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IADCISPE

lADC/SPE

14793

Computer

Control

of Minimum

Shoulder

Prestress

Requirements

During

Makeup

Procedure

of Premium

by S.T. Marojevic, Tri-State Oi/ Too/ GrnbH

Member SPE

:opyright1986, lADC/SPE 1966 Drilling Conference

Shoulder

Connections

We paper waa prepared for presentation at the 1986 lADC/SPE Drilling Conference held in Dallaa, TX, February 10-12, 1986.

‘his paper was selected for presentationby an lADC/SPE Program Commiltee followingreview of informationcontained in an abstractsubmitledby !!!e Whor(a). Contents of the paper, ae presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Enginears or InternationalAssociationof Drilling >ontractoraand are subject to correctionby the author(s).The material, aa presented,does not necessarily reflect any positionof the IADC or SPE, itsof. icera, or members. Papers presented at lADC/SPE meetings are aubj8ct to publicationby Editxial Committees of the IADC and SPE. Permieeionto ~PY is restrictedto an abatract of not more than 300 words. Illustrationsmay not be copied. The abstract shouldcontainconspicuousacknowledgment

~fwhere and by whom the paper ia presented. Write Publications Manager, SPE, P.O. Box 633636, Richardson, TX 75063-3636. IPEDAL.

Telex, 730969

W3TRACT

rhe new proposed method and computer control

The idea wae to of threaded API

tional alignment of the pin into the box and measu- ring the applied torque.

assure mechanical and seal integrity connectionsby controllingthe posi-

:echniqueof optimal shoulder prestees value during The

equipmentwas used for simultaneousmonitoring of

nake-upprocedure of (premium)shoulderedconnections the absolute value of the torque and the relative ~ssuresuniform stress control and optimizes utiliza- number of turns. In addition to this the control

:ion of tubular goods with shouldered type connec-

:ions.Applicationof

feature was incorporatedand pre-set to keep both

minimum shoulder prestess values within a requirementof spectfic connections.

requirementwith regard to the thresholdstress-level All these values have been based on theoretical/empi-

?rovidethe highest safety and the most efficientuse

>f tubular goods in a corrosiveenvironment. ty criteria related to the bearing pressure of 76Z of luringmake-up procedure this method helps to over- the rated burst pressure.

rical work and applied as connectionmake-up integri-

:ome the influence of differentparameters such as:

This waa

also recognizedin the official API guide-

nachiningtolerances,dope and plating qualitieswith their correspondingfriction losses etc; which other- aiaemight jeopardize connectionmechanical and sealingintegrity.

[NTRDUCTION

stage

casing/tubingstring out of seperate

line for Care and Use of Casing and Tubing,published in recommendedpracticed 5 Cl, March 1981.

But this system, good for simple (API) threaded

connections,does not work satisfactorilyfor con-

nections where, except for

itional elements are incorporatedto fulfill severe

and more complex downhole requirements. For all the connectionsincorporating:shoulders,

the thread, some add-

metal-to-metalseals or

similar; the abaolutevalue

of

the final torque and correspondingrelativenumber

of

turns are not relevant criteria for connection

integrity. In all these casea, reliable connection make-up integritycan be obtained only with a method

ifter proper selection of tubular goods, including

connections,has been made, the second cricial meeda to be specified:

How to make a

joints t> effectively fulfill all expected opera- tional,productionand safety requirements?

and equipmentproviding control and monitoringof the rhis can only be done by appropriatecontrol of the make-up energy directly applied to each connection element, as presented in figure 1.

energy transfer and its distributionwithin the connectionduring the pin and box alignment process. As a result, the make-up control is directly related This became obvious with severe downhole conditions to the design and productioncriteria of the connec-

snd incraesed tensile and differentialpressure re- quirementson Oil Country Tubulars,and in 1967 the first torqueiturnmethod was applied in the field and patendedafter years of theoreticaland laboratorywork 7.

tion, it’s material properties and optimal operati- onal, completionand downhole requirements.Following this, for each functionalelement of the connection, appropriatestress values have to be specifiedand applied. This means that each function:.element, i.e.thread,metal-to-metalseal(s) and shoulder(s) needs to accumulatea certain amount of make-up

Referencesand illustrationsat end of paper energy.

