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Aqueous DBNPA: A New

Spin on an Old Favorite


Liz Sutton
Jonathan Howarth
Enviro Tech Chemical Services, Inc.
Outline
Efficacy and Persistance
Limitations of Existing Liquid Formulations
New Form = New Approach
Stokes Law
General Information & Storage Stability
Pumping Options & Compatible Materials
Field Trial Results
**Reactivation of

Br to HOBr**
Conclusions
Efficacy & Persistance
Source: Dow Antimicrobial 7287 and Dow Antimicrobial 8536 brochure.
Half Life vs. Temperature & pH
Source: Dow Antimicrobial 7287 and Dow Antimicrobial 8536 brochure.
At normal operating
temps, ! life " 9 hr.s
Stability of DBNPA as a
Function of pH
New product is
buffered at the
stable pH of 3.7
Source: Dow Antimicrobial 7287 and Dow Antimicrobial 8536 brochure.
Limitations of Existing DBNPA
Liquids
Low aqueous solubility.
! 60% polyethylene glycol.
Expensive and price fluctuates with oil markets.
Contributes both C.O.D. and B.O.D. to receiving
waters.
New Formula = New Approach
Utilize knowledge of Stokes Law to develop
aqueous suspension.
Replace PEG with H
2
O
Decrease and stabilize cost.
Eliminate issue of increased BOD & COD.
Improve environmental profile.
Stokes Law
2
9
("
p
- "
f
)
#
v
s
= g R
2
v
s
= Settling Velocity
"
p
= Mass Density of Particles
"
f
= Mass Density of Fluid
# = Dynamic Viscosity of Fluid
g = Gravitational Force
R = Radius of Particles
Stokes Law Applied
Decreased R
2
using high speed dispersion
homogenizer.
Increased "
f
by using NaBr brine rather
than plain water.
Increased # by using a food grade
viscosifier.
These variables minimize v
s
and result in
a greater physical stability.
1 Year Storage Photo
Fluid level.
No settling observed after 1 year.
1 Year Storage Stability of DBNPA Active in
Non-Climate Controlled Warehouse
Label Information
18% active DBNPA
Dosed same rate by volume as 20% liquids
due to difference in density.
Registered biocide, bactericide, fungicide,
algaecide, and slimicide, for recirculating
cooling water, enhanced oil and oilfield
systems, RO Membranes, and paper mills
EPA Reg. No. 63838-11
Optimum performance is achieved by
continuous or intermittent treatment
Features and Benefits
Biocidal benefits derived from active
DBNPA:
Low dosage requirements
Extremely fast antimicrobial action
Broad Spectrum efficacy
Compatible with chlorine treatment.
Additional Features and Benefits
Stable suspension, easily fed using
traditional pumps or eductors.
Heavy brine resists freezing.
Favorable environmental fate profile.
No VOCs
No BOD or COD contribution
Green alternative to other liquid DBNPA
products.
Hydrolysis
Aqueous phase composed of brine of
11.8% NaBr and 14.2% NaCl.
Presence of bromide ions in aqueous
phase suppresses hydrolysis reactions.
Known Hydrolysis Routes
DBNPA decomposes to
bromide ions.
Field Test
Tower Parameters:
Holding Capacity 2600 gallons
Recirculation Rate 300 gpm
pH 8.1
Delta T 3 degrees
Cycles of concentration 4.25
HTI (calculated) 6435 hours (~268 days)
Field Test
Because of high HTI and long time
necessary to reach equilibrium, DBNPA
added at 40 ppm as product.
4.8 ppm Br- contributed by NaBr carrier
4.4 ppm Br- contributed by degradation of DBNPA
molecule
9.2 ppm total Br- should be present in the system
Cooling tower slug dosed 2X per week
Tower tested using DPD method and split
sample.
Test Results
Sample Free Cl
2

(Glycine Added)
Free Cl
2

(No Glycine)
1
0.40 0.44
2
0.53 0.51
3
0.48 0.48
Glycine added measure only bromine
No Glycine - measure chlorine and bromine
Is Br- Ion Available for
Activation to HOBr?
Br- ion 9 ppm
Introduced NaOCl bleach (free Cl
2
) to
recirculating water.
Avg. of 0.40 ppm as free halogen in
presence of glycine
Avg. of 0.94 ppm total Cl
2
Is Br- Ion Available for
Activation to HOBr?
Activation reaction is slow
- 42% halogen exists as HOBr despite
8.5X excess of Br- ion
Confirms work of Kumar and Margerum.
- Inorg. Chem. 26 2706 (1987)
- HOCl is 1.5 million times faster than OCl-
Pumping Options
Eductors operated by solenoids for the
drive water.
Larger diameter suction tubes due to viscosity
of neat product.
Peristaltic Pumps
Any Cl
2
compatible tubing such as Hypalon
or Norprene .
Normal ball & seat chemical pump valves
may tend to lose prime.
Compatible Materials
At end use concentrations, DBNPA is
compatible with all commonly used materials
of construction in industrial cooling water
systems.
Neat product is compatible with:
PVC
HDPE & LDPE
Teflon, Kynar, Hypalon
Polypropylene and all fiberglass reinforced
plastics.
As a neat product, DBNPA is
incompatible with:
Copper
Brass
Aluminum
Carbon Steel
Stainless Steel
Galvanized Steel
Conclusions
New aqueous DBNPA encompasses all of
the positive attributes of existing liquids,
while eliminating negatives associated w/
PEG.
Displays excellent chemical and physical
stability.
NaBr brine:
Densifies aqueous phase
Suppresses hydrolysis reaction
Is available for reactivation
Prevents product from freezing
EPA registered and available to members
of AWT.