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Idiomi u Engleskom jeziku Mock exam November 2010

1. Give the defniton of idioms both in


their narrower and broader use.
Idioms: are relatively frozen expressions
whose meanings do not refect the
meanings of their component parts
- Narrower uses of idiom: idiom is a unit
that is fxed and semantically opaque or
metaphorical or not the sum of its parts
(eg !ic!s the "uc!et# spill the "eans$
- %roader uses of idiom: idiom is a general
term for many !inds of multi-word item#
whether semantically opaque or not (in this
use the term idiom is equivalent to the term
fxed expression$
2. What are the main factors in
defning fxed expressions? Explain
each of them.
-IN&'I'('I)N*+I,*'I)N: the process "y
which a string or formulation "ecomes
recognized and accepted as a lexical item
of the language 'he main criterion is the
frequency with which the string recurs
-+-.I/)01*22*'I/*+ 3I.-4N-&&: implies
some degree of lexicogrammatical
defectiveness in units# fe with preferred
lexical realizations and often restrictions
on aspect# mood# or voice (eg call the
shots# !ith and !in# shoot the "reeze$
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Idiomi u Engleskom jeziku Mock exam November 2010
-N)N-/)25)&I'I)N*+I'6: is a semantic
criterion 'he meaning arising from word-
"y-word interpretation of the string does
not yield the institutionalized# accepted#
unitary meaning of the string (typical
cases are metaphorical 3-Is$ 'o sum up#
institutionalized strings which are
grammatically ill-formed or which contain
words unique to the com"ination may also
"e considered non-compositional
3. Use the E! put one"s e#es together
to explain the probem that appears
with the criterion of
institutionali$ation in defning E!s.
-most fxed expressions occur infrequently7
3-Is may "e localized within certain
sections of a language community# and
peculiar to certain varieties or domains7
some 3-Is are no longer current in the
lexicon# "ut were institutionalized in
former times
%. What are the three minor criteria in
defning E!s? Explain each criterion.
Ortography: 3-Is should consist of# or "e
written as# 8 or more words
Syntactic integrity: 3-Is form syntactic or
grammatical units in their own right:
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Idiomi u Engleskom jeziku Mock exam November 2010
ad9uncts (eg through thick and thin$#
complements (eg long in the tooth$#
nominal groups (eg a fash in the pan$#
sentence adver"ial (eg by and large$#
clauses (eg dont count your chicken
before theyre hatched$
Phonological criterion: where strings are
am"iguous "etween compositional and
non-compositonal interpretation# intonation
may distinguish: interword pauses and word
durations are longer in literal readings#
shorter in idiomatic readings
&. What are three macrocategories of
fxed expressions?
- *nomalous collocations
- 3ormulae
- 2etaphors
'. !n what wa# are anomalous
collocations(formulae(metaphors
problematic?
Anomalous collocations : pro"lematic in
terms of lexicogrammar
Formulae - pro"lematic in terms of
pragmatics
Metaphors - pro"lematic in terms of
semantics
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Idiomi u Engleskom jeziku Mock exam November 2010
). Use the E! short shrift to explain
cranberr# collocations.
/ran"erry collocations include items that
are unique to the string and not found in
other collocations ie in retrospect# !ith and
!in# short shrift
*. +ow are formulae subdivided?
Explain each subcategor# and give
examples.
- &imple formulae : routine compositional
strings7 nevertheless# they have some
special discoursal function or are iterative
or emphatic# as well as syntagmatically
fxed (eg alive and well# I;m sorry to say#
not exactly# pic! and choose# you !now$
- &ayings : include formulae such as
quotations# catch-phrases and
truisms< (eg curiouser and curiouser# don;t
let the "astdards grind you down# that;s
the way the coo!ie crum"les$
- 5rover"s : metaphorical prover"s (eg
you can;t have your ca!e and eat it# every
cloud has a silver lining$# non-metaphorical
prover"s (enough is enough# frst come frst
served$
- &imiles : institutionalized comparisons
that are typically transparent# "ut not
always# and are signalled "y as or li!e (eg
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Idiomi u Engleskom jeziku Mock exam November 2010
as good as gold# as old as the hills# li!e
lam"s to the slaughter# live li!e a !ing$
,. +ow are metaphors subdivided?
Explain each subcategor# and give
examples.
-'ransparent metaphors : are those that are
institutionalized "ut the image or vehicle of
the metaphor is such that the reader=hearer
can "e expected to decode it successfully "y
means of his real-world !nowledge (eg
alarm "ells ring# "ehind someone;s "ac!#
"reathe life into something# on someone;s
doorstep# pac! one;s "ags$
- &emi-transparent metaphors : require
some specialist !nowledge in order to "e
decoded Not all spea!ers of a language may
understand the reference If the
institutionalized idiomatic meaning is
un!nown# there may "e two or more
possi"le interpretations (eg grasp the
nettle# on an even !eel# the pec!ing order#
throw in the towel# under one;s "elt$
0rasp the nettle : means >tac!le something
di?cult with determination and without
delay;# "ut someone not !nowing the
metaphor might easily interpret it as >do
something foolish which will have
unpleasant consequences;
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Idiomi u Engleskom jeziku Mock exam November 2010
-)paque metaphors : are pure idioms# and
in them compositional decoding and
interpretation of the image are practically
impossi"le without !nowledge of the
historical origins of the expression ("ite
the "ullet# !ic! the "uc!et# over the moon#
red herring# shoot the "reeze$
-.. What is the di/erence between
collocation and anomalous
collocation?
/ollocation : denotes simple co-occurrence
of items
*nomalous collocation : designates a class
of 3-Is# with su"types (ill-formed
collocation# cran"erry collocation#
defective collocation# phraseological
collocation$
--. Explain the simplest 0ind of
collocation. Use examples.
'he simplest !ind arises through semantics:
co-occurrence of co-mem"ers of semantic
felds# represenring co-occurrence of the
referents in the real world# eg word 9am
co-occurs with other words from the lexical
set >food;# such as tarts# "utty# doughnuts#
marmalade# apricot# straw"erry