G$n

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2

COMPUTER CONTROL OF MINIMUM SHOULDER PRESTRESSREQUIREMENTS

DURING MAKE-UP PROCEDUREOF PREMIUM SHOULDER CONNECTIONS

SPE 14793

Now, in comparisonwith the simple

API threaded

connectionswith a

limits,,and an appropriatetorque/turnmake-up

single requirementand two

method, we have connectionswhere each of the

economicand safety require~entsof the most appro- priate pipe material(s), (size,weight, grade, etc.) and correspondingconnection type. This is the first importantstep to be made using the available standar(

.,

three functionalelementshas its requirement and specificationsrelated to API and proprietary

and limits. The high mutual dependencyof these

elements,with their operationaland material com- with valuable empirical informationand using common

plexities require an entirely differentapproach to sense for technicaland economic compromises,the

assure the make-up integrityof premium shoulder connections.

tubular goods and OCT connections.Combining these

specificationof the most appropriatestring compo- sition has to be made.

The answer is directly related to the design

premium shoulderedconnections,where metal-to-metal nections i.e. the atring, the second crucial stage has to be specified:

sealing principlesare directly an~lor indirectly

related to the amount of axial.prestressapplied the pin/box shouldercontract area. The new

approach

of minimum shoulder prestress requirementsas the

crucial criterion in respect to the entire integrity.

nection and its optimal prestreas requirements.In

The fixed stress-strainshoulder ratio with implica-

of But to meet the real field requirementsof the con-

to

How to make a casing/tubingstring out of seperate joints to effectivelyfulfill all the functionsand requirementsunder expected dnvnhole conditions?

was worked out based on a fixed value

connection To answer this question operationalnot technical

compromisesneed to be made in regard to specific

design criteria and

material propertiesof the con-

be analyes with respect to

their prestress require-

ments and limitations,and the concomitantcorres- pending make-u!?methods and techniques.These are:

tions for the contact pressure

sealing face, and the variable

on the metal-to-metal order to find the most appropriateanswer to this

minimum-maximum question two basic connectionprincipleswill

values

appropriatecomputer controlledmake-up equipment

representa new approach.1This assures uniform optimal str>ss control of the entire string. It also improves the operationalsafety and efficiency A. Simple API threadedconnections

of th~tstring, and optimum utilizationof tubular B. API and Premium shoulderedconnections goods with (premium)shoulderedconnections.In

addition, this approach is highly valuable with respect to induced atress corrosionand the appli- cation of high alloy tubular goods which represent the greatest technical,safety and economic challenge for today’s completiontechnology.

of the thread torque in conjunctionwith

A. In regard to the simple API threaded connections (Round threads, Buttress)all the functionsand requirementsare related only to the thread’s

performancesand

limitations.In addition, the

sealing property of sealing property of

these connectionsrely on the the dope. Both the advantages

and limitation of these commonly used connections

are well known, as well as th~ ~$responding make-up method and technique.$ ~

This method is based on a positionalalignment provi-

ding a

of the connectionburst pressurebeing accumulated during the make-up process. The well known torque/tuz techniqueand equipment2~7provideoptimal positional alignment6*7in conjunctionwith the optimal value of the applied torque (see figure 2 a.).

prestressbearing pressure related to 76%

The developmentof this new technology,its theore- tical backgroundand correspondingpracticalsolu- tions and benefits are presented in this paper.

FUNCTIONSAND REQUIREMENTSOF OIL COUNTRY TIMHJLARCONNECTIONS

As an integral and crucial part of the string, and the basis of the Joint - String ratio, the connectionshave to perform the followingmain functions:

- to connect a string out of seperate joints,

- to

- to prevent fluid communicationaccross the pipe,

- to withstand combined stresses during completion basically differ from simple API threaded connections

withstand tensile - compressiveloads,

B.

API (ExtremeLine)

and premium (VAMR, TDS/BDSR,

AB TC-4SR, Hydril etc.) shoulderedconnections

and production. Apart from the thread,twomore functionalelements are incorporated:metal-to-metalseal(s) and

To provide those basic functions,connectionshave shoulder(s).In this case all the functionsand to fulfill two main requirementcriteria: requirementsare based on the single and/or mutual performancesof those elementsand their specific

1. To provide both mechanical and sealing integrity for the entire string within specifiedand/or design limits.

2.

