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1G

1G refers to the first-generation of wireless telephone technology, mobile


telecommunications.
These are the analog telecommunications standards that were introduced in the
1980s and continued until being replaced by 2G digital telecommunications.
The main difference between two succeeding mobile telephone systems, 1G and
2G, is that the radio signals that 1G networks use are analog, while 2G networks
are digital.
Although both systems use digital signaling to connect the radio towers (which
listen to the handsets) to the rest of the telephone system, the voice itself during a
call is encoded to digital signals in 2G whereas 1G is only modulated to higher
frequency, typically 150 MHz and up.
1G refers to the first-generation of wireless telephone technology, mobile
telecommunications.
These are the analog telecommunications standards that were introduced in the
1980s and continued until being replaced by 2G digital telecommunications.
The main difference between two succeeding mobile telephone systems, 1G and
2G, is that the radio signals that 1G networks use are analog, while 2G networks
are digital.
Although both systems use digital signaling to connect the radio towers (which
listen to the handsets) to the rest of the telephone system, the voice itself during a
call is encoded to digital signals in 2G whereas 1G is only modulated to higher
frequency, typically 150 MHz and up.
2G
2G is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology.
Second generation 2G cellular telecom networks were commercially launched
on the GSM standard in Finland by Radiolinja in 1991.
Three primary benefits of 2G networks over their predecessors were that
- phone conversations were digitally encrypted;
-2G systems were significantly more efficient on the spectrum allowing for far
greater mobile phone penetration levels; and
-2G introduced data services for mobile, starting with SMS text messages.
2G is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology.
Second generation 2G cellular telecom networks were commercially launched
on the GSM standard in Finland by Radiolinja in 1991.
Three primary benefits of 2G networks over their predecessors were that
- phone conversations were digitally encrypted;
-2G systems were significantly more efficient on the spectrum allowing for far
greater mobile phone penetration levels; and
-2G introduced data services for mobile, starting with SMS text messages.
2.5G (GPRS)
2.5G is used to describe 2G-systems that have implemented a packet-
switched domain in addition to the circuit-switched domain.
It does not necessarily provide faster services because bundling of timeslots
is used for circuit-switched data services (HSCSD) as well.
The first major step in the evolution of GSM networks to 3G occurred with the
introduction of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). CDMA2000 networks
similarly evolved through the introduction of 1xRTT (1 X Radio transmission
technology).
The combination of these capabilities came to be known as 2.5G.
GPRS could provide data rates from 56 kbit/s up to 115 kbit/s. It can be used
for services such as Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) access, Multimedia
Messaging Service (MMS), and for Internet communication services such as
email and World Wide Web access. GPRS data transfer is typically charged
per megabyte of traffic transferred
2.5G is used to describe 2G-systems that have implemented a packet-
switched domain in addition to the circuit-switched domain.
It does not necessarily provide faster services because bundling of timeslots
is used for circuit-switched data services (HSCSD) as well.
The first major step in the evolution of GSM networks to 3G occurred with the
introduction of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). CDMA2000 networks
similarly evolved through the introduction of 1xRTT (1 X Radio transmission
technology).
The combination of these capabilities came to be known as 2.5G.
GPRS could provide data rates from 56 kbit/s up to 115 kbit/s. It can be used
for services such as Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) access, Multimedia
Messaging Service (MMS), and for Internet communication services such as
email and World Wide Web access. GPRS data transfer is typically charged
per megabyte of traffic transferred
General Packet Radio Service
General packet radio service (GPRS) is a packet oriented mobile data service on the 2G and
3G cellular communication systems global system for mobile communications (GSM).
The service is available to users in over 200 countries. GPRS was originally standardized by
European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) in response to the earlier CDPD
and i-mode packet-switched cellular technologies. It is now maintained by the 3rd
Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).
GPRS usage charging is based on volume of data, either as part of a bundle or on a pay-as-
you-use basis.
This contrasts with circuit switching data, which is typically billed per minute of connection
time, regardless of whether or not the user transfers data during that period.
GPRS provides data rates of 56-114 kbit/second.
2G cellular technology combined with GPRS is sometimes described as 2.5G, that is, a
technology between the second (2G) and third (3G) generations of mobile telephony.
It provides moderate-speed data transfer, by using unused time division multiple access
(TDMA) channels.
General packet radio service (GPRS) is a packet oriented mobile data service on the 2G and
3G cellular communication systems global system for mobile communications (GSM).
