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Reports 6i Technical Interview Questions
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. What are the various types of reports ?
* Tabular, Master Detail, Form, Form Leer, Mailing Labels, Matrix
2. What is the dierence between Master Detail Report and report created by breaks ?
* Master/detail data models are very similar to break report data models. However, a master/detail data
model is created using two queries, each of which owns at least one group, and a data link. A break report
data model is created using one query and at least two groups. While reports based on a single query are
usually more ecient than reports based on multiple queries, sometimes the structure of your data tables
may require you to link multiple tables.
3. What are Anchors ?
* An anchor denes the relative position of an object to the object to which it is anchored. Anchors are
used to determine the vertical and horizontal positioning of a child object relative to its parent. Since the
size of some layout objects may change when the report runs (and data is actually fetched), you need
anchors to dene where you want objects to appear relative to one another.
4. What are the various types of anchors in Reports ?
A There are two types of anchors in Oracle Reports:
* implicit (anchors that Oracle Reports creates when a report is run)
* explicit (anchors you create)
Implicit Anchors : At runtime, Oracle Reports generates an implicit anchor for each layout object that does
not already have an explicit anchor. It determines for each layout object which objects, if any, can
overwrite it, then creates an anchor from the layout object to the closest object that can overwrite it. This
prevents the object from being overwrien. The implicit anchor functionality saves you from having to
dene the positioning of each object. Implicit anchors are not visible in the Layout editor. However, you
can specify that the Object Navigator display anchoring information using the Object Navigator Options
dialog.
Explicit Anchors : Create an anchor in the Layout editor by clicking on the Anchor tool, dragging from one
edge of the child to the one of the parents edges, then specifying the anchors properties in its property
sheet. Any anchor you create for an object will override its implicit anchoring. Explicit anchors are always
visible in the Layout editor unless you specify otherwise via the Layout Options dialog
9. What are the various report triggers ? What is their order of ring ?
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A There are eight report triggers. Of these there are ve global triggers called the Report Triggers. They are
red in the following order :
* Before Parameter Form
* Aer Parameter Form
* Before Report
* Between Pages
* Aer Report
Apart from the above Five Report Triggers, there are three other types of triggers :
* Validation Triggers
* Format Triggers
* Action Triggers
Before Form : Fires before the Runtime Parameter Form is displayed. From this trigger, you can access and
change the values of parameters, PL/SQL global variables, and report-level columns. (Note : If the Runtime
Parameter Form is suppressed, this trigger still res. Consequently, you can use this trigger for validation of
command line parameters).
Aer Form : Fires aer the Runtime Parameter Form is displayed. From this trigger, you can access
parameters and check their values. This trigger can also be used to change parameter values or, if an error
occurs, return to the Runtime Parameter Form. Columns from the data model are not accessible from this
trigger. (Note : If the Runtime Parameter Form is suppressed, the Aer Form trigger still res.
Consequently, you can use this trigger for validation of command line parameters or other data).
Before Report : Fires before the report is executed but aer queries are parsed and data is fetched.
Between Pages : Fires before each page of the report is formaed, except the very rst page. This trigger
can be used for customized page formaing. (Note : In the Previewer, this trigger only res the rst time
that you go to a page. If you subsequently return to the page, the trigger does not re again.)
Aer Report : Fires aer you exit the Previewer, or aer report output is sent to a specied destination,
such as a le, a printer, or an Oracle*Mail userid. This trigger can be used to clean up any initial processing
that was done, such as deleting tables. Note, however, that this trigger always res, whether or not your
report completed successfully.
Validation Triggers : Validation Triggers are PL/SQL functions that are executed when parameter values
are specied on the command line and when you accept the Runtime Parameter Form. (Notice that this
means each Validation Trigger may re twice when you execute the report). Validation Triggers are also
used to validate the Initial Value of the parameter in the Parameter property sheet.
