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Summary / Abstract

This experiment is performed to give an overview of the control system which is applied
widely in the industrial. In this experiment the student will learn the importance of the vital system
characteristic in the assessment of control loop efficiency and to evaluate the PID control elements
using the PCU computer controlled flow cycle. The experiment is consisting of two related section
which is characteristics in the assessment of control loop efficiency and PID evaluation using the
PCU computer controlled cycle. The control system is designed to achieve specified objectives
within a given set of constraints.
The three common control strategies are open loop feed forward and closed!loop control.
The most common control strategy is feedbac" or closed loop control. The PID has three focusing
part which is proportional control mode integral mode and derivative control mode. It has been
applied widely as common controller in the industrial process control. In this report will explained
briefly on how a system will response through several setting that will be shown automatically via
plotted graph. In this experiment there are three types of graph that we have archived. The graph is
such as underdamped critical response and overdamped. #rom each graph we can see that it shows
a different setting and response of the second order system.
The system response are depends on the PID gains set in the experiment. The result
obtained from the plotted graph will be a guide to answer the case study which is raised before the
experiment started from the graphs we can determine the typical system response of the control
system according to the PID gins set in the experiment. $ome of the important system performance
parameters are not available from the graphs. #rom the different PID gain sets and the printed
graphs we observed that the %ero derivative control modes gave the system response of over
damped and critical types. &owever a non%ero value PID gain sets showed an under damped
system response. The pea" overshoot for under damped response is greater than the pea" overshot
for the critical response. &owever the pea" overshoot for over damped response was unable to
obtained because the graph showed an almost linearly line. Thus we cannot get the reading of the
pea" overshoot value. The time ta"en for the system to respond to a fraction of the final value on
the initial part or the rise time for under damped response is higher than the over damped and the
critical responses.
Objective
The experiment was performed in order for the students to learn the importance of the vital
system characteristic in the assessment of control loop efficiency and to evaluate the PID control
elements using the PCU computer controlled flow cycle.
Theory
'. Introduction to Control $ystem
In the industrial world the field of control engineering is very crucial. Control system is
designed to archive specified objectives within the set of constraint. The three common control
strategies are open!loop feed forward and closed loop control.
The open loop control cannot compensate for either disturbances to the system or changes
in plant parameter. The feed forward control attempts to compensate for disturbances before they
have any effect on the system output. This strategy can be effective if the disturbance can be
measured. &owever it cannot compensate for changes of the plant parameter which cannot be
measured and treated as a disturbance. #or the closed loop control system the process output is
monitored and control actions are ta"en to counteract deviation from the re(uired behavior. )n the
case of the speed control system the speed is measured and the applied voltage is modified as
re(uired. &owever in practice feedbac" and feed forward are often combined in a single system.
#igure * + )pen loop strategy
Input Control 'ction )utput
,Desired behavior- ,'ctual behavior-
Controller Process
#igure . + The feed forward strategy
/easure disturbance
Input Control 'ction )utput
,Desired behavior- ,'ctual behavior-
#igure 0 + The closed!loop ,feedbac"- control strategy
Input Control 'ction )utput
,Desired behavior- ,'ctual behavior-
/easure
Disturbance
Controller Process
Controller Process
Disturbance
1. PID Controller
The terms of PID controller refers to proportional integral and derivative controller. PID
controller is the most common controller used in the industrial process control.
Proportional Controller /ode the output of the controller is proportional to the error
between the set point and the measured value. Proportional control may expressed either
proportional gain or proportional band.