To-maintainall the operationalfeatures of the string within the correspondingpropertiesof every single pipe (joint).

stress requirementsand limitations.As a result the applied and requiredmake-up energy has to be specified in accordancewith the functionalre- quirement(s)of each element its design and its material features.One baaic differencehas to be pointed out between API Extreme Line and presented

premium shoulderedconnections (ace figure 2 b/2 c).

It

is the position of the metal-to-metalseal elemenl relation to the position of the shoulder.

This will be an ideal relation between connection in

functionsand requirementsbased on the known/apeci-

fied design and material propertiesof standard tioned on the opposite ends of the connectionand and proprietarytubular goods. In regard to that, neither stress nor function are directly related.

the selection-has--tobe made based on completion and downhole criteria,and operational,productions

With the API Extreme Line these elements are poai-

WA

With presented and common premium shoulder connections,both, shoulder, and metal-to-metal seal(s) are located together side by side and are directly/indirectlystress and functionally related. (see figure 2 c)

MAKE-UP ENERGY

The most crucial stage from a single pipe (joint) to the string is the make-up process where kinetic energy is used to align two threaded elements together. This energy, in the form of torque, is specified for each connectiondepending on its design and material properties.For operational control and applicationthe minimum/maximumvalues are specifiedwith the intentionof arriving at the middle value known as an optimum. But, there ia quite a big differencebetween the applied kinetic torque and the static energy

stored in the connection.This differencecorresponds

to

of known and unknown operational- in many cases

uncontrollable- parameters.

make-up friction loss which

combines a variety

I

In

the

first instance this difference,known

as

the

friction correctionfactor, depends on

connectiondesign, plating, i.e. the surface

treatment of the connection,and

property of the dope. In the second, it depends on the uniformityand quality of the dope, and operationalparameters related to dope applicationand environmental conditions during make-up. About dope related problems many costly ~~jltime- consuming tests and work have been done , but

very few field-reliableresults have been obtained. To find an appropriateway to establishdirect/ indirect control of friction loss during the (premium)connectionmake-up process (figure 1),

the frictional

the following equation could

be applied:

M=Mth.

where:

th + seal seal +Msh

. JJSh

1

M

- total applied make-up energy th seal sh - partial energy per thread, seal, shoulder element correspondingfrictionalleas.

‘th’ ‘seal’ ‘sh -

I

!

I

I

The frictionalloss in the seal (PSeal)and shoulder (Psh) could be practicallyignored aa the related contact area and the penetration are small and by high contact pressure the stress accumulationby the lubricatingfilm is neglec- ted compared to material stress/strainproperty. On the contrary, the contact area and penetration by the thread are large while the atressea are relatively small and unevenly distributed.This leads to a practical solution to control fric- tional loss of the make-up energy only in the threaded section. This is related to the common dopefrictional loss practice by making-up simple threaded connections. For premium shoulderedconnections,the appli- cation of the friction correction factor“ia completely confusing,inadequate,and has undergone many changes in”the past.’

The proposed answer to use only friction correc- tion factor in regard to threaded section correspondentsto the main aima of this work. These are:

1. The variable thread torque values ranging between specifiedminimum and accepted

maximum.

2. Fixed torque values for both

a. Seal

b. Shoulder

and

which correspondto the minimum shoulder prestress requirements.

Fixed stress/strainvalues for metal-to-metal

seal and shoulder are

connectiondesign and material properties.

primarily related to

The variable thread torque depends on machining and operationaltolerancesand dope related frictionalloss. By proper applicationof these principles,and by using corresponding computer control make-up procedure, the optimal

and uniform prestress and alignment of

connectionwill be achieved.This will provide both, sealfng and mechanical integrities, with the fulfillmentof the main functional requirementsof premium shoulderedconnections.

the

COMPUTER CONTROL OF MINIMUM SHOULDER PRESTRESS REQUIREMENTSDURING MAKE-UP PROCEDURE OF PREMIUM SHOULDEREDCONNECTIONS

The main characteristicof this new method is direct/indirectcontrol of the specified connectionstress during the make-up procedure of premium shoulderedconnections,where metal-to-metalsealing principlesare directly andlor indirectlyrelated to the amount of axial compressiveatresa applied to the pin/box shoulder contact area. Based on this technicalability of the connection, this method allows us to select and apply the specifiedminimum required shoulder stress value.

