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MBCHANIX
IliLUSTRAT
ran B warn
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ENCYCLOPED
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MECHANIX IliLiUSTRATBD
HOW-TO-DO-IT
ENCYCLOPEDIA
1
BEFORE AND AFTER or* shown in th photos cd>OT*. Sam* closet is now thrs* timM as
roomy. Origincd opwiinQ was snlargod to lull closst widths all orsas were usod lor storage.
STRETCH YOUR
CLOSET SPACE
By R.
J.
DeCristoforo
Add space by building shelves, drawers and
compartments
IF
YOU stop to think of your closets in
terms of so many cubic inches of
storage space instead of just a shelf and
a suspended bar, its easy to realize that
more than half its available space is
wasted. Especially if its an old-style
walk-in cubby hole with a single door.
Building additional closetseven if pos-
sibleisn't the answer; in fact it might
well be just more wasted space.
The answer lies in remodeling exist-
ing closets to utilize all the space that is
already there. Consider that the old-
style closet is equipped with just a shelf
and a pole and that its narrow door plus
hanging garments keeps you from get-
ting at the insides. It hasn't been de-
signed for the many items that are best
stored in racks, or in a drawer, or on a
sliding tray or shelf. You hang skirts
and jackets and suits on the same bar
from which you hang dresses, and yet
962
UPSTARS LOAD
NEW DOUBLED 2X4 HEADER
IS NAIUED UP UNDER SHORTENED
STUDS TO SPAN OPENING
REMOVE STUDS AND
FLOOR SOLE PLATE
HARDWOOD FLOORING MUST BE
PIECED IN AFTER REMOVING SOLE
WALLCOVERING
(SHEETROCK-
PLASTER-OR
PLYWOO.ETCJ
PREPARING NEW OPENING IN VHALL
the former require only half the cubic
inches of the latter.
If you figure in advance the best way
to store the things you normally put in
a closet, you'll surely discover extra
space that will enable you to clear
drawers and cabinets in your regular
furniture. Forget the old idea of shelf
and bar; today's closet is a new concept.
You can even include roll-out bins for
toys and similar items. And best of aU,
you don't have to build a new house in
order to include this
t3T)e of closet. You
merely do over what you already have.
By widening the door opening and
building in storage units, you csin turn
that old closet into a modem wardrobe
that is efficiency plus. You'll have a
place for everjrthing.
The whole job is a simple do-it-your-
self project and economical if you work
with big sheets of fir plywood. Basically
963
CLOSETS
:
rs
%^
REMOVE original door trim, pry off
iambs carefully with wrecking bar. You
may be able to use some of pieces later.
WRITE DIMENSIONS of new closet on wolL
Drill hole into walL cut out enough of wall
so you con easily work wifli largr sow.
Af'TER CUTS are made, remove the plaster
wall covering. If walls are covered with
wood paneling, remove 8ecti<ms, reuse later.
FILL IN GAPS between wall coverings with
narrow filler studs before erecting new
door frame studding. Check wi& square.
964
NEW OVERHEAD jamb is nailed to header
OB usuoL Use single shims to provide ior
leveling and squaring. Do neat careful }ob.
CUTTING OFF floor plate bock to new open-
ing leaves gap. Fill with flooring of match-
ing materioL Use a scrcqper to make it leveL
^^-i^sum^^iomnsss!^-
1/2"
PLYWOOD
LINES CLOSET
INSIDE WALL STUDS
SHELVES AND DRAWERS COM
ONLY THIS FAR TO CLEAR DOC
LAST STEP is to install a new trim which
S)fo(^R^oNLY
covers the joint between wall covering and
iambs. Sand carefully, then fiU nodi holes.
SPECIAL SURFACE MOUNTED HINGES REQUIRE NO M0RT1S
965
ANOTHER RESULT of the face-liiting of cm old closet is this roomy hobby arrangement It
features fold-down work table and lots of Tery important storage space for tools, supplies.
BUILT IN DIVIDERS
1/2"
purwooo
THROUGHCXJT
DADOES OR
BUTT JOINTS
Wrm NAILS
\
FOLD DOVW WORK TABLE
966
*
-*^iimi"Jt
CLOSETS
SHIRT STORAGE PALLETS
ROLL OUT TOY BIN
1/4"
X
1/4"
OAOOES
l/2'PL>(VIO0O
PANELS
.l/2"PLYV)00
THROUGHOUT
-BUTT
JOINTS
1/2"
PLYWOOD
BOTTOM PANEL
(NSIDE SIDES
^
RNISHNAiL
7>1R0UGH FRONT
-NON- SWIVEL
PLATE CASTERS
MAN'S WARDROBE INSTALLATION , 1/2" PLYWOOD
~~
PARTITION
WALLS
IS TYPICAL FOR ALL DRAWERS
SWING DOWN
1/8"
MASONITE OR I/4" PLYWOOD BOTTOMS
JNDRY
G ON
OKS
GES
rSHELF
PLYWOOD BRACE
EL
PIVOTS ON SCREV
STOPS AT DOOR PANEL
1/2" PLY
WALL LINERS
TO CLEAR DOORS
I X 2 FRAMERS
3M"ST0CK LEDGE
968
SAME CLOSET as shown on pracadinq pagM is now shown adopted into a man's compact
wordrdbo. Shoo troys, oomportmentedisod drowws and spedal soctions are & big features.
it consists of removing the present door
and enlarging the opening to the full
width of the closet. liien you build new
double doors which include storage on
their backs, and custom design the in-
sides for specifio items.
The important thing is to plan the
storage. Analyze your needs and plan
shelves and racks on the door backs and
inside to suit yourself. You'll have no
trouble includkig special arrangements
for items like handbags, shoes, shoe
cleaning equijnnent, brushes, gloves,
scarves, beltseven jewelry. AH of
these can go right on the backs of the
new doors. Designing compact storage
units for the inside will enable you to
include shirts, -sweaters, lingerie, socks
and stockings, hats, shoe trays or
shelves and

just as importantall
these things will be easily accessible.
You'll never have to stand on your toes
and grope in the dark for anything.
Poles, for clothes on hangers, can be
efficiently arranged so shorter garments
have shorter hanging space. You can
hang twice as many men's suits in the
same space normally used merely by
providing double bars, one above the
other. This arrangement is also very
useful in a child's closet where little
dresses and suits can be hung in a
double row.
Don't try to be fancy with construc-
tion; fancy joints are not in order here.
Keep it simple with butt joints wher-
ever possible. Use plenty of glue and fin-
ishing nciils for strength. Sand all parts
carefully and seal before painting.
Many storage units can be assembled
in the workshop and then pushed bodily
into place. Follow the photos and draw-
ings carefullythere are plenty of ideas
here.
Remember, a well-organized
closet
often is as useful as another room.

969
I CLOSETS
Cleaning Closet
A well-organized hall closet makes household chores less weary
X
he hall or utility room closet is often
a catchall, but that doesn't mean it has
to look like it. It can take efficient care of
a lot of miscellaneous cleaning supplies, as
well as the more conventional coats, hats,
umbrellas and rubber shoes, if the space is
carefully organized.
A good solution is to allow roughly half
the existing hanging space for cleaning
things, and the rest for garments. The
upper shelves can be used for hats, lug-
gage, or for more household supplies.
All that the conversion of your closet in-
volves, then, is
(1)
take out the clothes
rod;
(2) build a vertical plywood divider
down the middle of the closet;
(3)
set in a
new rod, or half the old one in the right-
hand section, between the divider and the
right-hand wall;
(4)
build shelves of vary-
ing heights on the other side of the divider.
Recess these shelves 8 inches from the
front of the closet, so you can secure a
notched strip of plywood to the divider to
hold mops and brooms. Put the bottom
shelf 18 inches off the floor. This gives you
a place to put the vacuum cleaner and at-
tachments. Set a few one-half-inch dowels
in the wall in this area to prop up the tubes
and to hang the electric cord.
You can vary the location and size of all
shelves, of course, to suit your own needs.
Maybe you don't need space for cleaning
supplies, but do need some place to put
toys and games, or sewing supplies. In the
latter case, the space at the bottom would
be just right for the sewing machine.

A closet can b made to hold
an unusually large amount of
material, and keep it well seg-
regated lor easy accessibility.
970
IJIIUiu
%^'
X a' X 8 PLYWOOD YIELDS ALL PARTS FOR AVERAGE CLOSET
USE CLEATS UNDER SHELVES WHEN
"MOUNTING
TO PLASTER OR SHEEJROCK
NAIL THROUGH
PLYWOOD IWTO SHELVES
971
K
No more uiitidy piles of mixed clothes! There's apace for everything: soaps, blea^es, etc.
SORTING
is cut to a minimum with these
separate bins for lingerie and for white
and colored laundry beside your washer
Sand all edges carefully after plywood
parts are cut to size, to prevent snagging.
On assembly, all joints should be glued
and nailed. For easiest assembly, stand
panel "P" on its long edge and nail through
sides "H" into the edge of the back. Then
nail through the sides and back into he
edges of the bottom; install the partitions,
shelf and top and attach to the base.
Cut the large bin sides to size and curve
the top edge to the 28%-inch radius as
shown. Curve lingerie bin sides to a 16-
inch radius. Check fit before assembling
bins, by swinging out the lower front bin
corner in position against the cabinet bot-
tom. Nail the sides to the bin bottoms with
front edges in line, attach the bin backs,
then install fronts and hingfes, and fasten
bin stops underneath tops.
When finishing the cabinet, be sure to
prime all edges of the door weU against
moisture and apply equal finish coats to
both faces. The cabinet top may be sur-
faced in linoleum or plastic laminate.

saives time
LINOLEUM
OR
PLASTIC
LAMINA
T TOP
H
^
#^
RACK
By Bill Baker
Just the ticket
for heavy
traffic in youngsters^
garments.
'l^HIS PROJECT is the most practical
--
and easy to build feature imaginable.
It is a must in any home with children
because it will not only
enhance the
beauty of their rooms but also teach
them the colors and meaning of the
traffic signals. It also serves the pur-
pose of a clothes rack and will help in-
spire the children to tidiness.
The main post of 2 inches x 2 inches x
50 inches was cut first. Then the two
legs
1 inch x 3 inches x 14 inches, and
finally the top pieces and circles as
.shown in the diagram were cut out. The
legs were assembled by means of a lap
joint. The post was beveled from the
bottom to a height of 37 inches.
The top double strips around the post
were
mounted leaving one edge exposed
and covering the next as shown in the
diagram.
The clothes hangers were made of
V2-inch
hardwood dowels rounded on
one end and as shown, the STOP and
GO signs were made by means of ^z^-
inch
dowels grooved for V4-inch Ply-
wood strips placed directly above the
light
discs
V2 inch from the outside. All
dowels are glued into holes and rounded
on the outside.

