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CONTROVERSIES ABOUT HUMA DEVELOPMENT

1. inherently bad versus inherently good


2. Nature versus nurture (Arthur Jensen and B.F. Skinner)
3. Activity versus passivity
4. continuity versus discontinuity

THEORIES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
1. psychoanalytic theory
2. psychosocial theory
3. learning or behavioral theory
4. social learning theory
5. cognitive-development theory
6. moral theory
7. ethological theory
8. sociobiological theory

PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY (FREUD)
Psychodynamic forces psychic or mental energy

2 biological instincts
1. Eros life instinct
2. Thanatos death instinct

3 components of personality
1. Id legislative pleasure principle
2. Ego executive reality principle
3. Superego judicial perfection

PSYCHOSEXUAL THEORY (FREUD)
Fixation tendency to stay at a particular stage
1. oral stage (1
st
year of life) gratification form the mother
2. anal stage (2
nd
to 3
rd
year of life) - gratification along rectal area
3. phallic stage (4
th
to 5
th
year of life) gratification involving the genitals
4. latency stage (6
th
year to puberty) sexual desire are repressed
5. genital stage (puberty onwards) maturation of reproductive system

PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY (ERIK ERIKSON)
1. trust versus mistrust (birth to 1 year)
2. autonomy versus shame and guilt (2-3 years)
3. initiative versus guilt (4-5 years)
4. Industry versus inferiority (6-11 years)
5. Identity versus role confusion (12-18 years)
6. Intimacy versus isolation (young adulthood)
7. Generativity versus stagnation (middle adulthood)
8. Integrity versus despair old age

BEHAVIORAL THEORY (JOHN B. WATSON)
1. classical conditioning
2. operant conditioning
3. observational learning

SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
1. Neo-Hullian Theory (john dollard and neil miller)
2. Skinners operant learning approach
3. Banduras cognitive social-learning theory

COGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY (JEAN PIAGET)
1. sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years)
2. preoperational stage (2-7 years)
3. Stage of concrete operation (7-11 years)
4. Stage of formal operation (11 years and older)

MORAL THEORY (LAWRENCE KOHLBERG)
1. Level one preconventional morality
Stage 1 punishment-obedience orientation
Stage 2 instrumental relativist orientation
2. Level two conventional morality
Stage 3 good boy nice girl orientation
Stage 4 law and order orientation
3. Level 3 post conventional morality
Stage 5 social contract orientation
Stage 6 universal ethical principal orientation

ETHOLOGICAL THEORY (CARINS)

SOCIOBIOLOGICAL THEORY (BELL AND BELL)


Continuity - additive process that occurs in small steps, without sudden change
Discontinuity developing skills proceed a series of abrupt changes
Developmental stage is a distinct period of the life cycle characterized by a particular
set of abilities, motives, behavior, emotion
Theory- set of concepts and propositions that help to describe and explain observations
that one has made
Epigenetic principle anything that grows has a ground plan, and out of this ground
plan the parts arise
Mistrust a child is chaotic, unpredictable, and rejecting
Industry parents and teachers who support, reward and praise children
Inferiority rebuff, deride or ignore childrens efforts
Role confusion adolescent fails to develop a centered identity or negative identity
Intimacy the capacity to reach out and make contact with other people
Generativity reaching out beyond

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