The minimum necessary shoulder stress value 1 correspondsto a value required to assure contact

pressure between the pin and box metal-to-metal seal, equal or greater than the maximum differential

pressure across the connectionor the

the maximum tensile limit of the pipe or connection (whicheveris less). As a result, we are now going to concentrate on three main functionalelements:Thread, metal- to-metal seal, and shoulder;and their corres- ponding torque-stress-strainrequirements.

pipe within

The bases for the new method and computer control techniquewere stated earlier and are specified as follows:

1. Thread Torque Requirementsand Limitations

This part correapondato all but the sealing function of the API threadedconnections.The torque is variable ranging between minimum/ maximum specifiedvalues and corresponding relative numberof turns.

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4

COMPUTER CONTROL OF MINIMUM SHOULDERPRESTRESS REQUIREMENTS

DURING W-UP

PROCEDURE OF PREMIUM SHOULDER CONNECTIONS

SPE 14793

The other analogy to the API threadedconnec- tions is applicationof the correspondingdope friction correctionfactor. Practically,it means that the optimal thread alignment can be achieved with variable torquelturnsvalues. These are design-, machining-,plating/doping-, and operationallyrelated and/or specified.

Point 1 (figures3 - 7).correspondsto the

specific thread torque (turns)ultimate value of the related connectionmake-up. Until point 1 the make-up energy is transferred through radial and axial relativemovement of the pin and box and accumulatedin the thread section in the form of correspondingstresses:

bearing and hoop for tapered (A and B), and only

bearing for

For all connectionstype A and C, the thread (interference)torque point 1 correspondsto the initial shoulder contact with zero axial compressionstress. From point 1 onward, only axial movement and related compressionstress will be considered.

cylindrical (C) connection type.

2. Metal-to-MetalSeal Requirementsand Limitations

This is the only design related sealing part of premium shoulderedconnection. The requirementsand limitationsof the metal- to-metal induced seal will be considered togetherwith the requirementsand limits of the shoulder (item 3).

3. Shoulder Requirementsand Limitations

This part, together-~iththe metal~to-metal seal, representathe most importantconnection integrityrelated unit. Direct stress/strain

and functionalrelation between metal-to-metal

seal and shoulder, e:~ceptfor

as explained earlier, are the factors for their joint considerationand the common prestress control. Another less importsntpoint is related to the technical-resolutionability of today’s equtp-

ment, which makea hardly possible to separately control and divide the direct from the indirect part of energy stored into metal-to-metalseal during make-up, even for B type connections. By these type connectionswith high resolution equipment,direct metal-to-metalseal atreaa (point 2, figure 6) could be visible, t,utnot

API Extreme Line,

radial componentof

sequentlyadded to the metal-to-metalseal.

the shoulder stress sub-

The streasfstrainvalues of both shoulder(s) and metal seal(a) are design and material property related and could be specifiedfrom the func- tionally related minimum up to the yielding specifiedmaximum. But, followingthe most effec- tive connectionrequirementsand utilization criteria,the basic design principlesof premium shoulderedconnectionsand the optimal atreas string properties,the minimum shoulder axial compressionstress was selected and applied in the form of correspondingfixed torque value. This value is presentedwith point 3 (figures3- 7).

The determiningstress component could be taken from the atress ordinate and strain deformationfrom the absciasa.

Before the presentationof the make-up equipment and descriptionof measurementand automstic control process, once more, the main charac- teristic of the new make-up method will be listed:

The fixed shoulder torque value haa to be specifiedand applied to provide design and material related minimum required shoulder stress.

The variable thread torque marginal values have to be specified in-accord~ncewith known thread properties,productio~and machining tolerances,dope related friction loss and optimal operationalacceptance criteria.

MAKE-UP EQUIPMENT

Standardhydraulic power tong equipment is used as per figure 8. The main feature of equipment presented is the direct selection and control of RPM and maximum torque output, based on pre-set main hydraulic parameters. Another advantage is the integratedhydraulic back-up tong. This provides optimal mechanical alignment and effective transfer of make-up energy, directly Into the connection,eliminating the negative uncontrolledeffects of shear and bending forces.