974
1/2"
X 2
1/2"
TOP DISK
1/2"
X 2
1/2"
XI2"
FACING BUOCKS (4)
I
BETVEL CORI^RS on mcdn post on jointer, as shown, or with hand plane. Leave top comers
intact. Cut out the notches for base on saw as shown. Interlocking pieces fit together.
975
GLUE ON TOP PIECES with Weldwood glue after bottom cross piece has been screwed on.
The photo at right shows circular "light" pieces being nailed in addition to glue application.
BORE A '/2-INCH HOLE in center of each side of post one inch beneath the bottom edge of
'/2-inch solid wood strips. Bore V4-inch hole in bottoms and sides of all four leg braces.
SCREW AND GLUE leg braces in place after pre-drilling. Sandpaper all edges smooth.
Signs are moimted in channeled '/2-inch dowels. Some size dowels also used as racks.
976
CLOTHES
2"
NO. 6
SCREWS (2)
1
" SQUARES
r BRADS KEEP
ROPE IN PLACE
WHEEL, 2"x12'^4''
m" ALUMINUM STiiAP
^
HADES
of the Old WUd
^ West!
Here's a clothes
rack any buckaroo would be
proud to hang his chaps on.
Cut the half-wheel shoe
rack from a piece of old
2xl2-inch stock, spoke it in
with some one-inch dowels
and attach a strip of alumi-
nimi for the wheel rim.
Now coil and nail some
%-inch manila rope on top of
the nail keg for a shelf.
Use upholsterer's tacks to
shape the owner's brand in-
side a pony shoe on the side
of the keg. Three more pony
shoes serve as hooks when
nailed to that length of 2x4
that attaches to and extends
up out of the keg.
That center ring is just a
hammock ring with a piece of
thonging tied to it for fun.
Those "longhoms" were
cut on a band saw from some
scrap lx4-inch lumber.
Burnish the rack with a
blowtorch
before coating
with
clear spar varnish,'
977
IIKU3U
INCRETE
it is usable as cement. In 1824, Joseph
Aspidin, an English bricklayer, found he
could make cement artificially. He did it
by burning clay and limestone in his
kitchen stove and then grinding the result-
ing clinker. He called it portland cement
because it reminded him of the color of
stone on the Isle of Portland, off the British
coast.
Manufacture of portland cement in the
United States dates back to shortly after
the Civil War. In 1902, Thomas Edison in-
vented the type of rotary kiln now used
by the cement industry. His invention
makes possible the present tremendous
production of about 300,000,000 barrels of
DAMP SAND (photo above, left) contains 1 quart of water per cubic foot. It feels damp to the touch, but
it can't be formed into a ball. Wet sand (photo above, right) is kind usually supplied by dealers. It con-
tains 2 quarts per cubic foot, is readily squeezed into a ball. Very wet sand (top photo) glistens, sticks
to skin, may drip. It contains about 3 qts of water per cubic foot. Allow for moisture when mixing concrete.
BASIC SECRET of making good concrete is accurate measurement of ingredients, thorough blending, and
addition of minimum of water needed for workability, as the workman shows in the photo on opposite page.
979
Irfii:M;Uii
cement a yeara barrel is four sacks.
Today, when we lise the word "cement"
we generally mean portland cement. Lime-
stone, clay, cement rock, gypsxim and other
materials go into the manufacture of this
powder. It's groxind so fine most of it wiU
go through a screen with 40,000 openings
per sqxiare inch.
Varieties of Cement. Many types of
cement are made, of which five are in
common use and readily available at most
dealers, usually in 94 i}ound bags (1 cu. ft.)
.
They are:
Standard. Ordinary gray cement Used
for all general constructionfootings,
foundations, sidewalks, terraces, and the
making of mortar. If you don't specify
otherwise, this is the kind you'll get when
you ask for cement.
White. Similar in every way to regular
gray cement except that its white color
makes it possible to mix hght-colored
mortar and concrete. When concrete or
mortar are to be colored, white cement will
keep the colors cleaner and sharper.
High Early Strength. Hardens and de-
velops strength much faster than regular
cement. Permits quick use of walks and
driveways, shortens the time concrete
must be protected in cold weather.
PORTLAND CEMEHT In priaas condifioo im
oft and silky to the tooch. li H has huop*
tluxt don't raodily break, cement kos ob-
sofbed a damaging qoanlity oi molstoie.
GOOD GRAVEL or cnuked elone shoukl
consist oi particles ranging ki skM iiem Vt
inch np to the maxiBiuB size wanted in mix.
Voariety ol sisee makes concrete stronger.
DRY INGREDIENTS are blended ttoroughly
before water is added. Measnre ingredients
accnnttehr. Sock of portland cement con-
totatB exactly I cable k>et. weigks M ponndk.
980
Air Entrained. Not as strong as regtilar
Portland, but with higher resistance to
frost action and to salt. Especially useful
where salt and other substances are applied
to pavements in ice and snow removal.
Concrete made with air-entrained cement
won't scale or deteriorate under salt action.
Masonry. A special mixture for use with
sand in making mortar. Contains lime-
stone and other special ingredients to
increase the mortar's plasticity, water re-
tentivity, and ease of handling.
Other cements include low-heat ce-
ments, used in building dams and
extremely thick walls where an excess of
heat generated during concrete's harden-
ing would cause cracks, waterproofed
Portland, and puzzolanic portland. This
latter variety contains volcanic ash or blast
furnace slag.
Aggregates. The bulk of concrete is
made up of aggregatesdurable inert ma-
terials bound together by cement paste.
Sand, gravel, crushed stone and blast fur-
nace slag are the aggregates most com-
monly used.
Fine aggregate, or sand, is material that
will pass through a wire screen with
V^-
inch meshes. It may include pebbles, bits
of stone, tile, and brick. Concrete is
stronger if the sand grains are not uniform
in size, but vary from fine to coarse. Avoid
sands that are predominantly very fine or
very coarse. Fine takes too much cement.
Coarse makes a rough, unworkable mix.
Coarse aggregate consists of particles
from 14 inch to % inch or larger. The
larger the size of the coarse aggregate par-
ticles, the less paste (cement and water)
necessary to produce a given quality of
concrete. Well graded aggregate has a
range of particle sizes so that the smaller
particles fill up the voids between the big
ones. The better this is done, the less
cement paste needed to bind them to-
gether.
In general, aggregate particles should
not be larger than
Vz
the thickness of the
wall or slab in which they're used. How-
ever, in thick walls and footings, clean
stones up to 10 inches or more can be em-
bedded in the concrete in an amount up
to half its bulk or more. In reinforced con-
crete, the size of aggregate particles is best
restricted to % inch.
Coarse aggregate particles should be
hard and strong, with a minimum of flat
and elongated pieces. If flat, elongated or
slivery pieces are used, keep them to no
more than 15% of the total aggregate.
'lig^
''r^^^^'^'
:,;^^^
UL
THE RIGHT MIX
_ , , /- 1 Gallons of water per Maximum
Kind of Work
Vf"*"!
r.uffl (cu^'ft)
sack of cement if sand is: oggregafe
(sacks) (CU. ft.) (CU. ft.)
p^^p
y^^, y^^ y,^^, j.^^
IN USING power mixer, blend dry ingredients first,
then add water, as shown. Continue rotating drum
for at least two minutes. Don't overload drum.
CONCRETE may be mixed right on the spot where
it is to be placed. Professionals can accurately
iudge water needed by way material handles.
HOW TO FIGURE MATERIALS NEEDED FOR 100 SO. FT.
OF WALLS, SIDEWALKS, SLABS, ETC.
(Quantities given are plui or minus 10%, with no allowance for waste.)
FORMULA 1:2:3
T:2Vi:3% 1:3:5
Slob Thickness Cement Sand Gravel Cement Sond Gravel Cement Sand Grovel Yards of
(inches) (bogs) (cubic feet) (bogs) (cubic feet) (bags) (cubic feet) concrete
CONCRETE
Water. Tlie strength, durability and
watertightness of concrete is directly re-
lated to the quantity and quality of water
used in making it.
Grenerally, water used should be free of
acids, alkalis and oU. It should never con-
tain decayed vegetable matter. A safe rule
is to use water fit to drink, unless the water
is known to contain a large amount of
sulfates. According to the Portland Ce-
ment Association, seawater produces sat-
isfactory concrete, but with strength up to
20% less. This can be oEset by use of a
somewhat increased proportion of cement
and a decrease in mixing water.
The amount of water used per sack of
cement averages about 5 to 6 gallons.
Usually, the less mixing water, the better
the quality of the concrete. When cement
and water are mixed together they form
a paste. In good concrete, this paste will
coat every pebble and grain of sand and
bind them together in one solid, rocklike
mass. If too much water is used, the paste
is thin and weak and the resulting con-
crete lacks full strengtii. The importance
of avoiding an excess of water cannot be
overemphasized.
More aggregate
i^
used in a stiflF, crumbly
mix than in a more watery one, and so the
stiffer a mix is the lower its cost However,
a mix has to be fluid enou^ for proper
placing. Under average conditions, avoid
concrete so stiff it crumbles, or so thin it
flows rapidly and segregates.
Consider this: Though a
minimxim
of
water produces the best concrete, it may
be extravagant to aim for top quality if a
more economical mix wUl fulfill every
requirement Use of somewhat more than
a minimum of water will produce a some-
what weaker concrete, but it will permit
use of more aggregate and that saves
money. However, in no case should you
use more than the maximum amoimt of
water recommended for any given concrete
formula.
In calculating water requirements, the
amount of moisture present in the aggre-
gate must be taken into account. Wet
sandthe kind generally supplied by
dealerscontains about
%
gallon per cubic
foot. Dripping wet sand holds about
%
gallon. Sand that is only slightly damp
contains
V4
gallon. Fine sand holds more
water than coarse sand of apparently equal
wetness. Damp gravel or crushed rock
contains about Va gallon per cubic foot.
Formulas. The production of various
materials in concrete is usually expressed
by three numbers separated by colons. For
example, 1:2:4 means 1 part cement, 2
WHAT THEY ARE
CEMENT ... a powder which, when mixed with
water, forms a paste which hardens and has
great bonding power. Also, a mixture of port-
land cement and sand with water, used as
stucco, topping for sidewalks, steps, floors, for
patching, and in laying up stone.
AGGREGATE . . . fine or coarse materials, such
as sand, gravel, cinders, and crushed rock,
which are bonded together by cement.
CONCRETE ... a mixture of cement, sand, and
gravel (or other aggregates) with water. Con-
crete is sometimes incorrectly referred to as
cement.
MORTAR ... a mixture of cement or lime
(sometimes both) with sand and water. Used
for bonding blocks, bricks, and stone.
GROUT ... a thin, soupy mixture of cement
and sand with water, used in filling cracks and
hard-to-get-at spaces.
PBEPACKAGO) MIXES faavi* a pwlcet batch
Trntj ttmm. tot thafar fai9idlata an exoctfr Pn>-
portSooad. To mcdw coBcit. 9t qitwrmL mix.
CEMENT reodUy oImocIm mofatuw. so
dry ilac. Kp It ofl (fa* qroand. In
pto>>ct tra rain by wqtoip'ool loip.
sluTO It In Q
iCT.
ahmoL
984
CONCRETE
parts sand, 4 parts gravel or stone. The
first number always refers
to cement, the
second to sand, the third to gravel, stone,
or other coarse
aggregate.
To make good concrete you must meas-
ure all ingredients accurately.
You can
quickly make a bottomless box with inside
dimensions of
12xl2xl2-inches.
It will
hold
1 cubic foot. Set it on the platform,
or in the trough or wheelbarrow where
you are doing your mixing. Fill it to
%, %
or
%
level. You merely have to lift the
box to diunp the contents.
You can mark a wheelbarrow for meas-
uring. Dump a bag of cement in it, level
it off and mark it as the 1 cubic foot
measure. For small quantities you can get
proportionate
amounts with any bucket or
container.
Professionals usually measirre
with a shovel. Test yo\ir shovel to see how
many you must take to get 1 cubic foot.
Becaiise of the difference in cohesiveness,
you'll find that you can get twice as much
MATERIALS REQUIRED TO MAKE
1 CUBIC YARD OF CONCRETE
(Using V<-inch gravel. For l-l'^-rnch gravel, add 10%
more sand, 10% more cement, 5% more gravel)
Amts. Req. (Approx.)
CONCRETE
Portland cement or damp sand in a shovel-
ful as you can get dry sand or gravel.
Make a trial batch in accordance with
the table. If it's too stiflf, too wet, or diffi-
cult to work, alter the proportion of sand
and gravel in the next batch to get a more
suitable mix, but don't change the amount
of water.
Prepackaged Mixes. If you don't want
to be bothered with formulas, you can buy
prepackaged mixes, such as Sakrete, that
contain just the right proportion of in-
gredients for a perfect batch every time.
You need only add water. These pre-
packaged products are generally available
as concrete (or gravel) mix, sand mix for
topping and patching, and mortar mix for
laying up masonry.
A 90-pound bag of concrete mix makes
approximately %-cubic foot of concrete
and costs between $1 and
$2,
depending
on the area in which you live. Though this
may be four times the cost of concrete you
mix yourself, it has the advantages of great
convenience when only a limited quantity
of concrete is needed and eliminates any
guesswork as to how to proportion the in-
gredients.
Additives may be included in concrete
mixes to meet special conditions or re-
quirements. These include hardeners,
antifreezes, accelerators (to speed up set-
ting), coloring, bonding agents, water-
proofing, and anti-shrink chemicals.
Calcium chloride is most frequently used
as an accelerator. It may be dissolved in
the mixing water or added to the aggre-
gates. A maximum of 2 pounds per sack
of cement may be used, but caution must
be exercised so that the cement doesn't
harden so rapidly it cannot properly be
placed.
How to Mix. Concrete can be mixed by
hand on a wood platform (at least 4x6
feet) . A platform can be made of tongue-
and-groove boards or a sheet of exterior
plywood. Also suitable: any flat surface
that won't soak up the water or let it leak
away. A sidewalk or driveway is fine.
Flush it clean inunediately after use, and
no evidence will remain of the mixing. In
some cases, as in putting a topping on a
basement floor, the concrete can be mixed
right where it is to be used.
For mixing, a hoe with holes in the blade
is best, but you can use a garden hoe. A
square-edged shovel is better than a
pointed one. If the shovel has a long
handle it will save bending and extra effort.
Here's one good way to do the mixing:
First, spread out the measured sand and
add the correct measure of cement. With
shovel or hoe mix the two until they are
completely blended and the color is uni-
form. Add the gravel or stone and com-
plete the thorough blending. E^ch pebble
should be coated with cement.
Cut a crater in the middle of the pile
all the way down to its bottom and pour
in about half of the measured water. With
hoe pull the mix up over the outside walls
into the water. You can also cut down
along the inside rim of the crater, but don't
break the wall or aUow the water to run
over in rivulets for it will carry the ce-
ment with it.
When the water is sopped up, pull the
walls outward to renew the crater, and
add the rest of the water.
In mixing concrete in a trough, tub or
mortar box, use the hoe to pull the ingre-
dients back and forth from one end to the
other until thoroughly blended. You'll
find pulling easier than pushing.
CEMENT is made in gigantic
rotary kiln. Supported on huge
roller bearings and slightly
inclined, kiln rotates so as to
more material continuously.
Universal Atlas Cement
If after using the recommended amount
of water you find the concrete too stiff,
avoid adding water. Instead, on the next
batch cut down on the amount of sand and
gravel or rock.
Mixing concrete by hand is hard work.
For as little as $60 you can buy a mixer
that will deliver a thoroughly mixed 2
cubic feet of concrete in two minutes. You
can operate it by hand or it will run off a
% HP capacitor electric motor or a
2Vi
HP
gas engine. These are good for occasional
use. Professional, motorized, portable
1-
bag mixers delivering
3V^
cubic feet of
concrete cost from about $375 up. They
can be rented.
When using a power mixer, thoroughly
blend the dry ingredients first. After water
is added, to obtain a thoroughly mixed
batch, mixing should be continued for at
least two minutes. Don't overload the
drum, or try to shorten the mixing period
by rotating the drum faster. Wash the ma-
chine carefully after each use to prevent
hardening of concrete remnants in drum
or elsewhere.
Cold Weather Mixing. Avoid mixing
concrete when the temperature is under
40 degrees, or if temperatures below 40
are expected within 24 hours. However,
with proper precautions concrete can be
placed at temperatures under 40 if pro-
tected in its first 24 hours from freezing.
A heavy freeze during that period will
make the concrete crumble.
In cold weather, commercial operators
use warm water in the mix. Temperature
of the water should range from 150 to 175
degrees, never above. Don't allow the tem-
perature of heated concrete to get over 80
degrees.
About
Va
can be cut from the setting time
of concrete by use of calcium chloride, pre-
viously mentioned in the text. This chem-
ical, sometimes called chloride of lime, is
the same as is used in combatting damp-
ness in basements. Add no more than 2
pounds per bag of cement. Other chemicals,
both liquid and powders, are used to ac-
celerate setting of concrete in cold wea-
ther. If both an accelerator and warm
water are used, proceed cautiously or you
may run into flash-setthe concrete hard-
ening before you can place it.
Never mix concrete when the aggregate
is frozen or has ice in it. If necessary, ag-
gregate can be warmed by spreading it
over a supported heavy metal sheet and
building a fire underneath. Aggregate
should not be over 100-degrees when used.
Mixing concrete is only the first step in
getting good concrete.
CLEAN OR DIRTY?
To determine if sand is clean enough to use
without washing, make this test. Put 2 inches
of the sand in a quart bottle or jar, fill % with
water and shake vigorously for 1 minute. Allow
it to stand 1 hour. The maximum amount of
cloy or silt permissible is usually 3%. In other
words, no more than %-inch in 2 inches of sand.
If more than this settles on the sand, it needs
washing.
Organic matter will prevent concrete from^
hardening properly. To determine if sand is
free of organic matter, dissolve a heaping tea-
spoon of ordinary household lye in a cup of
water. Pour the solution over a cup of the sand
in a jar. Screw on the jar lid and shake for 1
minute.
If after several hours the liquid is clear or
light straw color, the sand is satisfactory. If the
liquid is coffee colored, the sand needs wash-
ing. Avoid getting the solution on clothing, skin,
or anything else. Use glass containers only in
making the test.
^i~
i
f
^
TOEAT freshly mixed concrete gently or it may segregate and produce an inferior finished concrete. Don't
chute it orer long distance, drop H more than 3 feet or giro it a rough ride. Treat it with some Undness.
l4
LOADED concrete truck may weigh 20 tons or
more. Con your lawn or driveway safely take the
load? The closer the truck can get in to the delivery
point, the' less work for you placing its concrete.
START PLACING concrete on the far side of
area, and always dump concrete against loads
already placed. Handling pour for even a small
slab, and doing it correctly, is not a one-man job.
CONCRETE
AM) FINISHIXG
COXCRETE
For the very best results, work head and act fast
PLACE
concrete where you want it as
soon as possible after mixing and be-
fore it begins to set or harden. In wirm
weather concrete begins setting in as little
as 20 to 30 minutes. Disturbing it after that
will impair its strength. The more it has
set and the more you disturb it, the greater
the damage. Be prepared to act fast and
work hard once a batch is ready. In cold
weather, ordinary concrete takes several
hours or more to acquire its initial set, and
speed in placing it is not so important.
Don't add water to a mix that has begun
to set. More than the prescribed amount of
water will weaken the concrete. If con-
crete is bought ready mixed, only the
dry ingredients will be mixed when the
truck arrives at your site. Water will be
added as you direct.
Getting Ready to Pour. Your abiHty to
place ready-mix promptly will depend on
several factors:
(1)
Can the truck move in close to where
the concrete is wanted? If it can't, the con-
crete will have to be wheeled in. Concrete
weighs about 150 lbs. per cu. ft. and the
average general purpose wheelbarrow
won't haul much more than a cubic foot per
trip. That means 20 or more trips to handle
a cubic ysird. A deep-tray contractor's
wheelbarrow can cut the number of trips
in half.
(2)
How much help do you have?
Handling even a small deUvery of concrete
is seldom a one-man job. At least one able-
bodied helper is essential.
(3) Is everything ready? Forms must be
complete, shovels, wheelbarrows and
other tools at hand, help prepared. There
is a time charge if a truck is kept waiting
or held longer than a normal amount of
time for the deUvery. Arrangements for