/p 2 P3,$P + /4- 5 C 2 P3 e,t- 5 C !!!!!,*-
6here
/p + controller output P3 + proportional gain $P + set point /4 + measured value
C + output with %ero error and e ,t- + error as a function of time
Integral mode is often used to remove proportional offsets errors. The integral mode
determines an output based on the history of error. It is calculated by finding the net area under the
error curve versus time and multiplying by a constant called the integral action time ,I'T- in
seconds. The controller output e(uation is7
/i,t- 2 P3 8 I'T 9 e,t-dt !!!!!!,.-
The integral action time is defined as the time ta"en for the integral action to duplicate the
proportional action of the controller if the error remains constant during this period. It is used
commonly to remove any steady state errors uncured when using a proportional controller.
The derivative control mode is often used to reduce the response time of the system. It is
based on the rate of the change of error. The time ta"en for the proportional action to duplicate the
instantaneous output of the derivative element is called derivative action time ,D'T-. The
controller output e(uation is.
/d 2 P3 x D'T de,t- 8 dt !!!!!,0-
Equipment
1. The System Rig
The $ystem :ig is the hardware for the process which is to be controlled by the microcomputer.
The unit is based around a fluid flow process where flow and temperature may be controlled. This
reflects a typical process control situation such as in the food and drin" manufacturing petrochemical
industry.;ach feature on the $ystem :ig has a manual or computer control option. Users may
select either of the modes allowing a comparison between human and computer control
operation to be made. This allows a rapid appreciation of the advantages and disadvantages
under both modes of control. The rig consists of
$ump
Pump
/anual8Computer controlled Diverter 4alve
Cooler
Process tan"
/anual8Computer controlled Drain 4alve
The sump contains the store of fluid which may be pumped at flow rates between < and ..<
litres8minute by either a manual or computer controlled pump. #rom the pump fluid may flow
directly to the process tan" or may be diverted via the cooler to the process tan". The process tan"
contains a heating element together with a stirrer for even temperature distribution. The fluid in this
tan" can either overflow bac" into the sump or be drained by using the manual drain tap or the
computer controlled drain solenoid thus completing the fluid cycle.
2. Feebac!
#eedbac" is an essential re(uirement for the control of any process. It consists of various
transducers measuring the conditions on the rig and feeding this information bac" to the controlling
microcomputer. )n the Process Control Unit the temperature at the sump flowline and process tan"
are measured using platinum resistance thermometers. The flowrate is measured by an in!line
flowmeter. These analogue signals are fed bac" to the signal conditioners on the Computer Control
/odule ,CC/- from where they are sampled by the microcomputer via an analogue to digital
converter ,'DC-. =;D meters are used to display the temperatures and flowrate on the system rig.
Indicators are provided for the cooler tan" full sensor and drain8divener solenoids giving a status
chec" when the Process Control Unit is in operation.
". Temperature #easurement
6ith improved production techni(ues the cost of platinum resistance thermometers ,pit- has
fallen ma"ing them a more viable proposition than the previously used thermocouples. In the
temperature range !.><?C to @@<
?
C pitAs have virtually become the world standard with
thermocouples still being employed in the higher temperature applications. /easuring over the
range <!*<<
?
C on the Process Control Unit the pit is selected as being the best transducer to
reflect industrial practice. The part is a transducer operating on the change of electrical resistance of
platinum wire as a function of temperature. They provide an absolute value with no reference point
being necessary whereas other types of transducer fre(uently do need a reference point.
Temperature is measured by a change in resistance so it follows that lead lengths are an important
feature of prtAs. )n the Process Control Unit a three!wire system has been used the third wire being
the compensator for the cable length and ambient temperature changes. #our wire systems available
but are only necessary for extremely high precision measurement. In the present application as
illustrated below platinum resistance thermometer signals are conditioned on the computer
control module to a < ! B4 analogue signal. These signals are then used to drive the =;D
displays on the system rig and also converted to digital words by the 'nalogue to Digital
Converter ,'DC- for the microcomputer.
