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Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring. As a measure, "fertility rate" is the number of
offspring born per mating pair, individual or population. Fertility differs from fecundity, which is
defined as the potential for reproduction (influenced by gamete production, fertilization and carrying a
pregnancy to term. A lac! of fertility is infertility while a lac! of fecundity would be called sterility.
"uman fertility depends on factors of nutrition, se#ual behavior, culture, instinct, endocrinology,
timing, economics, way of life, and emotions. $en and women have hormonal cycles which determine
both when a woman can achieve pregnancy and when a man is most virile. %he female cycle is
appro#imately twenty&eight days long, but can deviate greatly from this "norm". %he male cycle is also
$en can e'aculate and produce sperm at any time of the month, but their sperm (uality dips
occasionally, which scientists guess is in relation to their internal cycle. Furthermore, age also plays an
e(ually significant role for both men and women. %he average age of menarche in the )nited *tates is
about +,.- years. .n postmenarchal girls, about /01 of the cycles are anovulatory in the first year after
menarche, -01 in the third and +01 in the si#th year.
2omen3s fertility pea!s in the early ,0s, and drops considerably after age 4-. $enopause typically
occurs during a women3s midlife (usually between ages 5- and --. 6uring menopause, hormonal
production by the ovaries is reduced, eventually causing a permanent cessation of the primary function
of the ovaries, particularly the creation of the uterine lining (period. %his is considered the end of the
fertile phase of a woman3s life.
7vidence shows that increased male age is associated with a decline in semen volume, sperm motility,
and sperm morphology. .n studies that controlled for female age, comparisons between men under 40
and men over -0 found relative decreases in pregnancy rates between ,41 and 4/1. *perm count
declines with age, with men aged -08/0 years producing sperm at an average rate of 9-1 compared
with men aged ,08-0 years. "owever, an even larger difference is seen in how many of the
seminiferous tubules in the testes contain mature sperm:
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