concrete deliveries are xisusilly made a day
or more in advance. Don't set the time for
too late in the day or you may be working
long after dark. A concrete job usually
can't be interrupted until it's done.
(4)
Are you prepared to handle an ex-
cess amount of concrete? Even experts
can't figure concrete needs exactly, and
it's always safer to order just a little more.
What if that "Uttle extra" turns out to be
%
yard or more? Can you do something
with it? Some contractors have forms for
splashboards or stepping stones on hand
for such emergencies. Are you planning a
future project that will take a concrete
footing? Have it ready on a stand-by basis.
Once your concrete is mixed it will have to
be used, or dumped and wasted.
Forms. Concrete is a plastic material.
It will take almost any shape. It all de-
pends on the form or mold you have for
it. Forms for concrete can be of earth.
DEEP-TRAY contractor's buggy holds over twice
as much as an ordinary wheelbarrow. Even more
important, the pneumatic tire makes pushing
the load easier, gives concrete a smoother ride.
DON'T DUMP concrete all in one pile and expect it
to flow into position. It will segregate. Place it neai
where you want it and with a ininimum of han-
dling. You'll find shovels and rakes are a necessity.
tT.
990
l>iil!N:H^i
IN HIGH FORMS, place concrete in layers 6 to 12
inches thick. Start at ends, work toward middle. 11
excess water appears, make next batch stiifer.
HARDBOARD is useful both as a form liner and as
form facing. Its smooth surface permits a large
expanse of finished surface iinmorked by joints.
BOARDS Yz inch thick are readily bent on o wide
radius, particularly if they are first wetted down.
Note the substantial bracing and the cross-bracing.
IF FORM BOARDS aren't smooth and joints tight
expect irregularities to show in finished job. "Fins"
freshly hardened are ground away on concrete.
wood, hardboard, plywood, metal, or any
other material substantial enough to con-
tain it.
Tongue-and-groove or shiplap boards
are good form material, for their joints can
be made tight enough to keep water from
escaping and carrying cement with it.
Leakage at joints also creates "fins" which
accentuate the joints. Tongue-and-groove
boards are usually more desirable than
shiplap for their interlocking helps keep
them in alignment and prevents offset
joints.
Wide boards have a greater tendency to
cup than narrow ones. For average work,
use 6-inch boards. Use 4-inch or flooring
boards for a specially smooth surface.
Joint lines are likely to be accented if you
use 8- or 10-inch boards. If forms have
been exposed to hot, dry weather, soaking
will tighten the joints.
Boards should be free of knotholes or
other breaks. Rough or cupped boards will
leave their imprint on finished concrete,
so use smooth lumber where a smooth fin-
ish is important, or line the form with
form-lining paper or other smooth ma-
terial. Where the imprint of the wood
graining is desired, make the graining
more pronounced by wetting the form
lumber before oiling, or by spraying it
with ammonia. The rough finish thus ob-
tained provides an exceUent bonding for
stucco.
Hardboard is good form material, es-
pecially when a very smooth surface is
wanted. With hardboard sheets it's possible
to have an area 4x12 feet or more without
joint lines. Wood or leather-grained hard-
board, on the other hand, offer the means
of securing attractively textured surfaces.
Hardboard isn't very rigid. Often it is
used as lining for rough wood forms. If
used alone it must be exceptionally well-
braced. To prevent buckling, leave hard-
board joints open the thickness of a dime.
Seal these joints with patching plaster or
water putty to balk leaks.
Plywood % and % inch thick are popu-
lar for making forms. Under such trade
names as Plyform, it is available in both
exterior (waterproof) and interior
(water-resistant) grades. The exterior
type is especially designed for multiple
reuse, although with care the interior type
may be reused many times, the glue often
outlasting the wood. GPX, a plastic-faced
plywood of exterior Douglas Fir, is ideal
for concrete forms. It produces a satin-
smooth finish and can be continually re-
used.
Metal forms are a favorite of professional
builders. They can be quickly assembled
into wall panels in a variety of arrange-
ments. Metal foiTns are also commonly
used in the manufacture of blocks and fur-
niture.
Earth can serve as one or both sides of
a form for footings and walls. The earth
should be of a type that will stand without
caving, especially when wet. Special care
must be used in placing and tamping con-
crete in earth forms. Earth that falls into
concrete makes weak and porous spots.
Curves. Hardboard's flexibility makes it
useful for forms with curves or bends.
Regular boards, V2
inch thick, are also
bendable, especially if they are wetted.
Plywood V4 and
Vz
inch thick may be bent
on a 3- or 4-foot radius.
Nailing. The preferred practice is to as-
semble forms so that they are easy to take
apart. Use a minimum of nails. In building
forms to be dismantled, box nails are bet-
ter than common nails for, being thinner,
they pull out easier. In building panel
foims for reuse, use common nails. They'll
take more punishment and abuse.
For maximum strength and minimum
marring on removal use two-headed or
991
CONCRETE
STYLE 6X6-
6/6 WELDED
WIRE FABRIC
2X4
FORM STUOS
FOUNDATION WALLS obore gmdm may be
ionned ia this manner where eortii wcdls of the
trench stand straight and true, and where a wide
footing is not required. Most foundations should
hare a footing, howerer. In that case the founda-
tion is formed as shown in drawing obore, right.
-l" BOARDS
2X4
STAKES
AND
BRACES
4X4"
WALE
SUGGESTED METHOD of forming for foundaUoas
supported on footings, is shown in drawing above.
duplex nails. Use 3d blue shingle nails for
attaching hardboard or plywood liners
over sheathing, using at least one nail per
square foot. For %-inch boards and ply-
wood use 6d nails. Clamps and wedges can
sometimes be used in lieu of nails.
Ties and Spreaders. Forms must be
well-braced and well-tied to keep them
in alignment. In building forms for aver-
age walls use 2x4 studs spaced on 18- to
24-inch centers to reinforce the facing ma-
terial against which the concrete is placed.
To keep the form from spreading apart,
join studs on opposite sides of the form
with tie rods, which are available in a
variety of types, or with No. 10 or No. 12
soft black annealed iron wire, tightened
by twisting.
Ties usually are placed every
2V^
feet
vertically, closer if more than 3 feet of
concrete will be poured in % hour. Wires
may go either through or around the studs.
Alternately, %-inch bolts may be used.
Place 1x2 spacers at every other tie to
keep the walls apart when wire is being
twisted or bolts tightened. Knock these
spacers out as the concrete is placed.
When forms are removed, you can clip
off wires close to the surface and drive
them back with a punch. Snap ties break
off 1 inch back of the surface. Touch up
any noticeable marks with mortar. Blend
the mortar with 25 to 50% white portland
and the patches won't look darker-than the
wall. Rubbing the pointed-up spots will
also help make them inconspicuous.
To make form removal easier, oil, shel-
lac, or varnish them before use. This treat-
ment aJso keeps the wood from harmful
absorption of concrete moisture. You can
compound form oil of 50%
light automo-
bile oil and 50% kerosene. Forms must be
reoiled before each use.
Walls poured against oil^ forms cm-
not be painted or stuccoed. However, you
can buy special form oil (often com-
pounded of parafl&n oil and kerosene or
benzine) which will not interfere with
painting or stuccoing.
If forms aren't oiled or otherwise treated,
soak them with water at least 12 hours be-
fore placing concrete. If they are extremely
dry, apply water more than once.
Handle With Care. The most important
single item in successfully placing concrete
is to handle the wet material carefully.
Take it easy. Rough treatment will sepa-
rate the coarse aggregate in the concrete
from the cement-paste and fine material.
In pouring a slab, don't dump the con-
crete all in one pUe and let it flow into po-
sition. The cement paste and fine material
will flow ahead of the coarse aggregates.
Don't pull the concrete more than you can
992
CONCRETE
COMMERCIAL OPERATORS often prefer
metal ionns. They are quickly assembled,
require no special bracing, and con be used
over and over vrith
miniiniiin maintenance.
TYPICAL form details for concrete walls (oboTj
help. Pulling, too, encourages segregation.
Instead, place the concrete as near to its
final position as possible. In pouring a wall,
don't drop concrete over 3 feet.
If excessive water comes to the surface
of the concrete and the mix isn't an es-
pecially moist one, it means you're han-
dling the stuff too rough and too fast.
In pouring into a high form, deposit the
concrete in horizontal layers no more than
6 to 12 inches thick, and deposit the ma-
terial at no greater than 6-foot intervals.
Use a spade, a hoe with blade straightened,
or a lawn edger, to push rock away from
the side forms, to compact the concrete,
and to get rid of air pockets. A home-
made tool useful for the purpose is a 1x4
board, its end chisel-pointed. Rapping the
side of a form sharply with a hammer is
also effective in driving rock away from
the form and producing a smooth face.
When concrete is placed in tall forms,
there will be a tendency toward bleeding
appearance of water on top of the con-
crete. When this happens, make succeeding
batches stiffer and place concrete more
slowly.
Pouring Technique. In pouring a wall,
do it all in one operation. If you don't, the
finished wall will have seams and they
may leak. Fresh concrete won't bond to
hard concrete without special attention.
SLOT OR KEY helps provide solid joining between
footing and wall which are poured separately. To
make key, 2x4 is pressed into fresh concrete, re-
moved when concrete has attained its initial set
993
CONCRETE
GABDEN RAKE held Torticallr makes good tool
for tompin? concrete, eliminating air pockets. It
also helps in brincring finer material to surface.
WHEN CONCRETE has been poured, it U first
roughly leveled off (screeded) with a straightedge
that is drawn back and forth across the concrete.
SCREEDING causes concrete to "bleed." After
screeding, water may stand on surface. Wait until
water disappears before trying final finishing.
IrfilMril^il
This is what to do when a pour must be
interrupted: Before the concrete that's in
place hardens, rough it up with a pick to
expose its coarse aggregate. Next day give
this rough surface a coat of grout, or
cement paste with the consistency of pan-
cake batter, before resuming pouring.
Pour immediately.
Saturate hardened concrete before plac-
ing new concrete on it. If the hardened
concrete has dried out, it may take several
days to resaturate it adequately. There
should be no standing water on the old
concrete when the new is placed. Certain
chemical additives, like Antihydro or
Weldcrete, help bond new concrete to old.
Where two separate pourings are to be
made, the first for a footing or slab, and the
next for a wall, make a key or rebate in
the slab or footing with a 2x4. When the
concrete has hardened just enough to hold
its shape, remove the 2x4. The slot thus
made will help tie the two pours together.
In pouring concrete for walls, place the
first batches at the ends of a section and
then move toward the center. Follow this
order as the concrete is buUt up layer by
layer. In a large open area, first place con-
crete around the perimeter, then move in
toward the center. Start at the far end
of the area to be covered and always dump
concrete against concrete just placed.
Don't dump it so the flow is ahead of con-
crete just placed.
Special mechanical vibrators are used by
professional operators in consolidating
concrete in forms. Vibration permits use
of stiffer, harsher mixes. The greater stiff-
ness means less water and stronger con-
crete. Increased harshness means a
lowered cement content and greater
economy. With vibration it's easier to
avoid segregation and bleeding, both of
which are characteristic of mixes that are
too fluid. Remember this important factor.
Screeding is the name given to the oper-
ation of leveling off a concrete pour at its
desired height or bringing its surface to a
desired contour. Most commonly a 2x4 or
2x6, its lower edge straight or curved, is
moved forward across the concrete with a
sawing motion. This will level off high
places and tend to fill in low places. Addi-
tional concrete is shoveled into obviovisly
low spots as screeding proceeds.
If you want a smooth finish on a floor
slab, after screeding is complete tamp the
surface with a rake. This will help push
coarse pebbles down and bring fine ma-
terial to the surface, but don't overdo it.
A wood, cork or other float is also useful
in bringing mortar to the surface and
for further leveling of high spots and filling
in low, but exercise care not to overwork
the concrete while it is stUl plastic.
Troweling. Don't attempt troweling or
final finishing of concrete before the pour
has begun to stiffen. Wait until all surface
water has disappeared and the concrete
has lost its sheen. In very hot dry weather,
concrete may be ready for troweling in
twenty minutes, even less, but more gen-
erally this time will be an hour or more.
In cold weather, it may be eight or ten
hours. When you can pass a trowel in an
arc over the surface without its digging in
or causing the concrete to bleed, it's safe to
trowel. Troweling too soon, or overtrowel-
ing, brings too much fine material to the
surface and results in dusting and crazing.
By delaying troweling, materials remain
where they are placed, with hard-wearing
coarse particles at or near the sxirface.
If surface water is slow in disappearing,
be patient. Under no circumstance spread
dry cement powder or a mixture of cement
and sand on the concrete to take up the
water. It will result in a finished svu-face
Hi]:m:<<Ta
WOOD TROWEL or float produces gritty, nonsldd
aurface. For slicker finish, follow floating with steel
troweling. Plonk helps to get out over a wide slob.
SLAB silif enough ior troweling is not quite stiff
enough to support man's weight unless he uses
platform or two. Always do minimnm of troweling.
that dusts and crazes, and won't take wear.
A wood float will produce a gritty non-
skid surface, generally best for sidewalks
and driveways. For a smooth, dense sur-
face, best for dancing, shuffleboard, and
the application of thin gauge flooring ma-
terials, follow floating with steel troweling.
Do it only when the concrete has become so
hard no mortar sticks to the trowel edge
as it is passed over the surface. Hold the
trowel in a slightly tilted position; not face-
flat.
For a broomed texture, desirable on
steeply sloping walks, driveways and
ramps, use a fiber pushbroom after float-
ing has been completed. Run the texture
counter to the direction of traffic.
Curing concrete consists principally of
keeping it from drying out too quickly.
Concrete damp-cured for 7 days is ap-
proximately
50% stronger. The first two
or three days are critical. The first week is
important. Concrete does not approach its
maximum strength for about four weeks.
and only as long as it is moist can its har-
dening continue.
To maintain moistness, spray concrete
with water at least twice a day for a week
to 10 days. Spray wood forms to keep them
from drying out. Don't allow concrete to
dry out between sprinklings. It may result
in crazing or cracking. Shade concrete as
soon as possible after finishing. Protect it
from the sun and from hot, drying winds.
Covering the concrete while it is curing
delays evaporation and preserves moist-
ness. Use canvas, boards, burlap or paper
sacking, straw, nonstaining watertight
paper, or moi^t sand. Use bridging boards
to keep covers from coming in direct con-
tact with the concrete if this would mar it.
An inch of sand will protect new concrete
from being pitted by rain. On sidewalks
and floors, a small dam of sand or earth
around the perimeter may make it possible
to keep the surface flooded. Such "pond-
ing" is superior to sprinkling.
Special curing compounds are available.
996
CONCRETE
f'^'^
*:b-,.:ih;^-#r>-
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V
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?^s%--y..asi!L-.:j-.a;i'->s;g^-'^^'^.|g>'y::i;
liMilii
PROFESSIONALS
sometimes use a troweling machine (as shown in photograph abore) especiaUy for large
areas or for concrete too stiff to handle otherwise. Machine doesn't completely eliminate hand finishing.
997
Applied right after finishing, they form a
protective coating that keeps moisture in.
Ordinary liquid floor wax gives good re-
sults. Make your own compound by dis-
solving 5 pounds of paraffin in IV^ gallons
of heated light oil or kerosene.
Don't walk unnecessarily on new con-
crete for 2 to 3 days. Keep heavy loads off
it for 2 weeks.
Removing Forms. Leave forms in place
at least until the concrete has enough
strength to support its own weight plus
any load it must bear. In warm weather
this may be 1 or 2 days. In cold weather
it will probably be 4 to 7 days. Don't re-
move floor and roof forms sooner than 7
days in warm weather, 14 in cold.
In almost every case it's better to exceed
these minimum times. Forms protect con-
crete against early drying, and so are an
aid in moist curing. Further, the longer
forms are left on, the more likely the con-
crete is to shrink away from them, making
removal easier. Never remove forms in
less than 4 days unless other means of
protecting the concrete from losing its
moisture are employed.
Though you can use a crowbar or wreck-
ing bar in removing forms, special strip-
ping bars designed for the purpose are
available. Never place metal tools against
the concrete in prying forms loose. You'll
damage it. Use a wooden wedge if it's nec-
essary to wedge between the concrete and
the form.
When forms are removed from walls, a
final touchup will eliminate joint marks,
honeycombs, and other minor imperfec-
tions. Woi'k is best done if forms are
removed before the concrete has set rock-
hard. Rub away form marks with a hard-
burned brick, using sand and water as an
abrasive. If concrete is hard, use a car-
borundum block. Point up holes with a
1:2 mortar mix.
Underwater Concreting. You can use
concrete successfully in building boat piers
and underwater retaining walls. The
water should be quiet. Make the concrete
mix richno less than 7 sacks per yard of
concrete. Coarse aggregate should not
jTieasure over 1^ inches. Fine aggregate
should be 50% of the aggregate total.
An easy way of constructing a pier is to
build a box form. Sink the form by filling
it with water at the location the pier is
wanted. Place the concrete slowly. Don't
tamp it.
With care, in quiet water, you can mor-
tar together rocks or other masonry. Both
mortar and concrete actually set better and
cure better under water.
Cold Weather Precautions. Concrete
can successfully be placed in cold weather
if care is taken to protect it from freezing
and to allow for proper curing. Care is
especially needed in doing floors and side-
walks where a large area is exposed to the
weather.
Concrete hardens very slowly at 50 de-
grees, and hardly at all around freezing.
If it freezes before it has hardened, it will
be damaged. However, it may be frozen
once and still be satisfactory.
If freezing temperatures occur only at
night, protect concrete from freezing after
it has been placed. If temperature is freez-
ing while concrete is placed, it is also
necessary to heat water and aggregates.
The temperature of concrete when placed
should not be less than 50 (preferably 60)
degrees nor more than 80. If necessary,
heat both water and aggregate to get this
temperature.
Don't use mixing water heated above 150
degrees. It may cause flash setting. How-
ever, you can pour boiling water over
aggregate without danger of flash setting,
for the aggregate will cool off the water to
below 150 degrees before cement is added.
998
CONCRETE
WHEN CONCRETE is to be
topped by flagstone, brick,
or a wearing course oi con-
crete, score marks cut in
surface help produce bond
between base and topping.
FINISHED CONCRETE u
covered with paper to help
in moist-curing, salt hay to
protect it from freezing, and
weights to keep paper and
straw from blowing away.
POLYETHYLENE film has
many uses as a vapor bar-
rier and waterproofing ma-
terial in concrete work.
Here it's used to retard
evaporation, insure curing.
Warm concrete will not bond to pre-
viously placed cold, hardened concrete.
For bonding, new and old concrete should
be at approximately the same tempera-
tures.
Don't place concrete on frozen ground.
If possible, make excavations before freez-
ing weather and protect the area with
straw to keep it from freezing. If the
ground is frozen, thaw it out before placing
concrete.
After placing the concrete, maintain its
temperature at 70 for 3 days, or at 50 for
at least 5 days. If high early strength ce-
ment is used, richer mixes, or calcium
chloride is added, this time may be re-
duced to 2 days and 3 days respectively.
Concrete must be kept moist during this
time. In weather when the temperature

