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The End of the Bronze Age: The Amuq

and her Neighbors.

...Archaeological data support the written sources concerning the destructions of coastal cities. Some areas suffered of violent
destructions (cities such as Ugarit and Alalakh disappeared), other areas accommodated groups of immigrants (such as Cyprus, Cilicia,
Amu), while other ones remained untouched (the !e"anese coast from #y"los until Carmel)...$ (M. Liverani, Antico Oriente. Storia,
societ , economia, Rome, 1988, 737; own translation)
1. Intro!ction
a) So!rces
") #ac$%ro!n
&. Arc'aeolo%ical sit!ation at t'e en o( t'e #A
a) Am!)
") *ilicia
c) Levant
3. +ossi"le e,-lanations
a) S.stem colla-se
") Mi%rations
/ Sea +eo-les
/ +'ilistines
c) 0ec'nical innovations
/ Iron
/ A%ric!lt!re
) 1at!ral isasters
/ 2art')!a$es
/ 3ro!%'t
4. *oncl!sion

0'e 2n o( t'e #ron5e A%e
0'e Am!) an 'er 1ei%'"ors
/ Asto!r, 19816 M.*. Asto!r, 7%arit an t'e 8reat +owers, in 8.3. 9o!n% (e.), 7%arit in Retros-ect. :i(t. 9ears o( 7%arit an 7%aritic,
;inona La$e (Iniana), 3/&9.
/ #raiwoo, 19376 R.<. #raiwoo, Mo!ns in t'e +lain o( Antioc'. An Arc'aeolo%ical S!rve., (0'e 7niversit. o( *'ica%o. Oriental Instit!te
+!"lications, 48), *'ica%o.
/ #!nnens, 198=6 8. #!nnens, I :ilistei e le invasioni ei +o-oli el Mare, in 3. M!sti (e.), Le ori%ini ei 8reci. 3ori e mono e%eo, Rome,
/ 3e%er/<al$ot5., 19836 S. 3e%er/<al$ot5., 8riec'enlan, ie A% is !n ie Levante w 'ren er ?3ar$ A%es@ vom 1& "is 5!m 9 <'. A. *'r.
A$ten es S.m-osions von Sti(t Bwettl (1 ) 11/14 O$to"er 198C, ( sterreic'isc'e A$aemie er ;issensc'a(ten. +'iloso-'isc'/'istorisc'e
Dlasse. Sit5!n%s"eric'te, 418. Aer ((entlic'!n%en er Dommission ( r M.$enisc'e :orsc'!n%, 1C), ;ien.
/ 3ornemann, 19816 R.E. 3ornemann, 2,cavations at Ras S'amra an t'eir +lace in t'e *!rrent Arc'aeolo%ical +ict!re o( Ancient S.ria , in
8.3. 9o!n% (e.), 7%arit in Retros-ect. :i(t. 9ears o( 7%arit an 7%aritic, ;inona La$e (Iniana), =9/>9.
/ 3ot'an, 198&6 0. 3ot'an, 0'e +'ilistines an t'eir Material *!lt!re, 1ew Eaven / <er!5alem.
/ 3rews, 19936 R. 3rews, 0'e 2n o( t'e #ron5e A%e. *'an%es in ;ar(are an t'e *atastro-'e ca. 1&CC #.*., +rinceton.
/ 2'rlic', 199>6 *.S. 2'rlic', 0'e +'ilistines in 0ransition. A Eistor. (rom ca. 1CCC/73C #.*.2., St!ies in t'e Eistor. an *!lt!re o( t'e
Ancient 1ear 2ast, 1C), Le.en/1ew 9or$.
/ :renc', 197=6 2.#. :renc', FA Reassessment o( t'e M.cenaean +oter. at 0ars!sG, in Anatolian St!ies, &=, =3/7=.
/ 8arstan%, 19=36 <. 8arstan%, +re'istoric Mersin. 9 m $ 0e-e in So!t'ern 0!r$e., O,(or.
/ 8olman, 19=>6 E. 8olman, 2,cavations at 8 5l D!le, 0ars!s, 3 vols., +rinceton.