The service is available to users in over 200 countries. GPRS was originally standardized by
European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) in response to the earlier CDPD
and i-mode packet-switched cellular technologies. It is now maintained by the 3rd
Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).
GPRS usage charging is based on volume of data, either as part of a bundle or on a pay-as-
you-use basis.
This contrasts with circuit switching data, which is typically billed per minute of connection
time, regardless of whether or not the user transfers data during that period.
GPRS provides data rates of 56-114 kbit/second.
2G cellular technology combined with GPRS is sometimes described as 2.5G, that is, a
technology between the second (2G) and third (3G) generations of mobile telephony.
It provides moderate-speed data transfer, by using unused time division multiple access
(TDMA) channels.
2.75G (EDGE)
GPRS networks evolved to EDGE networks with the introduction of 8PSK
encoding.
Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS)
compatible digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data
transmission rates, as an extension on top of standard GSM.
EDGE was deployed on GSM networks beginning in 2003 in the United
States.
EDGE is standardized by 3GPP as part of the GSM family and it is an
upgrade that provides a potential three-fold increase in capacity of
GSM/GPRS networks.
The specification achieves higher data-rates (up to 236.8 Kbit/s) by switching
to more sophisticated methods of coding (8PSK), within existing GSM
timeslots.
GPRS networks evolved to EDGE networks with the introduction of 8PSK
encoding.
Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS)
compatible digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data
transmission rates, as an extension on top of standard GSM.
EDGE was deployed on GSM networks beginning in 2003 in the United
States.
EDGE is standardized by 3GPP as part of the GSM family and it is an
upgrade that provides a potential three-fold increase in capacity of
GSM/GPRS networks.
The specification achieves higher data-rates (up to 236.8 Kbit/s) by switching
to more sophisticated methods of coding (8PSK), within existing GSM
timeslots.
3G
3G is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile
telecommunication services fulfilling the International Mobile
Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) specifications by the International
Telecommunication Union.
Application services include wide-area wireless voice telephone, mobile
Internet access, video calls and mobile TV, all in a mobile environment.
To meet the IMT-2000 standards, a system is required to provide peak
data rates of at least 200 Kbit/s.
Recent 3G releases, often denoted 3.5G and 3.75G, also provide mobile
broadband access of several Mbit/s to smart phones and mobile modems
in laptop computers.
3G is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile
telecommunication services fulfilling the International Mobile
Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) specifications by the International
Telecommunication Union.
Application services include wide-area wireless voice telephone, mobile
Internet access, video calls and mobile TV, all in a mobile environment.
To meet the IMT-2000 standards, a system is required to provide peak
data rates of at least 200 Kbit/s.
Recent 3G releases, often denoted 3.5G and 3.75G, also provide mobile
broadband access of several Mbit/s to smart phones and mobile modems
in laptop computers.
Universal Mobile Telecommunications
System
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a third generation
mobile cellular technology for networks based on the GSM standard.
Developed by the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project), UMTS is a
component of the International Telecommunications Union IMT-2000 standard
set and compares with the cdma2000 standard set for networks based on the
competing cdma1 technology.
UMTS employs wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA) radio
access technology to offer greater spectral efficiency and bandwidth to mobile
network operators.
UMTS specifies a complete network system, covering the radio access
network (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network, or UTRAN), the core
network (Mobile Application Part, or MAP) and the authentication of users via
SIM cards (Subscriber Identity Module).
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a third generation
mobile cellular technology for networks based on the GSM standard.
Developed by the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project), UMTS is a
component of the International Telecommunications Union IMT-2000 standard
set and compares with the cdma2000 standard set for networks based on the
competing cdma1 technology.
UMTS employs wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA) radio
access technology to offer greater spectral efficiency and bandwidth to mobile
network operators.
UMTS specifies a complete network system, covering the radio access
network (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network, or UTRAN), the core
network (Mobile Application Part, or MAP) and the authentication of users via
SIM cards (Subscriber Identity Module).
4G
4G is the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards.
It is a successor to the 3G and 2G families of standards.
In 2009, the ITU-R organization specified the IMT-Advanced (International Mobile
Telecommunications Advanced) requirements for 4G standards, setting peak speed
requirements for 4G service at 100 Mbit/s for high mobility communication (such as from
trains and cars) and 1 Gbit/s for low mobility communication (such as pedestrians and
stationary users).
A 4G system is expected to provide a comprehensive and secure mobile broadband
solution to laptop computer wireless modems, smart phones, and other mobile devices.