Visking
averages above 40 to 45 degrees, with a
brief nighttime low just a little under 40,
a tarp placed over fresh concrete is all
that is required to keep it at a satisfactory
temperature for curing. Cover floors and
walks with paper and hay or straw to a
depth of 10 to 12 inches. Salt hay is espe-
cially effective in warding off frost.
Hot Weather Precautions. Concrete
placed in extremely hot weather must be
protfected from rapid drying and flash set-
ting. Keep aggregates cool by spraying
with water. Saturate subgrades some time
before placing concrete and spray again
just before placing. When possible, keep
wood forms soaked.
Avoid placing concrete during the hottest
part of the day. Shade the fresh concrete
when you do pour.

999
CONCRETE
Mm0^^^^^^'
CONCRETE
REINFORCING
CONCRETE
Steel offers the tensile strength that concrete lacks
REINFORCING
adds the strength of
steel to concrete. Though concrete is
a tough, durable material, it isn't flexible
EUid it won't stretch. If unsupported, only
a small load can make it tear or break
apart.
Steel has the tensile strength that con-
crete lacks. Embedded in concrete, it can
keep the concrete from pulling apart even
under tremendous loads. Add that to con-
crete's ability to take a straight-down load
of 2,000 pounds per square inch without
breaking or crushing, and you have a ma-
terial that can take it from any direction.
Adding the sinew and muscle of steel to
concrete adds little to its overall cost, but
offers big advantages. For example, tem-
perature and moisture will cause a slab to
expand. As it expands, its edges push out.
What happens when an unreinforced slab
contracts? The weight of the slab and its
drag on the ground usually means the slab
will crack as it tries unsuccessfxilly to pull
back together. Reinforcement counters
this tendency to break or pull apart.
Two types of reinforcing materials are in
widespread use: rods and welded wire
fabric.
Rods. Rods may be plain (smooth) or
deformed (with ribs, lugs, or other pro-
jections). The strength that smooth rods
give to concrete depends upon the bond or
adhesion between them and the concrete.
Deformed rods on the other hand make
STEEL reiniorcing rods come in sizes ranging from
Va inch to 1% inches, and in plain (smooth) and
deformed (with ribs, lugs, or other projections).
YOU CAN hare rods cut to required lengths where
you buy them. Rods may also be cut with an
ordinary hacksaw, or with hammer and chiseL
both an adhesive bond and, because of
their projections, a mechanical bond. This
is highly desirable for it means a deformed
rod will bond to concrete even though con-
ditions interfere with adhesive bonding.
Plain flat rods have poor adhesive quality
and are unsatisfactory.
Reinforcing steel should be free of rust.
RODS or* easUy bnt by hand into U or L Bhopea.
Binding smaller diameter rods oHen tares cutting.
Hook the end of a rod bv using pipe as lerer.
Construction of porch floor and steps
WELOEO WIRE FABRIC
REINFORCEMENT 6X6-6/6 REINFORCEMENT 6X6
MASONRY CHEEK
WALL
-HOUSE WALL
mc
I
i__i_T
;
HOUSE , J__
WALL CHEEK WALL |
LfOOTING
FOOTING
J
RODS Of positioned before concrete is poured.
In oTorage slab, reinforcement is 2 inches from
bottom. In suspended slab, it is 1 to IVi inches.
RODS must be wired together whereTer they cross,
whether In a slob, or in a walL Note roclu used to
support rods at proper position in suspended slob.
3
scale, dirt, oil and grease. All these seri-
ously impair their adhesive bonding. From
the foregoing it should be clear why old
rusty scrap iron, or even most clean,
smooth iron of nondescript shape, makes
unsatisfactory reinforcing material.
The most popular sizes of rods for aver-
age construction are % to 1% inch diame-
CONCRETE
ter in plain or deformed. ^ inch in plain
only. Cost of V2-inch rod is about 13 cents
per running foot. Rod suppliers have
special heavy-duty cutters for cutting rods
to the lengths you want. Some may charge
10 cents per cut. Rods may also be cut
with hacksaw, oxyacetylene torch, or ham-
mer and chisel. Smaller diameter rods are
Construction oi porch and terrace on clear span Construction oi porch or terrace on earth fill
STEEL SHOULD BE
PLACED I 1/2 FROM
BOTTOM OF CONCRETE
STYLE 6X6-66
WELDED WIRE
CURB
(
FABRIC
STYLE 6X6-6/6
WELDED WIRE FABRIC
OR
3/8 RODS ON
12"
CENTERS
BOTH WAYS
FOUNDATION
STYLE 6X6-66
WELDED WIRE FABRIC
FOR MORTAR JOINT
REINFORCEMENT
IN EVERY THIRD COURSE
RECOMMENDED WELDED WIRE FABRIC REINFORCEMENT
FOR TYPICAL HOME AND FARM PROJECTS
Project Style Comment
rfii;M:l^ii
V
WELDED wire iabric comes in rolls 5 or 6 ieet wide,
125, 150, 200, and 300 feet long. Most dealers will
also sell fractional rolls, so you'll hare no waste.
WIRE FABRIC Is easily bent by hand to fit ohnost
any required shape. It is cut as shown. The
smaller the gauge number, the hearier the wire.
IN SIDEWALKS, terraces and driveways, reinforce-
ment minimixes cracks. Reinforcement should run
continuously, except through contraction joints.
IN SLAB construction, wire fabric is placed OTer
apor barrier. Where wire sections join they should
be lapped one square, or about six inches
1004
CONCRETE
readily bent, and often bending can save
cutting.
Welded Wire Fabric. Wire fabric con-
sists of a series of wires welded to other
wires crossing at right angles. It has many
desirable qualities as a reinforcing ma-
terial. It can be used effectively in all
types of construction. It's easy to form in
various shapes, to cut, and to handle.
There is never any guesswork about
spacing; no chance that reinforcing will be
omitted or displaced.
Its strength is attested by these figures:
The wire will carry a load of 70,000 P.S.I,
(pounds per square inch) before breaking
and won't stretch permanently up to a load
of 56,000 P.S.I.
Fabric anchors well in concrete because
the numerous wires provide a large bond-
ing area, and the rigidly connected cross
wires make for a positive mechanical an-
chorage. Wire fabric will control and
minimize cracks caused by heavy loads,
shrinking, heaving, temperature and mois-
ture stresses, in much the same manner as
does rod reinforcement. It costs about 3
cents per square foot, is readily cut with
ordinary wire cutters, or you can use a
hacksaw or plane.
Wire fabric is generally available in rolls
5 or 6 feet wide, 125, 150, 200 and 300 feet
long. Most dealers will sell fractional
rolls.
The size and style of the fabric is indi-
cated by two peiirs of numbers, for ex-
ample, 6x6-10/10 (pronounced six, six, ten,
ten). The first pair of numbers refers to
the spacing of the wires6 inches apart
each way. The second pair refers to the
gauge of longitudinal and transverse wires
respectively; in this case both are 10 gauge.
The smaller the gauge number, the heavier
the wire.
The same size and style of fabric might
also be written 66-1010.
Using Reinforcement. Both fabric and
rods may be placed in various ways. In
a slab, a popular method is to place con-
crete to half the thickness of the slab and
level it off. The reinforcement is then po-
sitioned and the second layer of concrete
is immediately placed to the full thickness.
If rods are used, they must be wired to-
gether wherever they cross.
Another method is to support the rein-
forcement on pieces of brick, or on small
piles of concrete spotted every few feet,
and place the complete slab thickness in
one operation, working the concrete well
under and around all reinforcing mem-
bers. Some prefer to put reinforcing
fabric on the subgrade, pour the full slab
on top of it, and then lift the fabric up to
its proper position in the slab using the
tinesV)f a rake.
Either rods or fabric may be run con-
tinuously from slabs up into walls. Rods
are iNfeadily beht into a U or an L. You
can hook the end of a rod by slipping a
pip^ over one end and using the rod as a
levfer.
In small pools, bend rods into U shapes
so the reinforcement of the bottom and
opposing walls is continuous. If your rods
aren't long enough for this, bend your ver-
tical rods so they lap 18 to 30 inches over
the bottom ones. Keep rods 2 inches off
the bottom.
Place horizontal rods around the pool's
outside walls and wire to the vertical rods.
If you have to splice or hook short rods
together, do it in the middle of walls, never
at comers. Lap %-inch rods 10 inches,
%-inch rods 15 inches, %-inch rods 20
inches, and %-inch rods 30 inches. A little
extra reinforcing does no harm.
Lap wire fabric at least one space (about
6 inches) at sides and ends. Fabric should
clear the sides and ends of any slab by IV2
to 3 inches. In driveways, where concrete
is usually poured in sections 25 to 35 feet
long with a contraction joint separating
sections, stop the fabric 3 inches short of
the joints.
In some cases it may be desirable to
double the fabric. For example, a 6x6-
10/10 mesh is generally satisfactory for
sidewalks. However, where vehicles cross
the sidewalk, both a thicker slab and a
doubled (or 6x6-6/6) fabric is the onl^
safe practice.
Position of reinforcement, whether fabric
or rod, should always be weU within the
concrete. The concrete, sealing out air
and moisture, wiU then protect it from pos-
sible rust and deterioration. A minimum
cover of % inch is advisable in all cases.
In average use, placement of reinforcement
should be 2 inches from the bottom of a
slab.
Where a concrete slab is suspended, as
between walls in porch construction, steel
should be placed 1 to 1% inches from the
bottom of the concrete. Where a slab is
cantUevered, reinforcement in the over-
hanging section should be 1 to 1% inches
from the top of the concrete.
Most local codes will detail requirements
both as to reinforcement and its place-
ment.

1005
CONCRETE
-h by rubbing the mortar with piece of
Constructing
\^fit
Concrete
Block
If you're interested in attractive appearance and low material cost, plus
durability and economical
maintenance, concrete block may be a best bet.
THE
GREAT usefulness and ever-
growing demand for concrete masonry
unitsblocks, building and roof tile, and
bricks of various sizes, finishes and colors
is leading to a newer type of construction
in many localities. Lightweight blocks are
used, for example, to provide interesting
designs in interior walls, thus eliminating
the use of plaster. Or the blocks are ar-
ranged by various sizes to form a variety
of patterns in walls and columns or other
areas.
The standard 8x8x16 and 4x8x16 blocks
and their variations still dominate the
construction field, but you will find many
new shapes and sizes. Some blocks are in
color or have polished or cut faces to re-
semble stone. Large and small sizes and
shapes can be used to vary the pattern in
walls. Lightweight blocks add to the in-
sulating value of walls as well as to their
decoi-ative quality. Local supply houses do
not always carry all sizes and colors and
finishes, so you may have to shop around.
Where standard sized blocks are to be
used in a structure, plan the work so that
the dimensions of window and door open-
ings fall in full and half sizes in order to
avoid loss of time due to cutting and fatting
the blocks to odd sizes.
Lintels and jamb blocks for doors and
windows can be obtained ready-made, or
1006
CONCRETE
long blocks for lintels can be cast in place
by using a series of shell blocks. These
shell blocks are supi)orted iindemeath,
then filled with reinforced concrete, thus
eliminating the need to build a complete
form for wide spans.
Before beginning any masonry job, it is
necessary to make certain that the founda-
tion or footing will be strong enough to
support the load of the structure. This
foundation or footing should be straight
and level. If it is not, then enough mortar
should be used in laying the first course
so that the top of the first course of blocks
will be level. Unless the foundation has
been built with forms, it may be necessary
to square the comers with chalk lines be-
fore starting to buUd.
The same 2x4 comer guide U5ed for brick
work will be useful for concrete block
work. (See chapter "How to Lay Brick.")
Such a guide must be carefully and
strongly braced so that it will not move
out of place and will permit the masonry
leads to be built against it. As in brick-
laying, comers or leads are built first, three
or four courses being sufficient with larger
blocks. When all of the comers have been
built up, stretcher courses are laid between
them.
The first course of a concrete block struc-
ture is always laid in a full bed of mortar.
A chalk line stretched between the comers
will be a guide to the height and straight-
ness of succeeding covu-ses. Where blocks
are too high, they are tapped into place
with the handle of the trowel.
After the first course, the mortar is
placed only on the side of the blocks. This
is called face-shell bedding of mortar. The
end of each block also is buttered with
mortar before the block is placed. Each
block should fit snugly against the one pre-
ceding it in the course, the block should
be level and plumb, and the excess mortar
should be scraped off the joints. Trying to
adjust the block after it is set will break
the mortar bond and may result in leakage
Comers are built up first, severed courses high;
first you determine number of blocks in a course.
Galvanized hardware cloth strips laid in every
other course help bond intersecting masonry walls.
r
< > -i
Running bond pattern
usfl 8x1 6-inch block;
ofl loints or* to<ried.
j
Vertically stacked 8-
inch high units make
orderly looking woD.
Scored block is made
with masonry saw or
bought alreodyscored.
ded mortar
casual appearance, is
(or dry cUmotes only.
Basket weore pattern
is interesting design
using standard units.
Basket weore pattern
here is rariotion on
one shown at the left.
Split block unit has
many decoratiTe uses,
comes solid and cored.
-H CombinatioB pat-
tern is made with
TariouB sise units.
SpQt block in random
ashlar pattern uses
8-
ond 4-inch unit abore.
|1
Polished. Tortlcally
"
slacked 2x1 6-inch face
sixe units used here.
Slump block will cre-
ate irregular surface
ior decoratlye uses.
Ofliied horisonlal am
flush-rubbed Torticol
iolnts gire 'length."
Quontities of Concrete
Block and Mortar
H Wall
^M tliicknsi
8
12
For 100 s<|.ft.
off wall
Number
of block*
112.5
112.5
Mortar**
cu.ft.
2.6
2.6
For 100
concrete block
Mortar**
co.ft.
Recommended Mortar Mixes
freportlont by VelwiiM
2.3
2.3
*BaMd en blocK having on eapoted foce of
7H
x
'^H
<*'
ond loid up with H-in- moftor joint*.
**Wilh foe* shell mortar beddlnfl 10 per cent waitogr
itKtuded.
Type of service
Precast lintels, properly reinforced for
weiqht they will coory, are timesorers.
Concrete window sills con be cast in place on the iob or can
be bought ready-made: precast units are increasinqly poptilar.
Carity wall consists of inner and outer
walls separcrted by air space between.
Rods at such joints also may be wrapped
with bahng wire.
Sills and Lintels. Concrete sills and lin-
tels can be cast on the job or obtained
ready-made. Ready-made lintels are rein-
forced to carry the weight of WeJls, floors
or roofs over the opening span. Two
%-inch rods are used for lintels carrying
only wall loads over openings less than
8 feet wide. When lintels carry heavier
loads, added reinforcement is required.
Two types of sills are commonly used
for wood window frames or metal case-
ments and frames. That for the metal win-
dows has a raised shoulder to support the
window frame. Both types project over the
face of the wall about an inch and have a
groove or drip on the underside of the
overhcing so that water running off the sill
will not run down the face of the wall to
stain it or soak it with moisture. Flush
sills and window and door frames are not
satisfactory.
The Plate. The plate of a building is the
wooden 2x6 or 2x8 which is bolted down
to the top of the wall, then leveled with
pieces of stone or slate or other material
to provide the base upon which the roof
can be constructed. Bolts holding the plate
to the masonry should be long enough to
run into the second course of blocks, and
should be set in mortar or concrete by put-
ting a piece of metal lath in the core of
the block to prevent the concrete or mortar
from dropping through. In those portions
of the country where heavy winds occur
frequently, it may be better if these bolts
extend down into the third course of blocks,
for extra strength.
Lightweight Blocks. Cinder and other
1010
CONCRETE
Openings for windows and do<s
ore built first, then Iroones installed.
Openings Completed Frames Instauleo
; Concrete masonry jamb unit
..^^V>^c ^,1
II
Ordinary soil Very wet soil
Recommended construction for dry basements.
lightweight blocks are commonly used in
combination with brick to form 8- or
12-inch walls, or two rows of lightweight
block may be laid with an air space be-
tween them.
Such lightweight block walls are tied to-
gether with No. 6 gauge metal ties, coated
with non-coiToding metal or other protec-
tion. An air space of 2% inches left between
two walls of lightweight block not only
adds to the insulating value but tends to
prevent outside leaks from penetrating the
inner walls.
When loose fill insulation is used inside
the face of a block wall or other solid ma-
sonry wall, the wall should be painted with
a vapor-sealing material in order to keep
the insulation from becoming moisture-
laden. Two or three coats of aluminum
paint will seal the waU surface, or, if fur-
ring strips are used, asphalt paper is used
beneath them. Coating the outside walls
with Portland cement paint helps to make
them weathertight.
The moistxire or vapor being dealt with
in this case is the result of condensation
inside the wall, due to the cold air outside
or inside meeting the warmer air. This
condensation of vapor will moisten the
insulation to the point where it becomes
heavy, tends to sag, and thus greatly les-
sens its insulating value.
Watertight Basements. As in any other
type of construction, where masonry is
used below ground level, a few precautions
may eliminate much annoyance and costly
reconstruction later on. Footings should al-
ways be of poured concrete. The rule is
that they should be the thickness of the
wall they are to support, and twice as wide.
1011
CONCRETE
4. Make height of wall to fit
concrete masonry unit. 1 block
and 1 horizontal joint ec^ual
6".
Place mortar
full width on
footing.
2. Use corner block with
one flat end at corners.
5. Mortar placed on face
shells only for succeeding
courses.
5. Build corners up using
mason's level to keep plumb
and straight.
,IL
i- ^ l"x?" \
-stretch line between
, corners to lay block, to.
n
I- t
.
-l--:
1-V
r
,
-I- . I
IL
j~Mnmimm::\
':-^\-\X:\::\'J
-A I'xZ'with saw marks 8"apart helps to
space courses at corners.
Mortar joints are Vg" thick.
Block should be dry when laid in wall.
START LAYING BLOCK AT CORNERS BUILD WALL BETWEEN CORNERS
I. Mortar is placed on
board by the helper.
2. Pointed trowel is used
to handle mortar.
3. Stand block on end
to place mortar for
vertical joint.
Line to lay
block to-
I. Block is picked up
as shown and shoved
firmly against blocK
previously placed.
2. Line to lay
block to.
Bed joint
APPLY MORTAR IN A DOUBLE ROW SET BLOCK FIRMLY IN PLACE
I. Block IS leveled
by tapping with
trowel.
2 Edge of block
just Touches line.
3. Eacc;-'-
mortar
is scraped off.