Format Triggers : Format Triggers are PL/SQL functions executed before the object is formaed. The
trigger can be used to dynamically change the formaing aributes of the object.
Action Triggers : Action Triggers are PL/SQL procedures executed when a buon is selected in the
Previewer. The trigger can be used to dynamically call another report (drill down) or execute any other
PL/SQL.
19. What are Placeholder Columns ?
A A placeholder is a dummy column for which you can conditionally set the datatype and value via
PL/SQL or a user exit. Placeholder columns are useful when you want to selectively populate a column
with a value (e.g., each time the nth record is fetched, or each time a record is fetched containing a specic
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value, etc.).
20. What are the various Module Types in Reports ?
A You can build three types of modules with Oracle Reports:
* external queries, which are ANSI-standard SQL SELECT statements that can be referenced by modules
* external PL/SQL libraries, which are collections of PL/SQL source code that can be referenced by
modules
* reports, which are collections of report-level objects and references to external queries and PL/SQL
libraries (optional) that can be referenced by modules
22. What are Physical and Logical pages in Reports ?
A A report page can have any length and any width. Because printer pages may be smaller or larger than
your reports page, the concept of physical and logical pages is used.
Physical Page : A physical page (or panel) is the size of a page that will be output by your printer.
Logical Page : A logical page is the size of one page of your actual report; one logical page may be made up
of multiple physical pages. The Previewer displays the logical pages of your report output, one at a time.
23. What are the various page layout sections in Oracle Reports ?
A A report has three sections : the report header pages, report body/margin pages, and report trailer
pages.
27. What are various types of parameters ?
A There are two types of parameters:
* default (called system parameters)
* user-created (called bind and lexical parameters)
30. How do you reference parameters and columns in reports ?
A In two ways :
* As bind references
* As lexical references
31. What are Bind Referencing and Lexical Referencing ?
* Bind Referencing : Bind references are used to replace a single value in SQL or PL/SQL, such as a
character string, number, or date. Use bind reference when you want the parameter to substitute only one
value at runtime. Specically, bind references may be used to replace expressions in SELECT, WHERE,
GROUP BY, ORDER BY, HAVING, CONNECT BY, and START WITH clauses of queries.
Lexical Referencing : Lexical references are placeholders for text that you embed in a SELECT statement.
Use Lexical reference when you want the parameter to substitute multiple values at runtime. You can use
lexical references to replace the clauses appearing aer SELECT, FROM, WHERE, GROUP BY, ORDER
BY, HAVING, CONNECT BY, and START WITH.
33. Can you create a group without any break columns ?
* No.
35. Types of Matrix report ?
* 1. Single query 2. Multi query 3. Nested Query 4. Matrix Break
37. In Reports, how can you print one record per page in the output ?
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* Set the Maximum records per page property of the Repeating frame to 1.
38. How do you print a Report 2.5 report in character mode ?
* Set MODE = Character in the Parameter form
39. What are widow lines ?
* Widow lines are the minimum number of lines of the boilerplate text or eld that should appear on the
logical page where the text starts to print. If the number of lines specied for this property cannot t on
the logical page, then all lines of the boilerplate are moved to the next page.
40. What are widow records ?
* Widow records are the minimum number of instances (records) that should appear on the logical page
where the repeating frame starts to print. If the number of instances specied for this property cannot t
on the logical page where the repeating frame is initially triggered to print, then the repeating frame will
start formaing on the next page.
41. What is page protect property for objects ?
* Page protect property for an object indicates whether to try to keep the entire object and its contents on
the same logical page. Checking Page Protect means that if the contents of the object cannot t on the
current logical page, the object and all of its contents will be moved to the next logical page.
42. What is the Print Condition Type property ?
* Print Condition Type property species the frequency with which you want the object to appear in the
report. The Print Condition Type options indicate the logical page(s) on which the object should be
triggered to print with regard to the Print Condition Object.