/ Eaines, 19716 R.*. Eaines, 2,cavations in t'e +lain o( Antioc', &. 0'e Str!ct!ral Remains o( t'e Later +'ases. *atal E!.!$, 0ell al/<!eia'
an 0ell 0aG.inat, (0'e 7niversit. o( *'ica%o. Oriental Instit!te +!"lications, 9=), *'ica%o.
/ Eelc$, 19796 ;. Eelc$, 3ie #e5ie'!n%en A%.-tens !n Aorerasiens 5!r A% is "is ins 7. <a'r'!nert v. *'r., (2rtr %e er :orsc'!n%, 1&C),
/ Dlen%el, 199&6 E. Dlen%el, S.ria6 3CCC to 3CC #*. A Ean"oo$ o( +olitical Eistor., #erlin.
/ Leonar, 19946 A. Leonar, <r., An Ine, to t'e Late #ron5e A%e Ae%ean +otter. (rom, (St!ies in Meiterranean Arc'aeolo%.,
114), <onsere.
/ Liverani, 198>6 M. Liverani, FLa ceramica e i testi6 commercio miceneo e -olitica orientaleG, M. Mara55i, S. 0!sa an L. Aa%netti (es.),
0ra((ici micenei nel Meiteraneo. +ro"lemi storici e oc!menta5ione arc'eolo%ica. Atti el conve%no i +alermo (11/1& ma%%io e 3/> icem"re
1984), (Ma%na 8recia, 3), 0aranto, 4C=/41&.
/ Liverani, 19876 M. Liverani, 0'e *olla-se o( t'e 1ear 2astern Re%ional S.stem at t'e 2n o( t'e #ron5e A%e6 0'e *ase o( S.ria, in M.
Rowlans, M. Larsen an D. Dristiansen (es.), *entre an +eri-'er. in t'e Ancient ;orl, *am"ri%e, >>/73.
/ Liverani, 19886 M. Liverani, Antico Oriente. Storia, societ , economia, Rome.
/ Mee, 19786 *. Mee, FAe%ean 0rae an Settlement in Anatolia in t'e Secon Millenni!m #.*.G, Anatolian St!ies, &8, 1&1/1==.
/ Mellin$, 19>46 M.<. Mellin$, +ostscri-t on 1omaic Art, in M.<. Mellin$ (e.), St!ies in Iranian an Anatolian Arc'aeolo%., (7it%aven van
'et 1eerlans Eistorisc'/arc'eolo%isc' Instit!!t te Istan"!l, 18), Istan"!l, >3/7C.
/ M!'l., 198=6 <.3. M!'l., 0. Stec' H 2. 5%en, FIron in Anatolia an t'e 1at!re o( t'e Eittite Iron In!str.G, Anat. St., 3=, >7/84.
/ Sanars, 198=6 1.D. Sanars, 0'e Sea +eo-les. ;arriors o( t'e Ancient Meiterranean 1&=C/11=C #*, Lonon.
/Seton ;illiams, 19=46 M. Seton ;illiams, F*ilician S!rve.G, in Anatolian St!ies, 4, 1&1/174.
/ S'erratt, 19946 S. S'erratt, F*ommerce, Iron an Ieolo%.6 Metall!r%ical Innovation in t'e 1&t'/11t' *ent!r. *.-r!sG, in A. Dara%eor%'is
(e.), *.-r!s in t'e 11t' *ent!r. #.*. +roceein%s o( t'e International S.m-osi!m, 3C/31 Octo"er 1993), 1icosia, =9/1C>.
/ Slane, 19876 3.A. Slane, Mile an Late #ron5e A%e Arc'itect!re an +otter. in 8 5l D!le, 0ars!s6 A 1ew Anal.sis, (+'.3. iss. #r.n
Mawr, 1987), Ann Ar"or, 1987.
/ Sta%er, 197>6 L.A. Sta%er, F:armin% in t'e <!ean 3esert !rin% t'e Iron A%eG, in #!lletin o( t'e American Sc'ools o( Oriental Researc', &&1,
/ Stran%e, 19876 <. Stran%e, F0'e 0ransition (rom t'e #ron5e A%e to t'e Iron A%e in t'e 2astern Meiterranean an t'e 2mer%ence o( t'e
Israelite StateG, in Scaninavian <o!rnal o( t'e Ol 0estament, 1, 1/19.