LEVEL BLOCK AND SCRAPE OFF


EXCESS MORTAR
Rounded "o" or 'v"
shaped tool is run
along joints to
compact mortar on
face of wall exposed
to weather or soil.
^Tooled joints.
TOOL THE JOINTS TO COMPRESS
MORTAR
Inside face of wall
BUILD PARTITION WALLS INTO
1012
OUTSIDE WALLS
USE RECESSED JAMB BLOCK AT SIDES
OF DOOR AND WINDOW OPENINGS
Metked of baildiB^ doer fromes
/
rxZ"SToP
CONCRETE
LATC
)"G'" CLEATS
hP^''"*4" Tt'G. ;6''T-HlN<aC-
Concrete
masonry units
10-in. cavity wall.
In all soils, but especially in tight or
water-logged soil, drains of 4-inch drain
tile should be laid around the outside of
a wall and run to a suitable outlet. These
drains are then covered with gravel before
the soil is shoveled or bulldozed back.
All masonry walls below ground level
shovild be plastered with two %-inch
coats of cement mortar. After these have
set, the wall is painted with hot asphalt
or bitxuninous paint, using a heavy brush
and making certain that the paint covers
the wall thoroughly. These precautions
will not prevent a wall inside a basement
from sweating during damp weather, but
if carefully done, they should prevent leak-
age through the waU.
Still another precaution is used when
laying the floor. A wedge-shaped board
which has been well oiled is placed be-
tween the wall and the floor concrete.
When the concrete has set and dried, this
wedge is removed and the space filled with
hot tar or asphalt to prevent ground water
seepage up through the joint between the
floor slab and the wall.
Attaciiinq rofter plates
Long beams, lintels, can be biUlt by using beam
blocks on below instead of fonu for the concrete.
Solid blodcs or blocks filled with concrete are
used for top course of a floor-supporting waU.
Plastic, workable m<^ar mixthoroughly mixed
to reduce amount ol water neededis essential.
jt^,.,5\>*^
COUCHES
TILE
TABLE-STUDIO
COUCH
The simple lines
of
this couch
make it an attractive, functioned
unit, suitable
foremymodernhome.
By F. Honig
THE
use of flush doors for ail types
of fiimiture is rapidly attaining great
popularity among do-it-yourself home
craftsmen. These doors are now avail-
able in various lengths and thicknesses
and can easily be incorporated into table
tops or desks, and with proper place-
ment of legs, will not warp when used
as a couch base. They have a mahogany
0^-i
Ng^wiHW'
-i6&'
or birch veneer, with either Masonite,
wc d or paper lattice work between the
two plywood panels for added strength.
Sizes available range from 20x48 in. to
36x72 in.; they can be obtained from
most lumber yards, or from The Work-
bench, 46 Greenwich Ave., New York
11, N. Y., where the brass-tipped legs
and other accessories may also be pur-
chased.
The design and dimensions shown
on the drawing are for gixidance only

they can be varied to suit your indi-


vidual taste and space requirements. If
the piece is used as a studio couch, for
sleeping purposes, a 36-inch width is
recommended. If not used for sleeping,
a 30-inch width should be more com-
fortable. The length may also be varied,
and in some cases a tile table at both
ends might be very decorative.
Since the length of our finished couch
is eight feet, two doors will have to be
butt-joined together. For this purpose
one end of each door is sawed off, leaving
you with two 4-foot panels. A tongue,
One end of each flush door is sawed off
to provide two equal four-foot lengths.
The tongue is covered with glue and in-
serted into the open end of the first door.
*jiss
Second panel is sUpped over protruding
half of the tongue, joining the two doors.
^
Six bras&-t4>pe<i lags oiee rw]niirftfi. Leg
plates ore screwed to underside oi base.
Desired pattern ol mosaic tiles should be
laid out before adhering them to table top.
Ceramic tile adhesive is spread on with
the help of a special saw-toothed troweL
Prearranged tiles are pressed firmly into
cement Allow two or three days for drying.
After cement dries and surface is wiped off.
grout is spread over tiles into all crevices.
made up of four 1%-in. square hard-
wood strips, glued and nailed together, is
covered with Weldwood glue and in-
serted into both open ends of the door.
When dry, this will make a strong and
permanent joint for the two doors. The
two center leg plates located directly
under the butt joint will also add to its
strength.
After all leg plates are installed the
2-in. wide edge stripping can be at-
tached. This may be any attractive
hardwood, such as oak, maple or walnut,
2x% in., or thicker. When installing the
strips care should be taken to raise them
y\ inch above the top of the door; this
BBWH
BACK CUSHIONS ARE FABRIC
OVER FOAM RUBBER
FOAM RUBBER SEAT CUSHION
30--36" X 72"
WIRE BRADS
EDGE STRIPPING
x2"X8'-3/4"
OAK OR BIRCH
BUTT PANELS AS SHOWN
INSERTING 1-1/8"
SO.
STRIPS GLUED TOGETHER
TO ACT AS TONGUE.
LEG LOCATED DIRECTLY
UNDER BUTT JOINT
COUCH PANELS MADE OF TWO
30"-36" X 72" FLUSH DOORS
CUT DOWN TO 4' LENGTHS
GLUE ALL JOINTS
will act later as a retaining lip for the
tiles. Glue and wire brads will hold the
edge strips firmly in place. After nail
heads are set, the wood should be filled
and stained to a suitable shade.
Installation of the tile comes next.
Ceramic tile is available in a great va-
riety of sizes, colors and patterns, and
should be chosen to fit into the color
scheme of the couch fabric and the rest
of the room. It is advisable to work out
the desired tile pattern on a sheet of
paper or on the floor before actually ad-
hering the tiles to the couch end. This
will save time and aggravation later on.
To achieve interesting curved effects
tiles may be broken to any desired shape
with the help of pincers or a sharp chisel.
For the beginner, however, straight
lines of tiles composed in a color pattern
will prove far simpler. After you have
arranged your pattern, in close prox-
imity to the couch to save a lot of run-
ning back and forth, the tile cement is
apphed to the surface to be inlaid.
Any recognized tile adhesive, such as
Miracle, Sure Bond or 3M11 may be
used, and spread onto the couch top
to a thickness of not more than yij-in.,
with a special saw-toothed steel trowel.
The average tile adhesive takes about
four hours to dry, so don't cover a bigger
area than you think you can lay in that
time. After all tiles are set they should
be let dry until they cannot be moved
(one to three days)
.
When dry, clean off excess cement
with thinner or turpentine and wipe
clean. Mix commercial grout with water
and pour it onto the tiles and spread with
your fingers to fill all crevices between
the tiles. Excessive grout is now re-
moved with a damp sponge, progressing
to a damp cloth, until all excess is re-
moved. Allow grout two days to dry.
The resulting tile surface will be
waterproof, fireproof, durable, easily
cleaned, stain-proof and sanitary. The
decorative results achieved with mosaic
cannot he equaled.
For greater durability, the extra firm,
4V^-in. thick foam ruber seat cushion
should be encased in mattress ticking
before covering it with the fabric of
your choice. The wedge-shaped back
cushions are also foam rubber, rein-
forced with horsehair.
No finish need be apphed to the part of
the couch covered by the foam rubber
cushion. The edge strips and legs get
three coats of Satinlac, sanding between
coats, and a good furniture wax.

1017
Double-Duty Couch.
Add bolsters and a mattress to this frame and you have
a couch that will double as a bed when the need arises
'HE PICTURES on these pages show
M. you how to make an attractive couch
that can double as a bed should the occa-
sion arise. It is simply made from a
standard twin-bed mattress and a home-
made wood frame. The back is made of
foam rubber bolsters which slant for com-
fortable seating. You can have the slip
covers made by a professional seamstress
or make them yourself. Use zippers on the
slip covers so they can be changed easily.
Before attempting to make this couch,
study the pictures on the following pages.
Familiarize yourself with the dimensions
involved and the construction generally.
MATERIALS NEEDED
Two pieces of 2x6 Douglas fir, 75
inches long
Two pieces of 2x6 Douglas fir, 36' 2
inches long
Two pieces of 2x4, 6 inches long
One piece of pipe (^4 inch outside
measure), 28 inches long
Twenty-four yards of webbing
Ore mattress
Two bolsters
Material to cover mattress and
bolsters
Tacks.- glue, dowels
Bolster tilts back ior comlortaDl* scrting, and
th striped cushions add a bright touch of color.
COUCHES
Mode* the frame for bos* of 2x6-in. B and batter Frome is 36V2x75 in. Square U used to align fhe
grode Douglas fir. The comers ore mitered
45".
holes for dowels thot hold entire base together.
Drill %-in. holes at positions marked. In end On side pieces, holes are drilled ocrocs the grain,
piece, drill holes with the grain at
90
angle. This is done at
90
angle as shown in this photo.
After drilling holes, glue dowels into the side
pieces of the bed frame as illustrated above.
The next step is to drill ^4
-in. holes in side
rails. Position these close to bottom and center.
COUCHES
K^
Pic of ^-indi conduit U usod to brae* couctu Push pip* into position. Apply glue to tho Joints
Bond it slightly in middl* to fit wsbbing's sag. ond tap th* mitsred onds togsthor as shown horo.
Woavo upholstorer's wobbing tightly across th* Mok* V^-in. doop, Vi-in. wldo cuts in th* four *nds
fram* and tack into position using V^-lnch tacks. of th* 26%-in. pi*c*s us*d as bos* of couch.
Th* som* sii* cut is mad* in sld*s of 6Vi-in. 2x4 and is Joinod with lx3V^-in. pi*c* of V^-in. plywood.
/
I
L*^ ar glued to couch 12 in. from odgo of bone. A ^-in. hoi* U drilled through frame into the
A unodl finishing nail gires legs added support legs. A 3-iiL dowri is glued and put in the hole.
A hack saw blade is used to cut dowel off flush. Now all that remains to be done is finish couch.
HltTH
Upper fence folds down when you work the latch,
but baby may prefer to stay in her pretty bed.
Photos by Burt Murphy
sandman
crib
You either need a crib or you don't. If you do, this one is hard to equaL
A
CRIB is an indispensable item, and
this one will cost you far less than
the cribs commercially
available. It has
been carefully designed to last for many
years without repairs. In the model, %-
inch birch plywood was used for the head-
board and footboard and bottom rails. The
higher side rails as well as all other parts
are solid birch. The crib was finished with
two coats of clear varnish. The spring
frame was made of 2x2-inch clear fir, with
plastic webbing, and the mattress is a piece
of U. S. Koylon foam core-stock,
2V^
inches thick (see page 140).
From a 4x7-foot piece of %-inch birch
plywood, cut both the headboard and foot-
board and tack them temporarily together.
Cut the top corners round on a 5-inch
radius for 90 degrees of arc, and sand them
smooth. With both pieces together, mark
the top edge for I'^-inch round decorative
balls,
3V4 and 9% inches from the center,
on each side. On these lines, drill %-inch
pilot holes about 1 inch deep.
1022
rw
V4' X I " X
27" 1-1/2'
WA. WOOD
DECORATIVE RAIL ^TURNINGS (8)
V4"X l-V4"X
91-1/2"
^TOP AND BOTTOM RAN. (2)
9/8* X 20-1/2"
V4'X I'XSCrHtROWOOO
FULL LENGTH CLEAT BACKS UP FENCES
FENCE POSTSaa _^ AND LOWER RAIL (4)
1-1/2"
X
2"
X
24"
CLEAT TO
SUPPORT SPRMG- FRMC
I -1/4"
NO. 8 SCREWS
SECURE VERTICAL CLEAT
1-1/2*
NO. 8 SCREWS INTO
FIXED FENCE
4'X2-l/2>IOULO4e
KMMO BASE EDGES
CASTERS TO SUIT (4)
*x
*
X 81-i/s' uwcR sac niMcs
3/8"
HOLES
4-1/2"
AmRT
9/8" X rx 8-V2" FENCE POSTS
MAKE UP FOLDING HALVES (20)
V4"X l-3/4*X
8-1/2*
END POSTS (4)
3/8*0OWELS ATALL JOMTS
OF POSTS AND RAILS (72)
Bore ^-inch holes 9/16 inch deep for dowels in
rail post ends. Ones shown are for fixed fence.
When assemblinq rails, use damp to pressure all
points bv moying it along; then clamp each end.
1023
3/8" X I DOWELS
SPIRALLY GROOVED
FOR GLUE SPREAD
SPRING
FRAME
2 X
2"
FRAME ALL AROUND
Mark the side edges at 4 and 10 inches
from the bottom. Take both headboards
apart and transfer the markings to the in-
side surface with lines about 3 inches long,
and also draw lines 2% inches from and
parallel to the front and back edges as
guides for %-inch solid wood cleats.
On the inside surface of both the head-
board and footboard, 2% inches from the
front and back edges, mount %-inch square
cleats 29^/^ inches long, 4 inches from the
bottom of each board. Use glue and 1%-
inch No. 12 flathead screws, about 8 inches
apart. Drill screw holes in adjacent sides
of the cleats so that the fixed side raUs can
be mounted on later. However, in the area
where the folding side rail is to be mounted,
drill the cleats only on one side (to allow
them to be mounted against the bed rail).
Round off the top end of all cleats before
mounting them.
Fasten a %x2y4-inch solid wood base-
board around the bottom of the head- and
footboard. Make miter joints and either
round off or bevel the top of the baseboard;
attach with glue and 4d finishing nails,
boring small holes first if hardwood is tised,
and sij.k the nails, putty over, and sand.
Round wooden balls are sold in diam-
eters of 1% to 1% inches; buy or make
eight of these and drill a y4-inch hole in
the centers. Cut decorative rail strips from
matching solid wood, %xlx26 inches, and
round both ends to a complete half-round
from top to bottom edge. Bore holes for
wood plugs and screws to match up with
the pilot holes in head- and footboard. For
hardwood, countersink the inner y4-inch
holes. Mount the strips and balls with
3
-inch No. 10 flathead screws; fill the holes
with long-grain plugs after the entire bed
is assembled.
To make the fixed and folding fences, cut
six strips to
%xl%x51i/^ inches. Clamp
the pieces together and drill %-inch holes
^
inch deep in the bottom edge, locating
the holes % inch from the end and 4%
inches apart.
Cut nine strips %x%x20^ inches and
eighteen strips %x%x8V^ inches, and drill
similar holes in the center of each end.
Cut seventy %-inch dowels, 1 inch long,
and glue them into the fence pole holes
only. Cut four pieces %xl%x8% inches
and two pieces 20
V^
inches long. On the
ends, bore a %-inch hole % inch from the
outside edge, and then glue a dowel into
crib hole. Assemble all three fences with
glue and use clamps to tighten. Check for
squareness and straightness. Round all in-
side post corners as well as the inside edges
of rails and end posts before gluing. Plane
and sand all surfaces flush around the top
fence edges and bore j^^-inch holes through
bottom rails of each fixed fence in the cen-
ter of every other space.
1024
After the bottom frames are mounted, attach high
back fixed rail to clecrts. snug against frame.
In OTory other space between posts of fixed raib,
drill 3/16-inch holes for securing rcdls to frame.
On the inside of the bottom rail, 1 inch
from the top edge, mount 1x1y4 -inch cleats
with glue and iy4-mch No. 12 flathead
screws. Let the cleats recess
% inch from
each end.
Assemble the bed by placing
the outside surface of the footboard down
and mounting the lower side frame rails
onto it with iy4-inch No. 12 flathead screws
through the cleats. Mount the larger fixed
fence into position with 1%-inch No. 12
flathead screws, but no glue. -Mount the
lower fixed fence. Mount the completed
assembly onto the headboard.
With the
bed right side up, insert
2
V^ -inch No. 8
roundhead
screws through the holes in
every other space, lining the fences up with
the lower side frame rails, and tighten.
Take
Vs inch off each end of the folding
fence.
Attach a %-inch piano hinge on the
bottom of the folding fence. Mount the en-
tire folding fence on top of the fixed fence,
keeping equal clearance on each end.
Mount a thumb latch on the outside of the
folding fence, on each end. Also mount
casters
3 inches from each end in the exact
center on bottoms of the head- and foot-
board. Mount a 1x1^^x24%-inch cleat in
line with the cleats in the lower side frame
rails, on the inside of the head- and foot-
board, with glue and lV4-inch No. 12 flat-
head screws.
Make a spring frame from 2x2-inch clear
fir. After notching out as shown, screw the
frame together with 2-inch No. 10 flathead
screws. Place 4-inch angle irons on the
inside of the frame for additional support.
Stretch 2-inch plastic webbing, interwoven,
onto the framespace 2 inches apart.
For additional support for the bed. notch
and mount 6-inch angle irons on the inside
of the bed just below the 1x1%-inch
cleats.