MEASUREMENT

For measurementof energy applied and the correspondingatreasfstrail;shoulder contact values, a high accuracy eletronic,custom-made strain gauge ia used (position7, figure 8). For (tubing)tongs with integratedhydraulic back-up, the load cell with strain gauge ia fixed between tong and back-up. For conventional tong, it ia integratedinto the back-up line. Rotation of the pipe is directly measured with tur s counter w th the minimum resolutionof 10 -9 turns (10- 4 turns counters are also

available),2

The requirementsfor at least 10-2 turns reso- lution counter is related to the shoulder compres- sion penetrationwhich ranges between 0,01 - 0,03 turns.

AUTOMATIC EVALUATIONAND CONTROL

By applying make-up torque, the corresponding pulling force produces a resietant signal change out of the strain gauge, which is simultaneously transferredinto the main computer (position9, figure 8). h per the specific program, these signals are directly processed foi simultaneous monitoring and control under real time conditions. The basic parametersincorporatedinto the computer program are related to the design and type of connection,production,operational” and empirical criteria andlor apeci.fications.

1

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SPE 14793

S.Marojevi&

5

These parametersare specifiedand put into A. To provide uniform stress in every joint of the the computer program as fixed andfor variables string the optimal shoulder compressivestress for automatic evaluationand control. value has to be specifiedand aa corresponding These parametersare selectiveand are as fixed torque applied to every connectionof the

—.

follows:

1. Thread torque values, ranging from the B. The optimal shoulder compressivestress value, requiredminimum to the allowed maximum. from a functional,safety and utilizationstand

2. Shoulder stress i.e. correspondingtorque values, with the operationalrange from

the required and specifiedminimum to the

string.

potnt, ia the effectiveminimum which provide full connectionintegrityunder the limited string tensile condition.

yield and safety specifiedmaximum.

C. For the threaded connectionpart, the variable torque values remains the only valuable solution which covers all machining,plating and the operationaltoleranceslspecificationsand acceptancecriteria.

In addition, friction loss and the applicationof the relative friction correctionfactor, is alao

Shoulder strain values for both, shoulder and metal-to-metalseal, should be limitedwith

regard to design and material

expected subsequentoperational/production conditionsto the yield strain of E o$~ - E 005 (0.2 0.5%) deformation. The yield deformationcontrol during make-up is simultaneouslyrelated to any material

plastic deformationin both mill andlor field limited to the threadedsection and further affect

end of the connectionregardlessof whether the thread torque value. the single or floatingmake-up method is used.

As a result, we have a string with a known uniform All these values are then put into the computer most efficientvalues of shoulder and metal-to-metal program and used for automaticcontrol of the seal prestreasand a known acceptablevalue of make-up equipment.In addition to the proper correspondingthread stress. Both values are selectionof the make-up equipment,corresponding specified in accordancewith design and material pre-settingof the equipmenthas to be done properties,but also with regard to speciftc to limit optimal power output in accordance operational,safety and downhole conditions.

with the correspondingmaximum acceptablemake-up

value. This value correspondsto the sumary of maximum thread torque plus the fixed torque A. Well-knownbasic atress property of the string,

value of the correspondingshoulder prestress i.e. connections,which ia highly important for

propertiesand

Operationaland stress related benefits are:

requirement.When the strain gauge signal reaches

any specified fixed andlor variable value, which and fishing operation. ia simultaneouslytransferredinto the main computer, a return signal will be issued for instanteous B. With the aasured minimum shoulder compression

shut down of hydraulic power into the tong. steaa, the functionalperformanceof the con-

Simultaneously,the automatic evaluationof make-up nection, i.e. string, will be achieved adding

validitywill be made and printed on the graph,

based on torque, stress and strain acceptance and utilizationcapabilities:

criteria.The hardware and software are aet such

that by exceeding or by not reaching the torquefstreSs values for BAD make-ups or by meeting the acceptance criteria for GOOD make-upa the “shut down” signal will be input into the tong automatically.

further benefits to their operational,safety

subsequentstreaa related completion,production

- The increasedcompressiveabilities.

- Positive sealing regardlessof the applied tensile force within the specified limits of the pipe or connection.