Idiomi u Engleskom jeziku Mock exam November 2010


-2. Explain two principles underl#ing
language when it comes to lexical
patterning and co1occurrences.
-'he simplest !ind arises through
semantics: co-occurrence of co-mem"ers
of semantic felds# represenring co-
occurrence of the referents in the real
world# eg word 9am co-occurs with other
words from the lexical set >food;# such as
tarts# "utty# doughnuts# marmalade#
apricot# straw"erry
-* second !ind of collocation arises where a
word requires association with a mem"er
of a certain class or category of item# and
such collocations are constrained
lexicogrammatically as well as
semantically# eg word rancid# ad9 is
typically associated with "utter# fat# and
foods containing "utter or fat
-* third !ind of collocation is syntactic# and
arises where a ver"# ad9ective# or
nominalization requires complementation
with# for example# a specifed particle
&uch collocations are grammatically well
formed and highly frequent# "ut not
necessarily holistic and independent# eg
to "e# one of# had "een# you !now# than!
you very much# are going to "e# etc
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Idiomi u Engleskom jeziku Mock exam November 2010
-3. Wh# is the proverb ever# cloud
has a silver lining an example of the
idiom principle?
5rover"s represent a single choices even
when they are truncated or manipulated
and they may "e promped discoursally as
stereotype responses eg every clud has its
silver lining : comments on common
experience
-%. What is lexicali$ation?
+exicalization is the process "y which a
string of words and morphemes "ecomes
institutionalized as part of the language and
develops its own specialist meaning or
function
-&. +ow can #ou explain the E!
through thic0 and thin when we loo0
at it from the diachronic point of
view?
'he ill-formed collocation through thic! and
thin is an ellipsis of through thic!et and thin
wood
-'. run amo02 in cahoots with
someone 3 which word in these two
E!s respectivel# is a rare fossil word
or a word borrowed from other
languages?
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Idiomi u Engleskom jeziku Mock exam November 2010
*mo! and cahoots are the rare fossil words
-). all of a sudden2 ifs and buts 3
where does the ill1formedness of
these E!s arise from?
3-Is that contain strange uses of
wordclasses * non-nominal word or sense
may "e used as a noun# or an ad9ective as
an adver"
-*. What are the informal idioms for
mad(die(not feeling well(feeling well?
Informal idioms:
-2*4: not all there=o@ her trolly= not right in
the head= * screw loose= a "as!et case
-4I-: !ic! the "uc!et7 pop your clogs7 "ite
the dust7 give up the ghost
-N)' 3--+IN0 A-++: under the weather7
feel o@ colour7
-3--+IN0 A-++: as ft as fddle7 as right as
rain
-,. Explain the origin of the
sentence 4his could be the beginning
of a beautiful friendship. What does
this sentence illustrate?
3rom the movie B/asa"lancaC7 'he correct
line is: B+ouie# I thin! this is the "eginning of
a "eautiful friendshipC 'he last line is one if
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Idiomi u Engleskom jeziku Mock exam November 2010
the most misquoted lines in all of flm
history It has "een quoted as: B'his could "e
the "eginning of a "eautiful friendshipC or B I
thin! tis is the start of a "eautiful
friendshipC
20. How would you reply to the
following utterances using idioms
5a6 ! don"t 0now how #ou can drive a
car in 7ondon tra8c9 : There is nothing
to it
5b6 We bumped into :ohn"s teacher in
;enice. It's a small world!
5c6 <our new girlfriend has dropped
#ou alread#9 ! That's the story of my life!
5d6 ! can"t come out with #ou because
!"ve got to wash m# hair. 3 Get a life!
"e# $ou could %ecome a model. Don't
make me laugh!
2-. 4ranslate the following sentences=
-&he army ran amo' after one of its
senior o(cers was 'illed.
Do9s!a 9e izgu"ila !ontrolu na!on sto 9e
9edan od n9ihovih cinovni!a u"i9en
-&he Senate and the House are still at
loggerheads o)er the most crucial
parts of the %ill.
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Idiomi u Engleskom jeziku Mock exam November 2010
&enat I %i9ela !uca su 9os uvi9e! u svad9i
(prepirci o!o na9vazni9ih di9elova za!ona
-*idn+t you hear He 'ic'ed the
%uc'et. Had a heart attac', - thin'.
,ar nisi cuoE )tegnuo 9e pap!e# 2islim da 9e
imao srcani udar
-&heir house is always spic' and span.
Fuca im 9e uvi9e! ca!um : pa!um
("espri9e!orno uredna$
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