44. What are the various values of the Print Condition Type property in Reports ?
* The various values are :
All : All means the object and all of its contents will be printed on all logical pages of the Print Condition
Object. The object will be repeated on any overow pages of the Print Condition Object and will be
truncated at the logical page boundary, if necessary.
All but First : All but First means the object and all of its contents will be printed on all logical pages of the
Print Condition Object except the rst logical page. The object will be formaed only on overow pages of
the Print Condition Object and will be truncated at the logical page boundary, if necessary.
All but Last : All but Last means the object and all of its contents will be printed on all logical pages of the
Print Condition Object except the last logical page. The object will be repeated on any overow pages of
the Print Condition Object except the last one and will be truncated at the logical page boundary, if
necessary.
*Default : Default means that Oracle Reports will use object positioning to set the Print Condition Type to
either *First or *Last for you. (The asterisk indicates that Oracle Reports specied the seing for you.)
First : First means that the object and all of its contents will only be printed on the rst logical page of the
Print Condition Object. The object will be formaed and will overow to subsequent pages, if necessary.
Last : Last means that the object and all of its contents will only be printed on the last logical page of the
Print Condition Object. The object will be formaed aer the Print Condition Object and will overow to
subsequent pages, if necessary.
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* For repeating frames, the print condition type property refers to every logical page of every instance
(record) of the repeating frame. If you specify a Print Condition Type seing of All and a Print Condition
Object seing of Enclosing Object for a eld F_1, it prints in every instance of repeating frame R_1 on
every logical page. If you specify a Print Condition Type seing of All but First in the above case , then the
eld will be printed only in those cases where a single instance (row or record) of the repeating frame
spans across more than one page (which is normally not the case since many records are there in a single
logical page and not one record in many pages). In such a case the eld will be printed on all subsequent
pages of this instance except the rst page.
43. What is the Print Condition Object property ?
* Print Condition Object property species the object on which to base the Print Condition Type of the
current object. For example, if you specify a Print Condition Type of All and a Print Condition Object of
Anchoring Object, the current object will be triggered to print on every logical page on which its anchoring
object (parent object) appears.
45. What are the various values of the Print Condition Object property in Reports ?
* The various values are :
Anchoring Object : Anchoring Object is the parent object to which the current object is implicitly or
explicitly anchored.
Enclosing Object : Enclosing Object is the object that encloses the current object.
46. What is the horizontal of vertical sizing property of objects ?
* Horizontal of vertical sizing property species how the horizontal or vertical size of the object may
change at runtime to accommodate the objects or data within it.
47. What are the various values of the horizontal of vertical sizing property ?
* The various values are :
Contract : Contract means the vertical size of the object decreases, if the formaed objects or data within it
are short enough, but it cannot increase to a height greater than that shown in the editor. Note :
Truncation of data may occur. (You can think of this option as meaning only contract, do not expand.)
Expand : Expand means the vertical size of the object increases, if the formaed objects or data within it
are tall enough, but it cannot decrease to a height less than that shown in the editor. (You can think of this
option as meaning only expand, do not contract.)
Fixed : Fixed means the height of the object is the same on each logical page, regardless of the size of the
objects or data within it. Note : Truncation of data may occur. The height of the object is dened to be its
height in the editor.
Variable : Variable means the object may expand or contract vertically to accommodate the objects or data
within it (with no extra space), which means the height shown in the editor has no eect on the objects
height at runtime.
51. How do you display a message in reports ?
* SRW.Message
54. What are the various values of Print Panel Order property of report ?
* The various values are :
Across/Down : Across/Down means the physical pages of the report body will print le-to-right then
top-to-boom.
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Down/Across : Down/Across means the physical pages of the report body will print top-to-boom and
then le-to-right.
55. What is the Print Direction Property of Repeating frames ?
* Print Direction Property species the direction in which successive instances of the repeating frame
appear.