$. F%o& measurement
The flow rate of the fluid is measured by means of a flow meter of the impeller type. The fluid
flows through the meter rotating the impeller which has six blades. /ounted either side of the
impeller is an infra red transmitter and receiver producing an infra red beam which is bro"en by
the rotating impeller. $ix pulses are therefore produced for one revolution of the rotor thus
producing a fre(uency output Awhich is proportional to the flow rate. The approximate full!scale
fre(uency is B><&% ,pulses8sec- which is converted to a voltage by the signal conditioning circuit.
This voltage is used to drive the flow rate =;D display on the rig and also converted into a
digital word by the Data 'c(uisition circuit.
'. (igit )E( (isp%ays
These are used on the $ystem :ig to display the sump flow and process tan" temperatures in
degree Celsius flow rate in liters per minute and heat input in Cw. 'lthough the displays are
capable of providing 0.B digits this has not normally been used to the full as it implies a greater
accuracy than that used or re(uired. The displays used feature auto polarity high efficiency **
mm red =;D displays with a red polarised filter. They are completely enclosed units offering
full environmental protection.
*. +nicators
These provide status chec"s for the cooler tan" full sensor and drain solenoid and diverter
solenoid. They are controlled by the output driver channels DB@ and >. The indicators have a
matt blac" finish panel mounting be%els. The rear lamp assembly accommodates two T*.B
=.;.$ .D4 *6 lamps wired in parallel.
,. -ump
The pump used is a centrifugal type. It is not a positive displacement type and thus its output is
not necessarily linearly proportional to speed though variation in speed will of course vary
the output flow rate. 'ctivating 4oltage E *.4 D.C7 /aximum Continuous CurrentE @ 'mps
.. /oo%er
If the temperature of the fluid is too high it may be diverted through the cooler. The cooler unit has
a fan which may be activated by the computer through the output driver circuitry.
'ctivating 4oltage E .D 4 D.C. $urge Current E ..B 'mps
$teady Current E * 'mp Controlled by E.channel < of output driver
board
0. (iverter So%enoi
The fluid flow is normally routed directly to the process tan". The diverter valve can be used
when re(uired to divert the flow through the cooler before entering the process tan". The
solenoid is a 0 port . way universal type. 'ctivating 4oltage E .D4 D.C. $upply Current E * 'mp
and Controlled by theChannel 0 of output driver circuit and Pressure drop less than <.<> bar.
11. (rain So%enoi
This is used to drain the process tan" bac" to the sump. 'ctivating 4oltage is .D4 D.C. $upply
Current is * 'mp Controlled by the Channel . of output driver circuit and Pressure drop less than
<.<> bar.
11. -rocess Tan!
The tan" contains a heating element and a stirrer for even temperature distribution. The fluid in
the tan" can either overflow or be drained bac" to the sump for recycling. 6hen both the manual
and computer controlled drains are shut the tan" may be filled. ' tan" full sensor is provided the
status of which may be detected and used to activate the tan" full indicator through the
output driver. 6hen the tan" is full the fluid may be heated by the heating element which can
either be manual or computer controlled. The amount of heat input is displayed on the $ystem :ig
,#igure *<.>-. The temperature of the fluid in the process tan" is measured using a platinum
resistance thermometer ,prt-. During control of the system the microcomputer may wish to
"now the temperature of the process tan"7 conse(uently the temperature signal is converted
into digital form by the data ac(uisition circuit.
12. Stirrer
$tirring is a common feature re(uired in manufacturing processes. It has been achieved on the
Process Control Unit using a *.4 D.C motor which may be activated through channel * of the
output driver circuit. 6ith a *.4 supply the stirrer speed is approximately 0<<rpm.
This is either a ..DCw .D<4 or a *.BCw **< 4 a.c. element depending upon the a.c. supply. The
element is controlled by the computer using a pulse width modulated ,P6/- techni(ue based
on data collected either in a computer or manual controlled heating mode. 's the heating element is
supplied with mains voltage various safety precautions have been built into both the software
and hardware of the Process Control Unit. These are discussed belowE
a2 Tan! Fu%%
1efore power is applied to the heating element the tan" must be full of fluid. The software detects
the signal from the tan" full switch and if the tan" is not full the computer will display a warning
message. The pump is then driven at full speed to fill the tan". 6hen the tan" is full the
indicator on the :ig is activated and the heating process will begin.