Facilities such as ultra-broadband Internet access, IP telephony, gaming services, and
streamed multimedia may be provided to users.
Pre-4G technologies such as mobile WiMAX and first-release Long term evolution (LTE)
have been on the market since 2006 and 2009 respectively, and are often branded as
4G in marketing materials.
The current versions of these technologies did not fulfill the original ITU-R requirements
of data rates approximately up to 1 Gbit/s for 4G systems.
4G is the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards.
It is a successor to the 3G and 2G families of standards.
In 2009, the ITU-R organization specified the IMT-Advanced (International Mobile
Telecommunications Advanced) requirements for 4G standards, setting peak speed
requirements for 4G service at 100 Mbit/s for high mobility communication (such as from
trains and cars) and 1 Gbit/s for low mobility communication (such as pedestrians and
stationary users).
A 4G system is expected to provide a comprehensive and secure mobile broadband
solution to laptop computer wireless modems, smart phones, and other mobile devices.
Facilities such as ultra-broadband Internet access, IP telephony, gaming services, and
streamed multimedia may be provided to users.
Pre-4G technologies such as mobile WiMAX and first-release Long term evolution (LTE)
have been on the market since 2006 and 2009 respectively, and are often branded as
4G in marketing materials.
The current versions of these technologies did not fulfill the original ITU-R requirements
of data rates approximately up to 1 Gbit/s for 4G systems.
IMT-Advanced compliant versions of the above two standards are
under development and called LTE Advanced and Wireless MAN-
Advanced respectively. ITU has decided that LTE Advanced and
Wireless MAN-Advanced should be accorded the official designation
of IMT-Advanced.
On December 6, 2010, ITU announced that current versions of LTE,
WiMax and other evolved 3G technologies that do not fulfill "IMT-
Advanced" requirements could be considered "4G", provided they
represent forerunners to IMT-Advanced and "a substantial level of
improvement in performance and capabilities with respect to the initial
third generation systems now deployed."
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IMT-Advanced compliant versions of the above two standards are
under development and called LTE Advanced and Wireless MAN-
Advanced respectively. ITU has decided that LTE Advanced and
Wireless MAN-Advanced should be accorded the official designation
of IMT-Advanced.
On December 6, 2010, ITU announced that current versions of LTE,
WiMax and other evolved 3G technologies that do not fulfill "IMT-
Advanced" requirements could be considered "4G", provided they
represent forerunners to IMT-Advanced and "a substantial level of
improvement in performance and capabilities with respect to the initial
third generation systems now deployed."
5G
5G is a name used in some research papers and projects to denote the next major
phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the upcoming 4G
standards (which is expected to be finalized between approximately 2011 and
2013).
Currently, 5G is not a term officially used for any particular specification or in any
official document yet made public by telecommunication companies or
standardization bodies.
New standard releases beyond 4G are in progress by standardization bodies, but
are at this time not considered as new mobile generations but under the 4G
umbrella.
5G is a name used in some research papers and projects to denote the next major
phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the upcoming 4G
standards (which is expected to be finalized between approximately 2011 and
2013).
Currently, 5G is not a term officially used for any particular specification or in any
official document yet made public by telecommunication companies or
standardization bodies.
New standard releases beyond 4G are in progress by standardization bodies, but
are at this time not considered as new mobile generations but under the 4G
umbrella.