/ Swi(t, 19=86 8.:. Swi(t Ir., 0'e +otter. o( t'e Am!) +'ases D to O, an its Eistorical Relations'i-s, (+'.3. 7niv. o( *'ica%o, 19=8), *'ica%o.
/ ;ar an <o!$ows$., 199&6 ;.A. ;ar an M.<. <o!lows$. (es.), 0'e *risis 9ears6 t'e 1&t' *ent!r. #.*. (rom "e.on t'e 3an!"e to t'e
0i%ris, 3!"!)!e (Iowa).
/ ;oolle., 19==6 *.L. ;oollle., Alala$'. An Acco!nt o( t'e 2,cavations at 0ell Atc'ana in t'e Eata., 1937/1949, (Re-orts o( t'e Researc'
*ommittee o( t'e Societ. o( Anti)!aries o( Lonon, 18), Lonon.
0'e 2n o( t'e #ron5e A%e
0'e Am!) an 'er 1ei%'"ors
8oo a(ternoon.
As it o"vio!s (rom m. 'an o!t I will tal$ a"o!t t'e en o( t'e #A an t'e transition to t'e IA.
:irst I will %ive .o! t'e so!rces an some 'istorical "ac$%ro!n. 1e,t I will %o over t'ree re%ions (Am!), *ilicia an t'e
Levant), an (inall. I will %ive some -ossi"le e,-lanations (or t'e isasters.
0'ere is a "i"lio%ra-'. on t'e -a%es & to 4. I cannot en. t'at it is a rat'er s!"Iective list, mae "t an Ae%ean -re'istorian in a
li"rar. w'ic' mainl. eals wit' 8reece an Rome. I 'o-e nevert'eless t'at it will "e !se(!l.
1. Intro!ction
a) So!rces
A"o!t 1&CC #* or s'ortl. a(ter t'e arc'ives o( 7%arit, w'ic' were o!r main so!rce, are estro.e. :rom t'e last & cent!ries o(
t'e en o( t'e &n Millenni!m no com-ara"le te,t!al evience is availa"le.
0'e lac$ o( so!rces can "e e,-laine ". et'nic c'an%es, mainl. immi%ration o( Aramaean %ro!-s, an t'e evelo-ment o( new
writin% s.stem, i.e. a Semitic linear scri-t, w'c' !se mainl. -eris'a"le material (leat'er, -a-.r!s) to recor te,ts.
Some inscri-tions on stone, metal an ceramic, 'owever, s!rvive.
/ inscri-tion o( a certain Ba$arJBe$er/#aGal, $in% o( Am!rr!, on an arrow'ea; ate an a!t'enticit. are is-!te; "eca!se o(
-alaeo%ra-'. ate to -erio "e(ore 1CCC #*.
/ (ra%ments o( 'iero%l.-'ic an c!nei(orm inscri-tions (rom Dar$emis' co!l 'ave "elon%e to t'is -erio.
O!r main so!rce is an inscri-tion o( Ramses III (.ear 8 o( 'is rei%n) at Meinet Ea"!. It %ives !s insi%'t in t'e 2%.-tian e(ense
o( its Asiatic territories an t'e 1ile Aalle. a%ainst t'e Sea +eo-les, an its attem-ts to revive t'e economic relations wit' t'e
S.rian coastal cities.