This of course only applies when the software supplied with the unit is used. If students are
developing their own software this is one of the first precautions that should be built into their
program.
b2 #ains +so%ation
The mains power is isolated from the electronics using a solid state relay which has built in opto
isolation.
c2 System Fai%ure
If for any reason the computer system fails the circuitry on the computer control module detects
this and shuts the heating element off.
(ata3 Observation an Resu%ts
$ection *E 'ssessment of a system performance
Table *E Characteristic of a print result
Controller $etting Pea"
)vershoot
,liter8min-
$etting
Time
,s-
:ise
Time
,s-
$teady
state
error
Under
damped8 over
damped8
Critical
Proportional
3ain
Integral Derivative
* <.* * B DB 0 < )ver damped
0.B <.<* < <.. DB * < underdamped
> <.<B <.B ..* DB 0 < underdamped
*< <.<.B * ... DB > < )ver
damped
.< <.<0 *.B ..> DB > < )ver
damped
result of assessment of system performance
$ection .E ;valuation of PID control elements
*<
C'$; *E P:)P):TI)F'= C)FT:)==;:
Period <!0 0!@ @!G G!**
3ain 0 @ G **
Integral B B B B
Derivative *< *< *< *<
#rom the graph the system response occurred below the set point. 's the time and the
proportional gain was increased the between the set point and the measured value i.e. the
proportional band is decreased. The result agreed with the theory according to the
formula of
P1 2 *<<8P3 where P1 2 proportional band P3 2 proportional gain.
The graph showed an unsteady response at the first H period and the last ** period
causing the formula inapplicable at this point. This type of error is called proportional
offset error. $ee the 3raph @ in 'ppendix for detailed.
C'$; . E ;##;CT$ )# =)'D C&'F3; )F ' P:)P):TI)F'= C)FT:)==;:
Time <!*< sec *<!.< sec .<!0< sec 0<!D< sec D<!B< sec
3ain . . . . .
Integral < < < < <
Derivative < < < < <
#rom the graph > we could observe the unsteady flow rate occurred at the beginning.
There is no restriction in this first ten seconds flow. Then the valve was opened half7 a
more constant flow rate is obtained throughout the experiment. Compared with case *
the proportional error at case . became more constant. &owever the proportional offset
error still remains. $ee the 3raph > in 'ppendix for detailed.
C'$; 0 E ;##;CT$ )# IFT;3:'= 'CTI)F
**
Time <!*< sec *<!.< sec .<!0< sec 0<!D< sec D<!B< sec
3ain . . . . .
Integral < * . D *<
Derivative < < < < <
The system response in graph H occurred below the set point for the first ten seconds. 's
time and the integral values are increased the response became constant at the set point
line. $ee the 3raph H in 'ppendix for detailed.
C'$; DE ;##;CT$ )# =)'D C&'F3; )F ' PI C)FT:)==;:
Time <!*< sec *<!.< sec .<!0< sec 0<!D< sec D<!B< sec
3ain . . . . .
Integral . . . . .
Derivative < < < < <
6e observed that there is an under damped response and no proportional offset errors
occurred as time increased in graph G. The PI controller is used to reduce the
proportional offset error. If no load applied to the system there is no response output
generated. $ee the 3raph G in 'ppendix for detailed.
C'$; BE ;##;CT$ )# D;:I4'TI)F 'CTI)F
Time <!*< sec *<!.< sec .<!0< sec 0<!D< sec D<!B< sec
3ain . . . . .
Integral . . . . .
Derivative < * B *< *<<
*.