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IS-95
IS-136 & PDC
GSM-
GPRS
IS-95B
2G
Upgrade paths for 2G Technologies
Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 14
EDGE
GPRS
HSCSD
IS-95B
Cdma2000-1xRTT
Cdma2000-1xEV,DV,DO
Cdma2000-3xRTT
W-CDMA
EDGE
TD-SCDMA
3G
2.5G
3GPP 3GPP2
GSM GSM
TDMA TDMA
GPRS GPRS 90%
Evolution of Mobile Systems to 3G
- drivers are capacity, data speeds, lower cost of delivery
for revenue growth
EDGE EDGE
WCDMA WCDMA
3GPP Core
Network
HSDPA HSDPA
Expected market share
EDGE
Evolution
EDGE
Evolution
Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 15
cdmaOne cdmaOne
2G
PDC PDC
CDMA2000
1x
CDMA2000
1x
First Step into 3G
10%
WCDMA WCDMA
CDMA2000
1x EV/DV
CDMA2000
1x EV/DV
3G phase 1 Evolved 3G
CDMA2000
1x EV/DO
CDMA2000
1x EV/DO
HSDPA HSDPA
Performance evolution of cellular technologies
Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 16
Improved performance, decreasing cost of delivery
WEB browsing
Corporate data access
Streaming audio/video
MMS picture / video
Multitasking
3G-specific services take
advantage of higher bandwidth
and/or real-time QoS
3G-specific services take
advantage of higher bandwidth
and/or real-time QoS
A number of mobile
services are bearer
independent in nature
A number of mobile
services are bearer
independent in nature
Broadband
in wide area
Video sharing
Video telephony
Real-time IP
multimedia and games
Multicasting
Services roadmap
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Typical
average bit
rates
(peak rates
higher)
Voice & SMS
Presence/location
xHTML browsing
Application downloading
E-mail
MMS picture / video
HSDPA
1-10
Mbps
WCDMA
2
Mbps
EGPRS
473
kbps
GPRS
171
kbps
GSM
9.6
kbps
Push-to-talk
C
D
M
A
2
0
0
0
-
E
V
D
O
C
D
M
A
2
0
0
0
-
E
V
D
V
C
D
M
A
2
0
0
0

1
x
CdmaOne GSM
Uplink
Frequencies
824-849 MHz (US Cellular)
1850-1910 MHz (US PCS)
890-915 MHz (Europe)
1850-1910 MHz (US PCS)
Downlink
Frequencies
869-894 MHz (US Cellular)
1930-1990 MHz (US PCS)
935-960 MHz (Europe)
1930-1990 MHz (US PCS)
Duplexing
FDD FDD
Multiple
Access Tech.
2G TECHNOLOGIES
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Multiple
Access Tech.
CDMA TDMA
Carrier
Separation
1.25 MHz 200 KHz
Channel Data
Rate
1.2288 Mchips/sec 260.833 Kbps
Voice
Channels per
carrier
64 8
GSM evolution to 3G
GSM
9.6kbps (one timeslot)
GSM Data
Also called CSD
HSCSD
High Speed Circuit Switched Data
Dedicate up to 4 timeslots for data connection ~ 50 kbps
Good for real-time applications c.w. GPRS
Inefficient -> ties up resources, even when nothing sent
Not as popular as GPRS (many skipping HSCSD)
Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution
Uses 8PSK modulation
3x improvement in data rate on short distances
Can fall back to GMSK for greater distances
Combine with GPRS (EGPRS) ~ 384 kbps
Can also be combined with HSCSD
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GSM
9.6kbps (one timeslot)
GSM Data
Also called CSD
GSM
General Packet Radio Services
Data rates up to ~ 115 kbps
Max: 8 timeslots used as any one time
Packet switched; resources not tied up all the time
Contention based. Efficient, but variable delays
GSM / GPRS core network re-used by WCDMA (3G)
GPRS
EDGE
Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution
Uses 8PSK modulation
3x improvement in data rate on short distances
Can fall back to GMSK for greater distances
Combine with GPRS (EGPRS) ~ 384 kbps
Can also be combined with HSCSD
WCDMA
Uke Kurniawan Usman - 2005 20
ADVANTAGES OF WIRELESS:-
In one way or another mobile phones have changed everyones life.
We can say that nowadays more than half of the population has a
mobile phone or at least has used a mobile phone. Mobile
communication networks made it possible to be connected and
reachable even in the most remote places.
The cost of running and maintaining a radio based communications
solution is minimal.
It is also a simple matter to add in a communication device to the
system or remove one from the system without any disruption to the
remainder of the system.
It is a simple matter to relocate a communicating device, and no
additional cost of rewiring and excessive downtime is associated with
such a move.
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ADVANTAGES OF WIRELESS:-
In one way or another mobile phones have changed everyones life.
We can say that nowadays more than half of the population has a
mobile phone or at least has used a mobile phone. Mobile
communication networks made it possible to be connected and
reachable even in the most remote places.
The cost of running and maintaining a radio based communications
solution is minimal.
It is also a simple matter to add in a communication device to the
system or remove one from the system without any disruption to the
remainder of the system.
It is a simple matter to relocate a communicating device, and no
additional cost of rewiring and excessive downtime is associated with
such a move.
Problems
One of the major problems that presents
itself is the already limited spectrum
available for communications.
The unconstrained nature of the
communication medium of radio requires
the issue of network security to be
addressed.
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One of the major problems that presents
itself is the already limited spectrum
available for communications.
The unconstrained nature of the
communication medium of radio requires
the issue of network security to be
addressed.
THANK YOU
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