Notch out lor thumb latch in each comer of top
folding rail: bore holes for bolt in head, foot.
MATERIAL LIST
%" Weldwood birch plywood. 4x7 ft.
2 pieces I" matching solid wood, 8"xl2 ft.
8 solid wood balls, I'/j" dia.
6 dz. flathead screws, 1'/^" No. 12
2"
solid fir, 2"xl4 ft.
%"
piano hinge, 5-ft. length
1 set
(4) casters
2 thumb latches, about
3"
long
i pieces %"
dowel, each 3 ft. long
8 flathead screws,
3"
No. 8
10 roundhead screws, 2'/2" No. 8
8 flathead screws,
3"
No. 10
4 angle irons,
4"
30 yds. (approx.j plastic webbing.
2"
wide
Upholstery tacks;
Y4
lb. 4d finishing nails
Presto-Set glue; sandpaper (preferably
garnet), Nos.
'/z.
2/0, 4/0
1025
Crib With Storage
Chest
Special feature: knee-action hardware.
by Harrison
Neustadf
UUMJBLNAllUW unit is attracUve. is bxiilt
according to diagrams found on these four
pages. Study carefully, then go to work.
THIS
child's crib has a place for the
child to sleep, a storage unit under
the bed, and a side rail which lowers and
raises with just a little pressure of the
knee or hand.
The whole unit can be taken apart or
put together again by moving just four
screwsa convenience that will be ap-
preciated if you move the crib arou^^d
very often.
Before buying the necessary lumber,
first buy the bed spring and the mat-
tress; it's better to build the bed to suit
them, not the other way around.
To construct unit study the diagrams
shown here, then begin the job.

1026
HERE is just the cabinet section. It con
be used alone, as you can see, when child
has grown up, and no longer needs the crib.
J/28" VENCER COVERS TOP OF POST
FLUSH WtTH ENO RAiLS
1/8-X V4-X 2
1/2-
FLr IRON BRACKET
(2)
WENO BOTTOM ONE TO 90*ANGLE)
3/16 DEEP RECESS TO
TAKE THICKNESS OF
IRON BRACKET
MORTBEANMAL
CUT-OUTS INTO
TWO END RAILS
RECESS TO CLEAR
BRACKET
WHEN
GATEISlff>
1/2 DOWEL IN
V4"S0.8ALLUSTER
TENON ON RAIL
ENDS ENGAGES
^^sss^r ORNER POSTS
3/8"
HOLES TO SLK
FREE OF ROD
NOTCH ON 3/8"R0
LOCKS FENCE UP
SUOiNGFimNG
ON KNEE ACTION
ROD ASSEMBLY
K~-?i.
BED SPRING HOLDER
2 BENT LEFT -2 BENT RHSHT
FROM 16 GA. IRON
STEEL rod and re-
tainers ca9 placed as
shown in photo here.
KNEE-ACTION hard-
ware, which cdlowB for
easy moving of front
gate, is stock item p\ir-
chased locally, or from
Albert Constantine &
Son, 2050 Eastchester
Rd..NewYork61.N.Y.
rniB
I 3/I6' STOCK UPPER ANO LDWCR FENCE RCS
3/4"
SO BALLUSTER (20) SECURED IffTO
RAILS WfTM 1/2 X I DOWELS (40)
V4

X lO" PANELS AT CENTERS

NOTE RAISED FENCE IS SLID ONTO


RODS ONLY AFTER CHEST IS
SUSPENDED UNDERNEATH
(r CHEST IS USED)
KNEE ACTION LOCK ROD ASSEMBLY
(FROM COMMERCIAL PARTS)
3/8" PLYWOOD CUTOUTS MORTSED
INTO TOP END RAILS (SEE DIAGRAMS)
THIN \W000 VENEER COVERS
STEEL ROD RETAINER AND SCREWS
MORTISE RAILS INTO SIDES OF
CORNER POSTS (SEE DETAILS)
I yi6" SO. X 46 CORNER POSTS (4)
3/4'
STOCK END PANELS DOWELED M
3/4" X I
7/8
"X 20" RACKS 'A'
SUSPEND CHEST OFF FLOOR (2)
BENT STEEL SPRING SUPPORT
(SEE BLANK) (4)
1/2" X 1
1/2"
POST JOINERS (4)
(TENON INTO POST SIDES) 'B
DRAWERS or* built as shown in diagrams
across pags. Note ths csntsr guids tracks.
YOU'LL n*d two drawers for unit Each
drawer is divided into three compartments.
1028
3/4"
STOCK TOR SIDES AND BACK
(ITPLYWOOO, VENEER EDGE GRAIN)
BM
PHOTO above shows cabinet frame held
together with clamps while the glue dries.
HERE is body of crib assembled, and
without the drawer imit slipped in place.
1029
Curbs in Stone
and
Concrete
It's a good bet that somewhere around your home you need
a curbto protect a lawn, divert rainwater, or beautify.
-
/
?3s5^'-
Photos by David X. Manners
1030
A
CURB can prevent walk or driveway
gravel from spraying onto the lawn
and can serve as a bumper to keep cars
where they belong. It can divert water
away from a back door or a cellar window.
It is ideal for supporting raised plant beds.
You can build curbs of free-for-the-
taking native stone, or buy already
squared-off natural stone curbing at about
47 cents per foot for the l^^-inch thick to
90 cents for the 3-inch. You can build a
concrete curb for as little as 25 cents a foot,
or a granite one for as much as $2 or more
per foot. Masonry blocks are available in a
variety of styles suitable for lawn and gar-
den use, and because of their larger imit
size are often more satisfactory than brick.
The solid 4x8xl6-inch size block is an es-
specially desirable typeand usually costs
well under 25 cents .
Though it is a recommended practice, it
is not usually considered essential to carry
the base of a curb below frost line. Because
a curb presents a thin edge, frost move-
ment is likely to be diverted around it,
particularly if the curb is keyed into the
giovmd with a base that's wider (5
inches)
than its top (3
inches). It is important that
the curb rest on well-tamped, well-drained
soil. If the soil is clay, provide a tamped
cinder or gravel bed from 6 to 10 inches
deep and measuring 4 inches wider than
the width of the curb. This is important
insurance against destructive frost action.
Often a curb can be built at the same
time that paving is done. To make a low
concrete curb when a slab for terrace or
driveway is poured, either notch the end
of the straight-edged board or template
used in leveUng off the concrete to allow
for the extra height of the curb, or allow
for it with a handle nailed to the top of the
board (see drawing). Fin'sh the curb
with a trowel to make it smooth and uni-
form.
A curb can serve tbe additional useful purpose
of diTerting water that washes down a slope, to
keep it from flowing toward walk, terrace or door.
This owner-built driveway curb measures 40 feet
long and was built at a cost of ten dollors. No
car will ever encroach accidentally on the lawn.
t^^m^^^
'i^.^.^f. -^
Left, even highly irregxilar native stone, when
set in on orderly arrangement, can make an ef-
fective, attractive curb at garden border strip.
-:Sh.
Flagstones only one inch in thickness function
well as a curb for walks and raised plant beds.
Set the flogs with their long edges horizontal
To achieve closer fit of granite curb sections,
shown in photo at right, trim the sides with a
hammer and chiseL Pock all joints with mortar.
HIM!
Solid masonry units make ideal material for curb.
If the units hove hoUow cores, as shown in photo,
fill them with mortar topping to exclude water.
When building an asphalt driTe, an extra thick-
ness of mix placed and tamped along the edges will
form curb. Use template as guide for uniformity.
Place the ctirb for a concrete-pared driveway or
terrace at the some time that you place the slab.
A stiff concrete mix makes forming a curb eosy.
FORM
TEMPLATE USED IN FORMING CURB
AS INTEGRAL PART OF SLAB
Curbs of brick or stone are readily set
in mortar along the edge of any concrete
slab driveway. Use a 1:1:3 mortar mix (1
part Portland cement, 1 part lime, 3 parts
sand) for all curb construction requiring
mortar. If your needs for mortar are lim-
ited, you may want to consider using a pre-
packaged mortar mix such as is put up by
Sakrete. If you are contemplating an as-
phalt driveway, you can make a highly sat-
isfactory asphalt curb for it by merely
compacting an extra thickness of asphalt
along the edge as the driveway is placed.
Native stones of irregular shape can be
used effectively for a curb if they have one
fiat face that can be lined up to conform
with reasonable accuracy to the edge of the
drive. So that they will hold their position,
it is best to set the stones in mortar on a
5 V^
-inch thick concrete base built about
4 inches wider thcin the thickness of the
curb. This base, of course, should be on
well-tamped, well-drained soil.
Granite curbing comes in blocks of vary-
ing lengths and commonly measures about
4 inches thick and 16 inches high. To set
granite or other heavy stone curbing, draw
a cord to indicate the position of the top
edge of the curb and place the curb sec-
tions in a trench so that their tops line up as
required. Some dressing of the edges with a
stone hammer and a stone chisel will help
1032
nw
Left photo, note 2-inch plcmks used as forms for concrete curb, and the placement of bracing stakes,
cross-ties and spreaders. PlTWOod or hardboard is used to make forms for curved sections of curb in
center photo; reinforcing rod ties separately placed sections together. Man at right points to V2-inch
expansion strip used between separately placed sections; joints safeguard against buckling, cracking.
in securing a close fit. Mortar, packed
tightly into the joints, will help in keeping
the sections from shifting and will also
contribute to a more uniform appearance.
To make curves, use either curved sec-
tions of stone (which are sometimes avail-
able), or make the curve with a series
of short straight sections.
A sizable concrete curb is best poured
into a form made of
2
-inch lumber. If the
curb is made for a driveway that is soon
to be built, bulldozing of the driveway
area can simultaneously provide the
needed excavation for the curb forms.
Brace the forms with 2x4 stakes placed
opposite one another on each side of the
form and driven solidly Into the ground.
Tops of the stakes should extend above the
top of the form so that they can be braced
at the top by a 1x4 cross-tie.
Use 1x2 spreader pieces as required to
establish and hold the curb width to \mi-
form size. Where the curb curves, make the
form sides of exterior plywood or of hard-
board and brace well at 12-inch intervals.
Build the curb in sections of 3 to 6 feet with
a Va-inch bituminous divider strip between
sections, and reinforce with a rod centrally
placed about 4 inches from the top of the
curb.
Curbs not carried below frost line may
readily be poured directly in earth if, in
lieu of a below-grade form of lumber, a
uniform, earth-walled trench can be dug.
Carrying the curb 6 to 10 inches below
grade is often sufficient. If desired, 1-inch
boards may be used as a form for the curb
that will be seen above grade, but such
boards require more bracing than stock 2
inches thick. Brace with 2x2 or 2x4 stakes
set at 24-inch intervals on opposite sides
of the form. Brace additionally by nailing
a ' 1x2 tie from stake to stsike across the
form. Use a 1:2:4 concrete mix and tamp
it well into place. Rap the sides of the
above-grade form sharply with a hammer
to drive stones away from the boards and
produce smooth sides.
After the concrete has begun to set,
smooth the top of the curb with a steel
trowel or wood float and use an edging tool
to round off the edges. Cover the work and
keep it damp for a week.