#rom the graph *< we could get the constant instantaneous under damped response
output. The response time is less compared to the Proportional Controller and PI
controller. $ee the 3raph *< in 'ppendix for detailed.
C'$; @ E ;##;CT )# ' =)'D C&'F3; )F ' PID C)FT:)==;:
Time <!*< sec *<!.< sec .<!0< sec 0<!D< sec D<!B< sec
3ain . . . . .
Integral . . . . .
Derivative < < < < <
In the graph ** when the load change is added or the opening of the valves is reduced
along the flow we still obtain the constant response output. Definitely there is no output
for the closed opening valve.
*0
Ana%ysis an (iscussion
The function of the proportional control mode is to control the error between the
set point and the measured value. The offset will be larger if the gain is below the
optimum value and error band will be larger if the gain is above the optimum point. In the
result it is agreed with the theory which states that the higher the gain the smaller the
proportional band is thus this control mode produces an offset. The integral mode is used
to remove any steady state errors incurred when using a proportional controller. It
determines an output based on the history of error. ;xperiment shows that as we
introduce the integral action time the proportional offset as well as the error band will be
reduced immediately. Integral mode can also compensate for load change in the system.
:esults from experiment agreed with theory that states during which integral action time
is defined as time ta"en for the integral action to duplicate the proportional action of the
controller if the error remains constant during this period.
:esults also show that the response time for a system reduces greatly if the
derivative action time is increased. Therefore effectively reduces the time needed to reach
the steady state output. Thus agreed to the theory that derivative control mode is based on
the time rate of the change of error and usually exaggerates high fre(uency noise in the
system.
I'T is defined as the time ta"en for the integral action to duplicate the
proportional action of the controller if the error remains constant during this period. It is
used commonly to remove any steady state errors incurred when using a Iproportional
controllerJ. The derivative control mode is used to reduce the response time of the
system. It is based on the time rate of the change of error. The time ta"en for the
proportional action to duplicate the instantaneous output of the derivative element is
called derivative action time ,D'T-. The derivative control mode is never used alone as
there is no controller output corresponding to %ero rate of change. $o it is commonly used
*D
with Proportional controller ,PD-. &owever it can also exaggerate high fre(uency noise
in the system.
I would recommend the use of PID controller as an ideal control system because it
is capable of producing a more stable and accurate output.
Types of error that occurs in this experiment include the load change introduced
into the system is not constant incorrect setting of the Process Control Unit program
errors due to water friction reduce the opening of the valve incorrectly and losses due to
the system itself.
*B
/onc%usion
The experiment was performed in order for the students to learn the importance of
the vital system characteristic in the assessment of control loop efficiency and to evaluate
the PID control elements using the PCU computer controlled flow cycle. The function of
proportional control mode is to control the error between the set point and the measured
value. The integral mode is used to remove any steady state errors incurred when using a
proportional controller. :esults from experiment agreed with theory that states during
which integral action time is defined as time ta"en for the integral action to duplicate the
proportional action of the controller if the error remains constant during this period.
:esults also show that the response time for a system reduces greatly if the derivative
action time is increased. Therefore effectively reduces the time needed to reach the steady
state output. Thus agreed to the theory that derivative control mode is based on the time
rate of the change of error and usually exaggerates high fre(uency noise in the system.
Re4erence
*. =ab no > + Introduction to PID controller. /;$1 .<0 ;ngineering /easurement
=aboratory /anual Kuly .<<B Department of /echanical ;ngineering College
of ;ngineering University of Tenaga Fasional.
.. ;xperimental /ethods for ;ngineers K.P. &olman >
th
;dition /c3raw!&ill
International ;dition
0. Control $ystems ;ngineering ,0
rd
;dition- Forman $. Fise .<<< Kohn 6iley L
$ons Inc. PageE DG@ + B0<
*@
Appeni5
*>
The graph of
$ection *E 'ssessment of a system
performance
*H
The graph of
$ection .E ;valuation of PID control
elements
*G