?1ow t'e nort'ern co!ntries (i.e. -eo-le) w'ic' were in t'eir islans were )!iverin% in t'eir "oies. 0'e. -enetrate
t'e c'annels o( t'e river mo!t's (t'e 1ile 3elta). 0'e. str!%%le (or "reat', t'eir nostrils cease. Eis MaIest. is %one o!t
li$e a w'irlwin a%ainst t'em (i%'tin% on t'e "attle(iel li$e a r!nner, t'e rea o( 'im an t'e terror 'ave entere
t'eir "oies, t'e. are ca-si5e an overw'elme w'ere t'e. are. 0'eir 'eart is ta$en awa. an t'eir so!l is (lown
awa., t'eir wea-ons are scattere !-on t'e sea. Eis arrow -ierces w'om 'e wis'es, an t'e (!%itive is a rowne
0'e inscri-tion itsel( is accom-anie ". -ictorial relie(s. see 'ano!t
") #ac$%ro!n6 t'e -olitical sit!ation
K Anato"ia6
/ 2ver. im-ortant site (Eatt!sa, 0ro., etc) 'as estr!ction la.ers ate aro!n 1&CC #*.
/ Mersin an 0ars!s, "!rnt aro!n 1&CC #*, recover. 0ars!s was a si5a"le cit. !rin% t'e twel(t' cent!r..
K #$%rus:
/ +erio "e(ore estr!ction was one o( %enerral -ros-erit..
/ Aro!n 1&CC #* some maIor cites (s!c' as 2n$omi, Dition an Sina) were sac$e an "!rnt.
/ Several smaller sites are a"anonne.
K Aegean:
/ Mainlan6
/ *rete6 *'ania is estro.e
in *entral an 2ast *rete n!mero!s sites a"anone.
s'i(t to well -rotecte settlements in t'e mo!ntains.
K Eg$%t:
/ S-are o( estr!ctions.
/ "etween 1&C8 an 117> attem-ts to invae 3elta; Merne-ta' (Darna$) an Ramses III (Meinet Ea"!) are a"le to re-el t'e
K &$ria:
/ 7%arit is estro.e at t'e en o( t'e #A / c(r 3rews sometime "etween 119> an 1179 / an is not reocc!-ie.
/ 3estr!ction "a$e some '!nre ta"lets; one o( t'em is )!ite interestin% as an inication o( a t'rea (see -. 14).
/ ot'er estro.e cities6 0ell S!$as, Alala$', etc.
/ cities in 2ast S.ria ma. 'ave "een less a((ecte; so *arc'emis', on t'e 2!-'rates, ma. 'ave esca-e.
K &outhern Le'ant:
/ t'e estr!ction o( 1&CC too$ a 'eav. toll in +alestine. So 3eir FAlla was estro.e.
0'e 2n o( t'e #ron5e A%e
0'e Am!) an 'er 1ei%'"ors
&. Arc'aeolo%ical sit!ation at t'e en o( t'e #A
a) Am!)
3!rin% 'is e,cavation o( 0ell Atc'ana ;oolle. immeiatel. came own !-on t'e (inal estr!ction level, tentativel. correlate
wit' t'e onsla!%'t o( t'e Sea +eo-les. Level C re-resents a "rie( attem-t at recolonisation !rin% t'e 1&t' cent!r., "!t (aile.
Amuq e)%edition:
0'e Am!) 2,-eition, or%ani5e ". t'e Oriental Instit!te, e,cavate at t'ree sites !rin% t'e 193CGs, *atal Eo.!$, 0ell <!eia'
an 0aG.inat. +'ases 1 an O, t'e & -'ases w'ic' concern !s, are still awaitin% -!"lication.
0'e arc'itect!re, 'owever, 'as "een -!"lis'e ". Eaines. At t'e 1; e%e o( t'e mo!n o( *atal Eo.!$ (ortication walls were
e,cavate "elon%in% to +'ases 1 an O. 0'e +'ase 1 wall is 3.1 m t'ic$ an it is constr!cte o!t o( !n"a$e "ric$ (o!ne on a
sin%le o( stone. At re%!lar interval t'ere are rectan%!lar towers. 0'e (orti(ications !rin% t'e ne,t -'ase / -'ase O / are 3 m
t'ic$ an t'e. are -artl. s!-erim-ose !-on t'e inner-art o( t'e +'ase 1 (orti(ication wall. 0'e. mae o( !n"a$e "ric$ irectl.
on t'e %ro!n an t'e. are "!ilt in a ri""on/li$e (as'ion wa. wit'o!t "rea$s or s!%%estions o( towers e,ce-t at its e,treme 2ast
en. A--arentl. t'ere were no si%ns o( a estr!ction.