ABOUT
5*
\
IN COLDCUMATES
BUILD WALL TO REACH
BELOW FROST UNE
H
I'WOOD PLANKS
BRACED WITH
2-X
2*
STAKES
TIE WITH
1 X 2 CLEAT
IF EARTH 6 CUT CLEAN
AND 15 FIRM. FORM 15
MEEDEQ ABOVE GROUND
ONLY
IF EARTH CRUMBLES
BUILD P0RM5 TO REACH
BOTTOM OF TRENCH
POURING A LAWN CURBING OR OTHER RETAINING WALL
1033
!ffi
-v:*?^^'"
'^^yi
Constructed o! Inaxpenslre wood. th deck ta by far the eosieit and moet economical of afl terrace*.
itittiriiiTniriliM^
Construction is simple, and unusual designs are easy to achieve.
THE
DECK CONSTRUCTION
illus-
trated here is typical of methods used,
and the design can easily be varied in shape
or size ^o suit your own particular needs.
The floor is of 2x6-inch fir, run at a
30-degree diagonal to the house. The rea-
son for the diagonal is that it follows the
normal flow of traffic. Boards placed across
the usual line of traffic seem like a barrier
and are an unpleasant design effect. The
line of the boards also visually enlarges
the deck in that direction, and so makes
the deck seem more spacious where it most
needs the extia size. A diagonal, too, is
always more dramatic and adds interest.
The exact angle of the diagonal can be
1034
varied, but 30 degrees is most
popular.
With fir 2x8's set on edge as
supports
(joists) for a 2-inch plank floor, the 2x8's
can be spaced up to 4 feet apart. The floor
will have some spring with this 4-foot joist
spacing, but will still have
sufficient solid-
ity. If you like a very firm floor,
reduce
the spacing. It is unlikely,
however,
that
you would ever want the spacing of joists
less than 24 inches.
The 2x8's can span up to 12 feet. On the
house side, a 2x6 support for joists can be
spiked to the house. At the other end, they
should be supported by a 4x10-inch beam,
which can be made of two 2xl0's
spiked
together. The 2x8 joists can safely
over-
MITER JOINTS
SCRAP
Z'X 6' BOTTOM
Abore ia detailed plans of deck, floor boards are placed at diagonal to house from 30 to 90* degrees.
Above left, blocks ate built up 8x8x16 inches on looting to form each pier, centered below the line
of deck's beam. Center, after mortar sets, drill hole in block tops and put in VaxSmch anchor bolte.
Right above, allow bolt to extend approximately three inches from block, fill hole in block with mortar.
1035
Check bolts, make sure they are below beam line.
Be sure to measure height oi the line above pier.
Cut post, then fit it between pier top and beam.
Allow for off-center bolt and drill 3-inch hole.
hang this beam by 18 inches, giving a maxi-
mum deck width of nearly 14 feet. If you
wish a wider deck, you'll need another
cross beam. This will yield a maximum ad-
ditional width of 12 feet.
The beams themselves require support
at no greater than 8-foot intervals. They
may be supported by 4x4-inch posts set on
piers, which are spaced on 8-foot centers.
No pier is required at a house wall, for
the beam-end can be supported there by
resting it on a 2x4 solidly spiked to the
house.
To sum up: Posts set on piers spaced no
farther apart than 8 feet, measuring cen-
ter to center, support 4x10 beams. Beams
must be spaced no farther than 12 feet
apart. Beams support 2x8 joists spaced no
more than 4 feet apart. Joists may safely
overhang a beam by 18 inches. Joists sup-
port a floor made of 2-inch planks (ap-
proximately 1% inches is actual thickness)
.
Joists may be supported at the house side
by a 2x6 spiked sohdly into the house
structure. If local building code require-
ments vary from these, you'll be informed
when you file plans at your Building De-
partment for a construction permit.
First step in construction is to verify that
the land slopes at least 1 inch in 10 feet
away from the house. Remove top soil and
replace with 2 inches of gravel to discour-
age plant growth and improve drainage.
Set up lines (twine or other substantial
cord) along the proposed line of piers and
18% inches below the desired level of the
finished floor. This allows for the following
thicknesses: floor, 1% inches; joist,
7V^
inches; beam, 9% inches. If your lumber
VEtries from this, make needed adjustment.
Plan to have your "finished floor at the
Below left, a 2x10 beam is placed and plumb of supporting post is checked; trim beam end right In
middle oi post Center, second 2x10 member is spiked to the first using 16d threaded Stronghold nails.
Right, below, angle-nail joists to supports 18 inches orer beam and snap chalk line; cut off ends erenly.
exact level of house floor or fractionally
below it. Don't make it higher.
The easiest way to level your line is with
a Stanley line level (about 60^). Drop a
plumb from the Line to mark where pier
centers will be. Remove the line tempo-
f)orarily for digging the pier holes.
Foundation. Since the deck structure is
light, under average conditions the piers
supporting it need be no more than 8x8
inches, set on a 16xl6-inch footing 3%
inches thick. You can use 8x8xl6-inch
cinder or concrete blocks set on ends to
make the piers. The footing on which-they
rest must be placed below the frost line
and on firm ground. The frost line is the
deepest point at which the ground has
ever frozen in your area. If you don't know
what your frost line is, you can find out
from your local Building Department.
An 80-pound bag of Sakrete Gravel Mix
is enough for two footings. Mix according
to directions, using no more than 1 gallon
of water per bag. If you mix your own
concrete, use 1 part cement, 2 parts sand,
4 parts gravel or other coarse aggregate
and a minimum of water for thorough mix-
ing. You don't need forms for the footings,
but be sure the ground on which they are
placed is level and flat. Press the first block,
ears down, in the wet mix and plumb it.
Use Sakrete Mortar Mix for cementing
the blocks together. If you mix your own
mortar, use 1 part cement, 1 part lime, 6
parts sand, and enough water for worka-
bility. Before setting the top block, use a
star drill and hammer, or a masonry bit
in your power drill, and bore a hole in
the block end for a V^x8-inch anchor bolt.
Lay the block on its side, with the bolt
in position and extending approximately 3
inches above the block, and fill the cavity
of the block with mortar to fix the bolt in
place. This operation can also be done after
the block is firmly mortared down. The top
of the pier should come approximately 8
inches above the ground level at the point
where the pier is located. If your land
slopes, actual level of pier tops will vary
along with it If necessary, cut one block
to get this correct height above grade.
Blocks can be cut with hammer and
chisel. Work carefully and slowly around
the entire perimeter of the block so you get
an even cut.
Measure from the top of each pier to
your leveled line to determine the length
of 4x4-inch post required for uniform sup-
port of the beam. Plumb from the line to
the anchor bolt to determine how much, if
any, and in which direction, the bolt may
be off center. The hole in the bottom of the
post can then be drilled off center, if re-
quired, to compensate.
After drilling the hole in the post to re-
ceive the bolt, soak the post end in Wood-
life for 30 minutes. Any part of the post
which is not soaked should be liberally
brushed. As further seal against moisture,
coat the bottom face of the post with as-
phalt.
Preserving and nailing. Treat all lumber
used in the deck with Woodlife at least
24 hours before use, according to manufac-
turer's directions. Avoid excessive skin
contact. As you build, brush freshly sawed
ends liberally with the solution. This is im-
portant.
Position and nail the first 2xl0-inch
beam member in place. Any joints must be
located only directly above a supporting
post. With ^e first beam member in place.
Wliere stair landing is at angle to deck, supporting structure is made as below left, diagonal beam
carrying weight. Center, jigsaw is used for notching; one notch in rertical piece for recessed seat
board and other slips onto floor edging. Right, use pattern, cut and put roil assemblies together.
It' necessary to miter all seat, roU and back- Use 2x4 to brace both OTerhang of seat and for
rest joints to get finished look as shown obore. rail-post; angle edge to get rid of sharp comers.
Complete planter frame, aboTe, but bottom i not
cut until floor is finished and scraps collected.
Using icttoTer wood from Uooring, complete the
plonter. See picture aboTe for finished piece.
038
spike the second 2x10 to it to get the re-
quired 4xlO-inch beam. Stagger any
joints. Two joints must not fall on the same
supporting post.
To support joist ends, spike a 2x6 to the
house wall at the same level aiS your beam
(or beams). If it isn't possible to spike the
2x6 into liie house structure at the re-
quired level, it may be set somewhat higher
and the joists notched up to 3 inches to
compensate.
Use galvanized Stronghold threaded
nails for all joining. Though these nails
cost more per pound, they have thinner
shanks and weigh less, so that they cost
no more per nail. You'll also find it's pos-
sible to use fewer nails, and you'll be trou-
bled with less sphtting of boards. In
nailing the deck. Strongholds are a neces-
sity to eliminate the danger of nails work-
ing loose and nailheads "popping" up.
Use 16-penny (3%-inch) Strongholds
for spiking and heaviest nailing, 10-penny
(3-inch) for nailing planking to joists and
other intermediate nailing, and 7-penny
sinkers (2^-inch) for nailing trim, facing
boards, and 1-inch stock.
When positioning joists, keep the crowns
of bowed ones up. Don't attempt to use
any boards that are seriously twisted, or
are out of shape. Return them to the lum-
beryard for replacement. After all joists
have been solidly angle-nailed to beams
with 16d's, chalk your line well by rub-
bing it on carpenter's chalk, draw it tautly
along the desired finish line of the joists
and snap it to mark the point of cut-off
to make all ends exactly uniform.
Using 7d sinkers, nail a 1x8 pine board
as a fascia along the exposed joists' ends
and sides, then, using lOd's, nail a border
piece of 2x6 along the outside edge of what
wiU be the deck floor, allowing a %-inch
overhang.
Rail and seat support. These assemblies
go in before the floor so the floor can be
cut around them. Where floor joists are run
at right angles to the deck edge, assemblies
can be spiked to the joists. Special condi-
tions, in the construction illiistrated,
brought joists at an angle to the edge and
made it necessary to nail the assemblies to
special tailpieces.
Where deck rail, seat boards, and set
backrest intersect, the joints are mitered.
The rail and seat miters are simple ones.
The backrest, however, has a compound
miter, for the intersecting members are on
a slant. To get the compound miter, tem-
porarily let one backrest board run all the
way through. Set the intersecting member
against it and mark the cut required on it
to make it fit snugly against the first board.
Cut along the line drawn at a 45-degree
angle.
Get the cut on the first board by scrib-
ing the required intersecting line from the
cut just made.
Where seats end, for design reasons, they
are continued 18 inches beyond the end of
the backrest, and are angled toward *the
front to a point only 6% inches beyond the
backrest end. Posts supporting stair rails
are 4x4's. Standeu-d rail height for steps
is 22 inches, and this is followed here.
The deck features a sunken planter in-
As abo^e, use scrap spacer to keep floor boards
uniiorm % inch opart; support at or near ends.
As pictured, risers must be opened and tread has
one inch nosing; each stringer base rests on pier.
1039
DECK
Ncdl treads into place, cut off ends oftervrard
and be sure they orerhong 3V^ inches on outside.
sert along one house wall. A mitered frame
of 2x6 stock is run around the planter
opening, and deck flooring boards run to
it. After all flooring is complete, the bot-
tom of the planter is made from scrap floor-
ing pieces. These bosirds rest on a 2x2-inch
ledger strip and need not be nailed. Fin-
ished depth of the planter is approximately
5% inches. It is filled with gravel, and
potted plants are set in it.
In nailing flooring, leave about
Vs
inch
where board ends are butted together. Use
a block plane, or Stanley Surform, to bevel
joining edges to help prevent sphnters.
Leave about 3/16 inch where floor boards
butt against house, against trim around
Diagrams detail the plans -for the stairs and the stair rail both aboTe and below the ground lereL
2 X
6"
OUTER RAIL
2X4
1040
BORE
FOR
1/2X8
ANCHOR
BOLT
24 X 24 FOOTING
BELOW FROST LME
16 X 16 ROOTING
BELOW FROST LINE
the outer edge of the deck, and similar sit-
uations. This allows air circulation, is in-
surance against trapping moisture.
Always rest board ends on a joist or
other support. Provide a support if there
isn't one where you need it. A good spac-
ing between floor boards is % or % inch.
Use a piece of scrap of that width as a guide
in keeping the cracks uniform.
Stairs. In planning stairs, keep them
generous in width suid leisurely in their
slope. Main stairway on the deck illus-
trated is 14 feet wide, and stairs have
5%-inch open risers and 16-inch treads. A
secondary stairway is 45 inches wide, has
6
V^ -inch open risers and 11^-inch treads.
Stringers (stair side members) in each
case are cut from 2xl2's, and the tread ex-
tends 1 inch beyond the risers cut for it.
The large stairway rests on piers which
are set on footings below frost line. The
secondary stairway rests only on pieces of
flagstone set on the ground.
After the deck is complete, give the en-
tire structure a brush coat of Woodlife.
You're now ready to furnish and light it.
Do it in a style that befits a living room.
Handsome outdoor lighting fixtures used
here are by Globe Lighting Products. Fold-
ing chairs and chaises are by Shott. Tables
are Shaver-Howard items, distributed na-
tionally by Raymor.
Position oi stair rail is located with rafter square,
below, the standard height lor which is 22 inches.
Make intermediate brace fit aauq. Cut the angle
slightly oversized, run saw between the members.
After deck is completed, brush coat of Woodlife If the deck is made high enough off the ground,
on to insure watertightness and to preserre wood. storage lockers can be made under it, as shown.
-il;
HOBBY
DESK
By Herb Shannon
A built-in drawing
board plus many other
features
make this modern desk ideal
for
the hobbyist.
COMBINING the convenience of
the old-fashioned roll-top and the
streamhned appearance of the modern
flat-top, this three-in-one desk is de-
signed for boys from the model airplane
age through college.
Its principal advantage is the con-
cealed compartment where hobby work
in progress may be left undisturbed, yet
out of sight, by closing the lid. When
closed, the Formica top provides an ex-
cellent surface for study and writing.
In later years the hobby compartment
becomes a typewriter enclosure and
handy storage space for books and
papers.
The desk may also be adapted as a
drawing table without interfering with
its other functions by hinging a standard
drawing board to the "under side of the
desk top. The drawing board folds up
out of the way and is secured by an el-
bow latch, ready for use at any time.
Materials used were selected for
handsome appearance while keeping
cost to a minimum. The drawer fronts,
the sides of both drawer enclosures and
the top of the larger enclosure are of
%-in. red birch plywood. Bottoms of
the drawer enclosures, the bottom of the
hobby compartment, the hinged top and
the pieces for the back of the desk are
of less expensive %-in. fir plywood.
Pieces for the desk frame are cut out
according to the dimensions shown in
the drawing and rabbeted, mitered or
grooved where indicated.
The large drawer enclosure is first as-
1042
ALL PARTS OF DESK
ARE %"
PLYWOOD
BACK PIECE
65V2" X IOV4"
FRONT PIECE
47V4" X 33/4"
X
%"
171/2" X IV4"
V2" SOLID STOCK
OR FIR PLYWOOD
BACK AND SIDES
51/2"
ALL JOINTS GLUED
AND SCREWED
19V4" X
171/2"
Rear and bottom view of unit Fir plywood Nails driven into pre-drilled holes oi the
is used here because ixxrts aren't visible. drawer ninners hold them until glue sets.
Note the short and long leg assemblies. Novel arrangement makes for easy sliding.
1043
Hinges attach Formica-topped cover to desk. Support will prevent accidental closing.
sembled with simple nail and glue joints.
The bottom piece may be secured with
dowels in addition to the nails for extra
rigidity if desired. Mitered corners are
simple flush joints, glued and secured by
finishing nails driven from top and sides
and filled to match the wood.
After the back pieces are installed,
the smaller right-hand drawer enclosure
is assembled in the same way and at-
tached to the back piece which extends
all the way across. Then, the hobby
compartment bottom is inserted into the
groove in the right side and secured to
the larger drawer enclosure at the left
with four 3-in. screws, countersunk
from inside the enclosure.
Nailing the hobby compartment bot-
tom to the back piece and the two sides
of the smal'er drawer enclosure com-
plete the desk frame. Finishing nails
are used to attach the compartment bot-
tom to the sides of the drawer enclosure;
headed nails are used to attach all the
back pieces. All these joints are rein-
forced with glue.
The hobby compartment lid is made of
a single piece of %-in. fir plywood,
strengthened around the edges by a
1%-in. strip of the same material nailed
and glued in place.
Light gray Formica with a wood-
grain pattern is applied to the top and
front edge of the hobby compartment lid
with contact cement, according to in-
structions given by the manufacturer.
Trim the two side edges with strips of
V^-in. solid red birch.
The front piece of fir plywood for the
hobby compartment is attached to the
lid by nailing it to the inside of the IVz-
in. reinforcing edge across the front.
This piece is notched in the upper left
corner to fit around the reinforcing edge
strip under the lid.
After hinging the top in place, nail
and glue a strip of ^-in. quarter-round
birch molding to the large drawer en-
closure side facing the hobby compart-
ment in order to make a rest for the top
when closed.
Then, a 10-in. spring-lock drop-leaf
table support (Stanley Co., New Britain,
Conn.,) is installed to prevent the
lid from falling accidentally. These
brackets are made with legs of unequal
size to accommodate an offset and must
be mounted on a block in order to allow
1044
Hobby compartment has ample work area; drawing board hinges under lid, is held by latch.
the support to fold without binding.
Two pairs of legs are made from 3x3
oak pieces, tapered V2 in. on each side.
The corners are rounded off by planing
and sanding and the legs are doweled to
supports, screwed to the bottoms of the
drawer enclosures.
Drawers are made according to di-
mensions and details given in the draw-
ing and suspended in the enclosures
according to the method shown. This
method of drawer suspension insures
smooth and positive tracking. The run-
ners for the drawers are glued to the
sides of the enclosures and do not de-
pend for support on the nails, which
serve only to bind the runners securely
in place while the glue is drying. A coat
of wax on the sliding edge helps the
drawers slide easily.
Drawer fronts and enclosures are
given a natural finish with sealer and
varnish and rubbed to a satin finish. The
exposed fir panel across the front of the
hobby compartment, the piece across
the back of the kneehole, the bottom and
back of the hobby compartment and the
under side of the top should be sealed,
enameled a suitable color and rubbed
with fine steel wool to cut gloss.

Photo below shows drawing board arrange-
ment. The front leg is made by cutting two
inches off standard 18x20-in. drawing board.
1045
MATERIALS NEEDED
For fhe desk:
A hardwood board, lV4x6 in. by 6 U
22 square ft. of ^'4in. hardwood
A panel of V2-in. Douglas fir plywood
23x44 in.
y4-in. plywood panel, to match lun
ber, 15V4x20y4 in.
40 in. of 1 Ys-'in. aluminum tubing
A panel of Formica, 24V2x45'/2 in.
3 rubber-cushion furniture glides
about 1V4-in. diameter
Vs-in. piano hinge, 14V4 inches long
One 6-in. stay-hinge
One nylon cupboard catch
For sl'iding-door cupboard:
2 pieces of ^4-in. hardwood (to
match desk), 9' 2x61 in. and
7'
2x45 in.
A panel of pegboard, 6^/4x45 in.
Four pieces of Alsynite for doors,
each 5^4x1 1 in.
Two 9'4.in. pieces of IVs-ln. alum-
inum tubing
Two 11'4-ln. lengths of l'/4xl'4-in.
wood
(Last two items only if cupboard is
to be mounted on the desk.)
i:
Writing
Desk
Plentiful file and storage space,
a slide-out typewriter drawer, and
a practically damage-proof top are
but a few of its fine features