- Reduced stress corrosion,which is highly important,costly and safety related subject by completing (high alloy) tubulars in corrosivt environment.For this applicationthe ratio between threahold-stresslevel and minimum

SOME

PRACTICALASPECTS, EXPERIENCES

AND DEVELOPMENTS

The main aim and practical benefits of this

new make-up method are in regard to the most compressiveshoulder stress has to be efficientutilizationand performance of the established. productionandlor completionstring made out of

Increasedutilization,as this is inversely proportionalto the applied stress value.

the seperate joints with (premium)shouldered

connections.In this respect, the make-up related

stress of every single joint will be made in

accordancewith the optimal string requirements

but

and material related prestreaa requirementsof a

single connection.To combine the answer for

two crucial requirementsinto one, which also - Reduced machining cost and rejection rate. providesmost efficientoperationalcontrol

and utilization;the followingcriteria been consideredand specificationmade:

C. By applyingvariable thread torque and using dope friction correction factor only for the threaded section, the followingutilization, safety and operationalbenefits will be achieved:

- Overcomingdope related friction confusion and inadequateprestreaaingof the shoulder and mental-to-metalseal elements.

also according to the most

effective,design

have

these

KQ7

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6

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COMPUTER CONTROL OF MINIMUM SHOULDERPRESTRESSREQUIREMENTS

DURING MAKE-UP PROCEDURE OF PREMIUM SHOULDERCONNECTIONS

.

SPE 14793

Proper control of the specifiedandlor f. In addition to the previous example with a accepted thread stress value. corrosiveenvironment,high corrosionwas also experiencedon the couplingsof hi h alloy

By using these tubulars, i.e. connectionsin the corrosiveenvironmentalso corresponding thread thresholdstress level have to be

specifiedand

tubulars in sour gas production1699. In some of the couplings, the shoulderswere completely worn as a result of excessive shoulder compression stress. By applying correspondingminimum

shoulder compressionstress, which in any case has to be smaller then the thresholdetress-level

f

applied as a maximum.

In accordancewith the above, some case hfstories specifiedaa 50% of the yteld, this type of

will be presented in which the appropriate

solution have been achieved using the new make-up method and the explainedprinciples and some where their applicationoffers further operational, CONCLUSION

utilizationand economic benefits. The new method and techniquefor computer control

a. By making up special 14 premium shouldered of minimum shoulder prestress requirementsduring

string failureswill be avoided.

connectiona

then the common practicewas to apply friction

correctionfactor and to increase both specified technologyand to the utilizationof OCT goods

locking compound was used. Until make-up procedure of premium shoulderedconnections

bring a new dimensions to completionand production

minimuudmaximummarginal torques by

Following the doping instructionto apply locking compound only to the thread, the torque was 1. Optimum, uniformly prestressedconnections

calculatedmultiplyingonly the thread torque throughoutthe entire string,with known stress

value with the The result was

thread torque by 60% but with constantvalue of the shoulder torque and an increaseof only 14% 2. Applying minimum shoulder prestressmethod WL1l

of the ultimate torque, compared with a 60% increaaeby conventionalmethod of both ultimate

and shoulder torque values. of correspondingtubulars.

60%.

which can be summarizedas’follows:

friction correction factor of 1.6. correspondingincrease of the

propertiesof every joint and a corresponding capabilityof the string.

increase the operationaland productioncapa- bilities of the string and enhanced utilization

b. For another 9-5/8” premium connectionthe range 3. With uniformly applied minimum shoulder com-

between applied minimum and maximum shoulder torque was between 5.330 and 10.510 ft.lbs,

presaive stress and a limited value of thread stress to the thresholdstress-level,stress

i.e. a 97% difference. induced corrosionwill be optimally reduced. In other 7 string common shoulder torque The great importanceof the effective stress

control ability is especiallyrelated to the

varied between .5.000and 9.000 ft.lbs with

maximum exceed up to 140%. safety requirementof gas completiontechnology

Similar cases for premium tubing connectionsare in corrosive environment. known where the range between minimum and maxf- mum shoulder torque value for the same string 4. The use of operationallyacceptable thread torque ia more than doubla. values gives further possibilityfor optimal utilization,reduced machining cost and rejection

c. In another 5“ premium connectionand the selected rate without affecting the main functionalfeatur( minimum/maximumvalues of pin and box thread of the connectims. interference (ace figure 9) with the fixed

By applying a dope related friction correction factor to only the threadedsection, the effectiv, stress requirementwill remain intact, over- coming the dope related friction confusionby using the relative friction loss principles

target torque value the shoulder torque ranged from 2.300 as minimum to 4.300 ft.lbs. as maxi- mum. By applying fixed shoulder torque corres- ponding to the minimum required corupressive ehoulder atress and accepted minimum/maximum