56. What are the various values of the Print Direction Property of Repeating frames ?
* The various values are :
Across : Across means that each instance of the repeating frame subsequent to the rst instance is printed
to the right of the previous instance across the logical page.
Across/Down : Across/Down means that each instance of the repeating frame subsequent to the rst
instance is printed to the right of the previous instance until an entire instance cannot t between the
previous instance and the right margin of the logical page. At that time, Oracle Reports prints the instance
below the le-most instance on the logical page, provided there is enough vertical space le on the logical
page for the instance to print completely.
Down : Down means that each instance of the repeating frame subsequent to the rst instance is printed
below the previous instance down the logical page.
Down/Across : Down/Across means that each instance of the repeating frame subsequent to the rst
instance is printed below the previous instance until an entire instance cannot t inside the boom margin
of the logical page. At that time, Oracle Reports prints the instance to the right of the topmost instance on
the logical page, provided there is enough horizontal space le on the logical page for the instance to print
completely.
59. What is the Keep with Anchoring Object object property ?
* Keep with Anchoring Object object property indicates whether to keep an object and the object to
which it is anchored on the same logical page. Checking Keep with Anchoring Object means that if the
object, its anchoring object, or both cannot t on the logical page, they will be moved to the next logical
page.
60. What is Page Break Before object property ?
* Page Break Before object property indicates that you want the object to be formaed on the page aer
the page on which it is initially triggered to print. Note that this does not necessarily mean that all the
objects below the object with Page Break Before will move to the next page.
61. What is Page Break Aer object property ?
* Page Break Aer object property indicates that you want all children of the object to be moved to the
next page. In other words, any object that is a child object of an anchor (implicit or explicit) to this object
will be treated as if it has Page Break Before set. Note that this does not necessarily mean that all the
objects below the object with Page Break Aer will move to the next page.
63. What is the Break Order property of columns ?
* The Break Order property is the order in which to display the columns values. This property applies
only to columns that identify distinct values of user-created groups (i.e., break groups). The order of
column values in a default group is determined by the ORDER BY clause of the query. For column values
in user-created groups, however, you must use Break Order to specify how to order the break columns
values.
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64. What are the various types of links ?
* The Data Link tool draws a link between a parent group and a child query. Creating a link is a drag and
drop operation. Clicking and dragging from one column to another creates a link between those two
columns (column to column link). Clicking and dragging from one query to another creates all possible
links between columns selected by the queries based on database constraints (query to query link).
Clicking and dragging between two groups creates a group-to-group link (i.e., a link with no columns).
65. Name some of the procedures in the SRW package ?
* SRW.Message, SRW.User_Exit, SRW.Do_Sql, SRW.Run_Report
66. What are the various report layout regions ?
* There are three report regions in the Layout editor :
* header
* body/margin
* trailer
Header : The report header pages appear once at the beginning of each report on a set of separate pages.
They can contain text, graphics, data, and computations.
Body/Margin : The body/margin pages appear between the header and trailer pages, and are the bulk of
the report. Each physical page in this section consists of a body and a margin. The body contains the
majority of the reports text, graphics, data, and computations.
A top and boom margin appear on each page, until all data within the body has been formaed. A
margin may include text, graphics, page numbers, page totals, and grand totals. The default margin size is
one half inch each for the top and boom margins and zero for the le and right margins.
Trailer : The report trailer pages appear once at the end of each report on a set of separate pages. They can
contain text, graphics, data, and computations.
70. What is more ecient : Maximum rows or Group Filter ?
* Maximum Rows in the Query property sheet restricts the number of records fetched by the query. A
group lter determines which records to include and which records to exclude. Since Maximum Rows
actually restricts the amount of data retrieved, it is faster than a group lter in most cases. If you are using
a Filter of Last or Conditional, Oracle Reports must retrieve all of the records in the group before applying
the lter criteria. As a result, Maximum Rows or a Filter of First is faster.
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