A 'o!se wit' co!, "elon%in% to +'ase O, level & (area Iva), is similar in -lan to t'at o( t'e ?"t 'ilani@ at 0aG.inat. I( t'is
com-arison is correct, it s!%%ests a -!"lic c'aracter o( t'e "!ilin%, t'e resience o( a -!"lic o((icial
It e,ists o!t o( 3 rooms "!ilt aro!n a -orc' w'ic' was -ro"a"l. roo(e. 0'e com-le, was estro.e ". (ire.
A -ave street re-resents +'ase O at 0ell <!eia'. 1ort' o( tt'e street t'ere is a rectan%!lar str!ct!re (ca. &> , 1C m). A
-artition wall ivies t'e "!ilin% into & roomss an a -e""le -avin% near t'e west en o( t'e so!t' wall ma. 'ave "elon%e to
t'e entrance.
A -oorl. -reserve str!ct!re, so!t' o( t'e -ave street, consists o( 3 "loc$s o( "!ilin%. 0'e wall at t'e street sie contain !n!s!al
lar%e "o!lers.
0'e lar%e low mo!n o( 0aG.inat is occ!-ie ". an 7/s'a-e com-le, o( "!ilin%s aro!n a lar%e co! 0'e iscover. o( a
%atewa. s!%%este t'at t'e area set a-art (rom t'e rest o( t'e cit.. 0'e com-lete constr!ction "elon%s to -'ase O.
0'e -lan o( "!ilin% LIII is reco%ni5a"le as t'at o( a 1ort' S.rian ?"t 'ilani@, an Ass.rian t.-e o( -alace (BinIarli). Onl. t'e
(o!nations are -reserve w'ic' are mae o!t !n"a$e "ric$.
#!ilin% IGs -lan is ver. similar. It is consiere to "e a -alace an (orms t'e S2 corner o( "!ilin%s %ro!-e aro!n *o!
AII. 0'e -alace, as e,cavate, meas!re ca. &9 , =8 m an containte 3 occ!-ation la.ers an t'e inications o( a (o!rt'.
A--arentl. t'e "!ilin% was estro.e ". (ire on 3 occassions. 0'e walls were mae o!t !n"a$e "ric$, !sin% t'e Fwoo/cri"G
#!ilin% II is a tem-le an its -lan s!%%ests a western ori%in.
One o( t'e man. %atewa. was e,cavate east o( t'e mo!n. It 'as an o!ter an inner oorwa. wit' a %ate c'am"er in "etween
t'em. #ot' %atewa.s are (lan$e ". towers.
S!%%estion o( a walle cit..
0on.Gs s!%%estion t'at t'e -ower s'i(te (rom Alala$' to 0aG.inat a(ter Alala$'Gs estr!ction.
Al Mina Fs relations wit' 0aG.inat6 see L!$eGs issertation.
Amuq &ur'e$:
3!rin% t'e e,cavations o( *atal Eo.!$, 0ell <!eia' an 0aG.inat #raiwoo con!cte a s!rve. in t'e Am!) +lain. Ee
iscovere 17> sites in total.
:or o!r -!r-ose onl. sites wit' +erio A (-'ase 1; 1&CC/1CCC #*) an +erio IA (-'ase O; 1CCC/=CC #*) are im-ortant.
3!rin% -erio A t'ere is a (airl. 'eav. occ!-ation o( t'e -lain. 47 sites are occ!-ie o( w'ic' 14 are )!estiona"le. 0'e sites seem
evenl. istri"!te over t'e area e,ce-t west o( t'e la$e o( Antioc' an is es-eciall. well re-resente !- t'e A(rin valle..
3!rin% t'e ne,t -erio, -erio IA, t'e -lain was )!ite t'ic$l. in'a"ite, es-eciall. east an so!t' o( t'e la$e an !- t'e A(rin
valle.. 1one o( t'e =8 sites (o( w'ic' 7 are )!estiona"le) were (o!n !- t'e Dara S! valle..
Alon% Orontes
nei%'"o!r'oo o( 0aG.inat
Liverani6 ri%'t.