5.

thread interferences,the ultimate torque will common for API threaded connections. range between 2,900 and 4.500 ft.lbs respectively.

d. Another caee is a 3-1)2” premium connectionwhere the maximum yielding at the mill end was not

6. Effectivecontrol and monitoring/recording abtlity are not only beneficial for well site operation,but also for the proper analysis of

related to the maximum applied torque of 7.100 string performanceand failure and for planning

ft.lbs, but to longer exposure to the lower and engineeringftitureoperationsandior com- 6.610 ft.lbs torque (see figure 10-11). pletlons.

e. The last example present two subsequent3-1/2”

7. Aa a result, the economicaland safety benefits

premium connectionof productiontubing string become obvious, not only in regard to utilization

with the extreme combinationof thread inter- ferences and matiimumfminimumvalues of the

applied ultimate torque. The resulting shoulder and workovera to ultimata production.Appropriate

control and uniform effectiveprestresa increases

of tubular goods, but alao in regard to tha entira well cost, krom the primary completion

torque ratio is in the range of two (see

figure 12). operationaland production safety which is extremelyimportant in combinationwith severe

and dangerous environmentconditions.

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SPE 14793

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I wish to acknowledgethe management of

TRI-STATEOIL TOOL CO. for permissionand support to present this work. Special thanks to P.Bounie and B. Plaquin of Vallourec and D.Duta of Mannes- mann for the technicalcontributionand support.

REFERENCES

1. Marojevit S. IIVerfahrenzum Verschraubenvon Rohren Patent Pending No. P 35 21 221.8 and G 85 18 850.6 W. Germany, June 1985.

2. Weatherfordfnternalfexternaltechnical publicationsand S.Marojevidwritten works and preaentations.(Hannnov~:r,W-Germany).

S.Marojevi6

7

10. Willis D.N. ~lHowto ensure proper make-up of premium shouldered tubulars”W.O. (Sept. 1983) 71 - 74.

11. White G.W. ttE1iminatinggalling of htgh-alloy

tubular threads by high energy icnckposition

llJpT(August 1984)

1345

-

1351”

process

12. Vallourec OCTG unpublishedcommunicationperiod 1983 - 1985.

13. Bounie O., Salkin H., Grare D. New technology for premium joints make-up”, presented at 8th Annual Energy Sources TechnologyConference, Dallas, Febr. 11-21, 1985.

14. MannesmannunpublishedCommunicationperiod 1984 - 1985.

3. API 5C1 Recommendedpractice for Care and Use 15. Mannesmannbrochure “Drill pipe with teal joint”;

of Casing and Tubing; edition twelve, March 1981.

4. ApI 5 AZ Bulletin on thread compounds for Casing,

Tubing and

Line Pipe, March 1981.

5. Hawke M.C. Inpredictingmake-up torque of threaded connectionsand evaluationof coefficientof

edition July 1984.

16. BruckhoffW., Schmitt G. “Experiencewith special steels in sour gas production”Erd61-Erdgas- Zeitschrift99. (May 83) 152 - 158.

17. Stair H.A., Mc Inturff T.L. “Casing and tubing

friction Paper SPE 13068 presented at 50th design considerationin deep sour gas wells”

Annual Technical Conference,Houston, Paper No. IADC/SPE 11392, 1983. Drilling Con-

September 16-19, 1984.

ference New Orleana February 20-23.

6. SchneiderW.P. “Casing and tubing connection 18. Adams N,, Kaigler A., Ingram L. “H S Detection stresses J.P,T. (August 1982) 1851 - 1862. and Protection”P.E. Int. (June 19~0) 64 - 71.

7. Weiner P.D. “Leak - proof, threaded connections” Exxon torquelturnPatent No. 3.745.820U.S.A. July 1973.

8. ~ulins M, !IHOWloading affects tubular thread shoulder seals, P.E. int. (March 1984) 43 - 52.

9. Biegler K.K., Petersen C.W. “Rating tubular connectionsfor today’s service requirements” JPT (Oct. 1984) 1739 - 1747,

Kna

““”

19. Wi.lkenG. !Iperfomanceof duplex stainless steel pipe in sour gas wells” Paper No. 226, presented Corrosion 85, Boston, Masa., March 25-29, 1985.

