deficiencies
No
Yes
11A. Correct deficiencies
No
Planning
2. Incorporate commissioning
specificati ons
Design
3. Review project design
4. Develop commissioning plan
5. Develop prefunctional checklist
6. Execute prefunctional checklist
8. Approve prefunctional checklist
9. Develop functi onal tests and
di agnostic monitoring pl an
10. Execute monitoring and
functional pl ans
12. Accept equi pment performance
13. Develop final commissioning report
1. Develop team
Installation
Acceptance
Post-acceptance
11. Is equi pment
in compliance?
7. Are expected
results realised?
7A. Correct deficiencies
No
Yes
11A. Correct deficiencies
No
Planning
Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations
7 PREDICTION OF AIR QUALITY BY
COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS
Contaminant distribution around a sedentary person, contaminant source at the floor
Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations
The exposure of a standing person from different surfaces with the same emission
7 PREDICTION OF AIR QUALITY BY
COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS
Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations
8 CASE STUDIES
Description and Design Values, Measured Results, Discussion of Results

Auditorium
15,8 m
2
1
,
5

m
6

m
3
,
6

m
3,8 kW ceiling light
320 seats
Measurement column
Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations
8 CASE STUDIES
Auditorium
20 25
Temperature, C
23,8 C
24,8 C
20,7 C
22,4 C
Room width: 21.5 m
19 m
890 ppm CO
2
420 ppm CO
2
0 1 2
Local air quality index
0,85- 0,97
0,56-0.82
Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations
8 CASE STUDIES

Office in town hall
Office in town hall Full scale experiments
Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations
8 CASE STUDIES
Office in town hall
Flow pattern before reconstruction of the ventilation system
Winter case
Warm supply air jet
Cold
down-draught
from windows
Summer case
Draught from
the subcooled
supply air jet
Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations
8 CASE STUDIES

Office in town hall
Carpet as contaminant source Concentration profiles
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5
Dimensionless concentration (c/c
e
)
H
e
i
g
h
t

(
m
)
New system
Old System
Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations
8 CASE STUDIES
Industrial building
Mixing ventilation
Displacement ventilation
Section A-A
Measuring position
A
A
75 m
38 m 24 m
25 m
5

m
8

m
A
A
75 m
38 m 24 m
Section A-A
25 m
5

m
8

m
Measuring position
10 14 18 22 26
4
3
2
1
(min)
P
t
Height (m)
Mixing ventilation
Displacement ventilation
Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations
8 CASE STUDIES

Homogeneous emission techniques
Laboratory hall Subdivision of the room
7 m
4 m
13,2 m
Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations
8 CASE STUDIES
Homogeneous emission techniques
Local mean age of air
Local concentrations with point sources
Computed local mean
age of air in the sub-
volumes between the
two layers
0,35 0,42 0,50 0,54
0,28 0,35 0,45 0,60
0,27 0,28 0,43 0,63
0,33 0,33 0,48 0,57
1
0
1
0
c/c
e
1
0
1
0
c/c
e
1,33 m above the floor
Floor level
The shadowed ellipses
show the positions of
the two 750 W air
convectors at the floor
level
1
0
1
0
c/c
e
1,33 m above the floor
Floor level
The shadowed ellipses
show the positions of
the two 750 W air
convectors at the floor
level
1
0
1
0
c/c
e
Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations
Thank you for your
attention
To order the REHVA guidebooks :
www.rehva.eu / section Bookstore
or through your national member
Grandchild 2003 Great-grandmother 1928 Skansen 2004
Local mean age
5 months
Local mean age
X years
Local mean age
80 years
Life mean age 40 years?
The life