20. ACE Standard MR-01-75 (1980 revision)”Sulfide stress cracking resistantmetallic material for oil field equipment”.

~

14”793

L---I

.

.

Fig.

I I

01

lp

PENETRATION

I

2p

:

I

1-Torque

vs.

gy wilhlnpremiumshoulderconrrecll Ionpec Thread1, metal. to.metal Seal 2, and shOulder3.

pmwrtratlongraph. Oktrlbutlonof makeupener-

7 0

w---

i

/

-4 !

.

I

.

i!3=lh

,.

.

w----

‘“’

blLjJP

c

Fig. 2–Threa

common tapered connectiontypes:(a) APIthreaded,(b)API shouldered,and(c) Premium

shouldered.

TAPERED

A

UA

!

R

I

01

(

,—. rrnax

Fb.3–ToI’ww~

CO NNECVON

—.—

.—.

TYPE

—.—

———+

N-TIM

A

,—

W@@ *3

b

R-reference torque, O-’’Zer0°

tOrque/pmetrWonooOrWrratesystem,Om-

zero of stroaslstralnoOordlnalesystemlderr- tiod with Point 1-uttirrwte throw! torque,

Polrrt 3-minimum shoutder lostklty rnodul, #nd k-design

Mrass,

coeftklent.

E-

0

Fb.

 

IAPERED

CW

NECTION

TYPE

A

(

I

-

 

rum-

rlMEmw4

 

4-MMuP

tWh

Wlh

1 mx-m~ximum

‘rem

torque

value

Line

II

nd

1 mln–mlninrum

thre8d

torque

duo

Llna

II*

3.-MlnlMUM

shoulder

torque

nd 4.-tlxed

find

torque

value

TwX.

I

I

TAPERED

tf—————

COUNECTION

TYPE A

TAPERED CONNECTION

—.— Tntax

,

,

 

—“4

13

I

I

[

TYPE B

01 TURNS-TIMEI

STMIN

Fig. 5–Makeup

graph with the yield Point 5 below and

above the fixed torque value Point 4.

CYLINDRICAL CONNECTIW

I PENETRATION

-

Fig. 6-Toique-stress/penetration-strain graph of B type tepered (tubing) con- nection with Point 2 representing direct axial metal-to-metal seal atreas.

TYPE C

Tmex

‘.

,

e

J32

‘J3

R 1 *S

I TURNS-TIME\

STFfAIN

Fig. 7—Torque-stress/penetration-strain graph of C-type cylindrical connation.

1

Fig. B–Standard

P

makaup equipment with computer control and monitoring aesembiy.

,.

~;g;

4720

0.834

------

tlAKfUJP

lb-ft TURNS

,,~y:

SK

14793

Flg.9—Test

makeup graphs of5-in.

x 151b/ftpremium

connections with fixed tsr-

get torque vslue snd msximum and minimum thread torque (interference).

TURN

i

07

%

‘5

IJJ

34

0

g3

+2

L

1

_—

J

Test No. :

Size:

Torque:

,---

I

15

1

1.8

3

1/2”

x

9.2

lbs/ft

7110 ft.lbs.

Coupling Shouider I.D.: 73.3 / 73.3 mm

Fig, 10—Teat makeup graphaof3Vz-in,

premium connections with

comparative torque/yield valuesat

the field and mill end,

TURN

06

0

:5

X4

w

33

0

:2

1-

TIME

1

1

~---

5

)

,/

1

\

,-.--,,

—~.J

10

1

:.]

i5

Coupling %oulder I.D. (rmn) A-B

C-D

at O Tbrque

76.9 /

76.7

at

applied ‘Ibrque-fieldmd

74.2 /

74.2

-mill end

72.4 /

72.4

Fig. ll—Test makeup graphaof3V&in. premium connections

the field and

with comparative torque/yield valuesat mill end.

MAKE-UP

TQ

----

220

----

2200

[

------------i

300

TALLY NO.127

300

TALLY

I

NUB

06:47

----

6 *

Fig. 12—Field makeup of two subse- quent 3’!&in. x 9.2 lb/ft premium joints with maxi” mum thread torque and mini- mum fixed torque value (Joint 127) and minimum thread torque and maximum fixed ultimate torque value (Joint 128).