.-
Cut this iroming for top and gxoov* as por t*xt.
NotchM. ^xl%, or* cut 16 iachM irom th* nds.
Noxt, you turn OTor th* mltorod pioces oad cut
a Vix%-iach robbot along inaid* vd?* of oach.
A
DESK with plenty of work and stor-
age space can be a friend indeedan
office in the home. This project will give
you such a desk, complete with a sliding
typewriter drawer and, if you wish, a cup-
board for extra storage.
Our combination of materialsPhilip-
pine mahogany with clear-lacquer finish,
aluminum-tubing legs, black Formica top
makes a very handsome appearance.
And the Formica gives you a nearly dam-
age-proof top surface, .which will remain
unaffected by use or spilled ink.
The Top
Cut the five pieces shown in the first
photograph. The four frame pieces are of
IV4 by 1%-inch stock, with their ends cut
off at 45.
The crosspiece is of % by 1%-
inch stock. In the crosspiece and one end
piece, % inch from the edge of each, plow
a groove
Vi
inch deep by % inch wide. Cut
a notch
% by 1% inches 16 inches from
one end of each side piece. Plow a groove
Vi
inch deep and
V4 inch wide % inch from
the edge of one side piece, to just past the
notch.
Along the inside edge of the four mitered
frame pieces, on their reverse surfaces, cut
rabbets
\^ inch deep and % inch wide.
Then fasten the frame to the 23x44-inch
plywood panel with glue and 2d nails. Now
turn the top over and glue the crosspiece
into the notches. Note that the side of the
crosspiece nearer its groove is placed
toward the far end of the frame.
The Drawer Case
The %-inch stock is glued up to make
two panels running 20 V4 inches with the
grain and 24 inches across the grain.
Along one 24-inch edge of each panel, cut
a rabbet % inch deep by % inch wide. On
the reverse surface of each panel, along the
opposite 24-inch edges, cut rabbets %
inch
deep by % inch wide. All these rabbets
go across the grain. Now go back to the
first surface you rabbeted, and cut a
groove % inch deep by Vi
inch wide, V4
inch from the 20V4-inch edge. Do the same
on the second panel, but place the groove
near the other 20V4-inch edge of the panel,
so they'll line up opposite each other when
assembled.
Fit the panels just made into the top,
with the grooves facing each other. Trim
the rabbeted edges so they'll fit into the
slots. Put glue in the y4-inch slots and
slide a 15y4x20V4-inch panel of V4-inch
plywood into them. This is the back of the
drawer case. Now fasten the drawer case to
the top with nails (ring-barbed) or screws.
Cut two pieces of %x4xl5V4 lumber and
fasten them into the rabbets at front and
back of the bottom of the drawer case.
Putting on the Legs
From lV4-inch stock, make two 8^-inch
dowels and one 28Va-inch dowel. Make
them all IVs inches in diameter, but reduce
the diameter to 1 inch for a distance of
2 inches at one end of each. Now make
three collars from lV'4x4x4-inch stock, with
1047
Fostn freon* to plywood pan*l with glue and
noili. TightoB the joints with corrugotod fcMtenani.
GIu in croMploce. grooved side up, on under-
side of top panel. Note position of the groove.
Glue up stock to make two 20V4x24-ln. panels
and rabbet ond groove them as described in text.
Fit panels to top, as shown. Put glue in facing
slots ert back and insert lSV4x20V<i plywood panel.
center holes bored 1 inch to fit the ends
of the dowels. Drill three screw holes in
each collar.
Cut two 6V^-inch lengths and one 26V8-
inch length of IVs-inch alunxinum tubing.
(You can cut the "Do-It-Yourself" type
of aluminum with a regular wood-cutting
blade.) Drill 1-inch holes near the two
outer comers of the drawer-case bottom,
screw the collars into place over these
holes and glue in the 8%-inch dowels.
Then drive the 6Vi-inch lengths of alumi-
num tubing over the dowels, and drive the
furniture glides into the bottoms of the legs.
Cut a 4-inch-wide piece of %-inch stock
to fit the underside of the desk top. Drill
a 1-inch hole 1 inch from the edge of the
piece, halfway between the ends. Glue the
piece on the end of the desk top's under-
side. Put the third collar over the hole in
this piece, glue in the long dowel, drive the
long piece of tubing over the dowel, and
put on the glide, just as you did with the
short legs. Next, attach the Formica top.
1048
Fasten the drawer-cate to the desk top with nails (preferably tcrew-thread-type nails) or screws.
Cut two pieces of stock ^4x4x1 5^4 in. Fasten
them into rabbet in drawer-case, as in photo.
The File Drawer
You'll want the drawer fronts of both
drawers to have
up-and-down grain, so
glue
%-inch stock together to make a piece
14^ inches wide by 181/^ inches long (at
least)
.
From this, you can cut both drawer
fronts as shown in the
photographs.
Cut the necessary
pieces for the file
drawer.
The
lOVsxlS-inch back can be
either
hardwood
or plywood. The 14x22%-
inch bottom
panel is V4-inch plywood.
Cut a rabbet
% inch deep by % inch
1049
Make thx dowels as described in texi. Make 3
collars like these, from lVix4x4 stock, drilling
1-in. center holes in each, and 3 screw-holes.
Cut lengths of aluminum tubing. Fasten collars
OTer 1-in. holes in bottom pieces; glue in dow-
els; drive tubing over dowels; drive glides in.
Cut V4-in. stock to fit end of desk top's underside. A 1-in. hole, centered on inch from its edge,
tokes third collar and long leg as per the text.
Next step is to
appV
Formica panel to desk
top
wide along both 10%-inch edges of the front
piece. On the same surface of the front,
cut a rabbet
V2 inch deep by V4 inch wide
along one 14V2-inch edge. Make a similar
rabbet along one long edge of each
7x22y8-inch side piece. Now turn the side
pieces over and plow a groove
^
inch deep
by % inch wide down the center of each.
Test the grooves to make sure the glides
slide in them easily, and adjust them if
necessary.
Assemble the sides, front and back of
drawer, making sure the sides are placed
with the grooves on the outside. Fasten in
the plywood bottom with glue and nails.
With a drum sander, cut a half-circle out
of the top of the drawer front, for a pull.
Nail and glue in the two glides, placing
them so the drawer will just clear the bot-
tom of the drawer case.
The Typewriter Drawer
Cut the parts shown in the photograph.
The 14x22J^-inch piece is the bottom;
3%x22V^-inch piece is long side; back is
3%xl2%-inch piece; 3%x8-inch piece is
short side; front is 14^/^x8 inches, and there
are four glides that measure 1x22 V^
inches.
1050
Along one edge of the long side piece,
cut a rabbet
^^ inch deep by % inch wide.
Glue the bottom into this rabbet, and nail
it. Fasten the short side piece to the back
piece, nailing through the back piece into
the short side. Glue this assembly to the
bottom side section. Then cut a dado
ii?
inch deep by % inch wide,
Vz
inch in from
the edge of the front piece. Fasten the
hinge into the dado and along the end of
the bottom piece, as shown at the bottom
of page 114.
Now fasten in the glides. Place them
so the drawer is centered between the
lower drawer and the desk top. The gap
between the two glides on either side
should be just enough for the drawer to
slide freely.
Fasten tiie stay-hinge so that it will hold
the front piece in a horizontal position.
Put on the cupboard catch, and notch the
upper left glide so it will clear the catch
when the drawer is closed.
Slide in the typewriter drawer, and the
desk is completed and ready for sanding
and finishing.
Below are the file drower parti. Front and sidei
are of V4-inch atock. Bock can be hardwood or
fir plywood. The bottom is of V4-lneh plywood.
Rabbet file-drawer parts as described in the text.
Plow 5/16x3/4-inch grooves in center of each
aide. Moke sure thot glides slide in them easily.
Assemble sides, front and back, with grooves on
outside of sides. Fostea in the plywood bottom.
Cut o half circle out of top of drawer front to
act OS pull. A drum tonder does lob. (Turn page.)
1051
BOTTOM
LONG SIDE
3^'>.22V*
'rJ<0
^
J4V'<8-
SHORT
(;;_
S\OE
^^: -^
i^i;i:
Ncdl and 9lu in the glides. Place them so the
drower will ]ust clear the bottom of drawer cose.
Make these parts lor the typewriter drawer. The
14i'^x8-in. piece Is remolnder of glued stock.
Along one edge of long side piece, cut rabbet Vi
In. deep by Va in. wide. Glue bottom to rabbet.
Fasten short side piece to back piece with nails.
Then glue this assembly to the one made before.
Half inch from edge of front piece, cut dado 3/16
in. deep by V4 in. wide. Then fasten hinges on.
Fasten in the glides, so that drawer is centered be-
tween lower drower and desk top, and slides well.
Fasten on stay-hinge and cupboard-catch. Notch the upper-left glide lo clear catch.
24-1/2" X
45-1/2"
FORMICA
1-1/8 DO-IT-YOURSELF
ALUMINUM TUBING OVER
WOOD DOWEL
RUBBER CUSHION
Y
FURNITURE GLIDES
^ 1/4" X 14 X 22-7/8
PLYWOOD
14-1/2" X 10-3/8"
1053
ffice Desks
A professional design for the at-home executive.
FOR
the fellow who runs his business
out of his home or who has a good-sized
den, here is a design for an office-sized
desk that is easy to construct but has the
rich appearance of quality furniture. Ma-
hogany-faced plywood was used on the
original but choice of wood of a different
variety will not effect construction at all.
Actually, if desired, the size of the top
(J) could be reduced considerably without
having to make the understructure smaller.
Best bet is to construct the drawer sec-
tions first, starting with the sides. Be sure
to cut the dado in the two side pieces which
will receive part G. Note that the back of
the drawer unit is deeply rabbeted, actu-
ally to the surface veneer. This so the
veneer will hide the plyw^ood edge of the
side pieces without exposing any of its own
plys. Before assembling the drawer sec-
tion, make and install the drawer slides.
Lay them out carefully before attaching
them with glue and small countersunk
wood screws.
The feet, which are made by nailing and
gluing %-inch plywood around a solid
Oj BACKS
n) sides
3/8"
X I" RAtt. OAOOeS
3/8"X V4" RABBET JOINT
RABBET RIGHT
TO OUTER VENEER
Big-Boss version can be
finished to match any type
of present room furniture.
Secretary version has a low
wing added for typing plus
stationery and file storage.
,
Accurate dadoes are most
impm-tant for good fit, so
check with scrap stock.
22"
G 6
86"
3X3
Bsa^za^z.
GRAIN
20
(SINCE THIS IS VyASTE
YOU MAYAS WELL
CUT SIX DRAWER
BACKS ourOP IT)
-H'-\
3/4" X 4FT X 8 FT. MAHOGANY VENEER PLYWOOD
dry cloth removing all loose material.
If you have used an open-grained wood
like mahogany, oak or walnut, you'll need
a filler first. Either choose a type made for
the particular wood you're working with
or tint a neutral filler with stain to suit
the tone you want. A little experimenting
on scrap pieces is worth while here.
Filler is applied liberally and allowed to
set for about twenty minutes. Then it is
wiped off with a piece of burlap or equally
coarse cloth. Wipe off in all directions to
be sure of filling all the pores of the wood.
Let dry at least twenty-four hours, then
sand carefully to smooth the surface again.
The final finish will depend on what you
want. You can get a heavy built-up look
by numerous applications of varnish with
ample drying time between each followed
by a steel-wool rubbing. Rub down the
last application of varnish by coating it
with lemon oil and sprinkling rottenstone
on the oil. Then use a soft cloth to rub off.

By R. J. DeCristo^Kno
1057
liiH!H
v/ardrobe
desk
This unit fits under an eave,
makes use of sloping ceiling space
COMPLETED UNIT looks like this. It will
provide much-needed storage space ior
your home, in addition to providing desk.
BUILDING this wardrobe desk is a sim-
ple job. Read instructions and study
plans carefully, then get out the tools.
THIS
handsome built-in puts waste
space under a sloping upstairs ceiling
to good use. With shelves and racks for
accessories and spacious,
full-length
closets for hanging apparel, it's an all-in-
one wai-drobe that will double your bed-
room storage space. Because it replaces
the usual dresser and chest, it actually will
make a cubby-hole bedroom look larger.
Altering dimensions, you can adapt the
wardrobe to fit any location, slant-ceil-
inged or not.
For the built-in shown in the plan you'll
need eight panels of %-inch thick plywood
and six panels of %-inch thick plywood,
A-A grade Interior-type panels for doors,
ends and partitions and Ply-Panel (A-D)
for back, bottom and sloping top. Cut
them in your shop to minimize muss up-
stairs.
Assembly is easy.
First lay the base and
bottom. Next set up ends, backs and di-
viders. Then fit the interior joinery and
hang the doors. Butt-join plywood strips
for base and block behind joints in long
top facing.
If the ceiling above the unit gets hot in
summer, boi-e one-inch diameter ventilat-
ing holes along the top and base. Finish
your built-in to harmonize with your
room scheme.
Paint the inside a light
color, perhaps clean white.

1059
IBTB
z
-
/
at 111
O i
2i
>^
J
SUITABLE for both homework and hobbies, attractive comer encourages habit of neatness.
Boy's
Work
Desk
THIS
all-birch desk is of simple con-
struction, the two cabinets of the
same size being bridged by the top. The
latter may be a one-piece plywood panel
or three boards glued and dowelled to-
gether. Mahogany molding is installed
all around.
Drawers in the left-hand cabinet ride
on center rails between cleats on the
bottom. The latter is Vg-in. tempered
hardboard (Masonite) nailed directly
to the lower edges of the sides, a depar-
ture from the conventional practice of
setting the bottoms in dadoes. Note that
the upper edges of the sides are cut
down part way, to allow the drawers to
be lifted up above the cleats for com-
plete removal.
The top is secured with screws
through cleats as illustrated. Elsewhere
assembly is with 4d finishing nails. To
1062
avoid denting the wood, do not hammer
the nails all the way in. Instead, allow
nail heads to project a trifle above
the surface and use a nail set to finish
the job. Drive y\-
in. to Vs
in. below the
surface; then fill holes with wood filler.
Open-grained wood must be filled to
assure a completely smooth surface. Use
a transparent paste filler, thinned with
turpentine or naphtha to a fluid consist-
ency for application with a brush. Sand-
paper smooth with 0-grade
garnet
paper; then apply three coats of clear
shellac (very thin, 14 oz. alcohol to 1 qt.
shellac) . It dries quickly.
The door of the right-hand cabinet is
a one-piece panel hung on recessed
butt
hinges. A standard cabinet lock can be
installed, with a handle of your choice.
Set in a friction or bullet catch to keep it
closed when not locked.

Hi Sibley.
*
1/4"
X V4' MAHOGANY EDGING
3/4' X 26
1/2" X 71
1/2"
BIRCH PLYWOOD TOP
CAN BE PLANKS BUTTED
TOGETMOR WTTH DOWELS
t 1/4' NO. B
SCREWS (12)
tTH!n
3/4' BIRCH
PLYWOOD WALLS
DRANVER GUIDES (SEE DETAIL)
ABOVE: Side cabinets, to which the top is BELOW: Drawers cae merely open boxes,
fastened, ore identical in size and shape. and are easily made with aid of power sow.
DRAWER GUIDE DETAIL ^
<BACK)
1/2" FIR BACK AND StOES
1063
3e--^iii
Depending on the finish and top material, this desk could be for writing or hobby working.
THIS
desk is a versatile and easily made
piece of furniture, practical enough to
use as a kitchen "office," attractive enough
to enhance a living room or den

planned
to give you plenty of work area.
The hardboard top is economical and
husky, and contrasts effectively with the
zolatone finish applied to the plywood
parts. It will stand up under rugged use
if you decide to make the desk for your
young space mein's room.
Whether you build this for Mom, Dad
or the model-making youngster, you can
be sure of one thingit will make itself at
home in any -room; adding an interesting
and useful note to the decor.
If you cut the parts to the exact size
given in the bill-of-materials and put them
together as shown in the drawing, you'll
have no trouble with the fabrication end
of this deal. Only the lengths for parts O
and P are given slightly oversize since it
will work out more conveniently if you
cut these "on assembly" to fit perfectly
1064
i) TOP PANEL DRAWER RAILS
C2)
U2" DEEP LAP
EACH END OF
DRAWER RALS
BACK WALL
SIDE WALLS
LEG CLEAT
3/4"
STOCK
GUSSETS
WrTHOADO
AROUND
LEGS
)
3M" STOCK FRONTS
with their corresponding mating parts.
When assembling, use finishing nails and
plenty of glue. Set nail heads below the
surface of the wood and fill the holes with
putty oi" wood dough. The job will be
easier if you assemble the basic compo-
nents and then put these together. The box
leg on the left (useful for large sketch pads,
traysor for hanging dish towels) is one
sub-assembly, the drawer frame with top,
another and the leg assembly still another.
Except for the open leg frame which is
attached to the underside of the drawer
frame with wood screws, the components
are joined with glue and finishing nails.
Start by cutting the four pieces of ply-
wood which make up the box leg. The top
.and bottom are rabbeted to take the sides
and the four pieces are nailed and glued
together. Cut the parts for the open frame
work which is the bottom of the drawer
unit and assemble these as shown in the
drawing. Butt joints are fine, but use cor-
rugated fasteners to strengthen each joint.
1065
Add parts C and the back (D). Cut the
top (J) to fit this unit exactly. Add the
center divider and this unit is about done.
The open leg assembly is made of solid
stock. The gussets
(Q)
are plywood.
As designed, the drawers are the full
depth of the desk. If these are too long to
suit your purpose (we use the back to
store things we don't frequently need) you
can compensate easily by shortening parts
TandU.
Join the drawer unit to the box leg by
driving wood screws from beneath. Do the
same with the open leg. The brace (part
R) merely adds rigidity to the leg and is
sufficiently strong if angle-nailed into the
box leg. The other end is secured by
driving two nails into it through part 16.
The top cover is last and will go quickly
if you use contact cement. And of course
you don't have to use hardboard. Substi-
tute a laminate, a Micarta, even a hard
linoleum if you prefer. Coat the plywood
and the underside of the cover Uberally
with the cement and let dry thoroughly
before putting the two together. Since the
plywood will soak in the cement you may
have to apply two coats. Be sure to read
directions on the container before using
the cement. One word of cautionthis stuff
bonds on contact, so be sure the position
of the cover is exactly right before setting
it down. Brown wrapping paper may be
used between the cover and the plywood;
then when the cover is accurately posi-
tioned, withdraw the paper. Press down
Rabbets in the drawer rails are set up and cut in pairs for uniformity in this radial type saw-
firmly over the entire top surface area.
No matter what kind of finish you decide
on be svu-e all surfaces are smoothly
sanded, all holes filled with wood putty.
Pay special attention to exposed plywood
edges; sand these very smoothfill holes
with putty. If you paint, use a good sealer
first and follow with a flat undercoat.
Zolatone is a speckled finish which must
be sprayed on over a special plastic imder-
coater which may be purchased from the
paint dealer. New types of speckled paints
are available which use water as a solvent.
These are easier to use and achieved com-
parable results. In any case avoid con-
trasting cold's, and spark up the piece with
accessories on top of the desk.

By R. J.
DeCristoforo
SOLID WOOD REQUIRED (PINE)
^
:^ j^
Kitchen stool easily stows in kneefaole and permits a height for stand-up and sitting use.
A Housewife s Desk
This hondsome piece with its matching storage unit makes a plan-
ning center with recipe files, cook books, plus appliance storage.
EVERY
housewife will agree that man-
aging the American home is as much
a business as it is an art. For her many
management chores, she needs a desk all
her own in or near those areas where she
sp>ends most of her time . . . the kitchen,
dinette, family room.
Here is a sit-or-stand desk that gives her
not just writing spaceany counter top or
table will do thatbut six drawers, includ-
ing a big letter-file drawer. And there is
a big "plus," out-of-the-way storage for
two necessary household items that usually
are in the way. The kitchen step-stool
serves as the chair for this desk and fits
neatly in the kneehole when not in use.
The family card table, used often as extra
work or eating space for small fry dinner
guests, slides completely out of sight be-
hind the desk.
This is a lot to accomplish in only three
feet of wall space. If you can use six feet,
then build the matching storage unit and
solve other storage problems. This addition
is designed as quick-access storage for
small appliances such as the toaster, waffle
iron, electric coffee maker, on-end storage
for serving trays and place mats, etc.
1068
l" X 53"X 36"
PCrWOOO BACK X- OmENSIONS
ARE BOTTOM
3/16"
X
1/2"
QAOOESAT
CENTER ARE
DRAWER TRACK
FRONT PANEL EXTENDS l'
(LAPS CABMET ABOUT 1/4*)
Utr MASONTTE BOTTOMS
EXTEND l/2~ ALONG
SIDES AS RUNNERS
3*
SPACE BEHIND FOR RXMM TABLE
'
Building the Desk
From %-inch fir plsrwood, cut the three
vertical panels, the desk top and the bottom
of the drawer section. The small base unit
is made from %-inch stock, glued and
nailed together. To the top of this is nailed
the bottom of the drawer section.
Cut and dado all the drawer guides and
fasten them in place with glue and finish-
ing nails. Then assemble all the panels.
The V4-inch plywood back is cut to exact
size and perfectly square, so that when it is
nailed flush to the outside edges of the left
and right vertical panels, it will automati-
cally square the desk. It should also be
nailed to the center, drawer-support panel
to add rigidity to the drawer section.
Making the Drawers
As shown, the drawer design is as basic
and simple as possible. Actually they are
but simple plywood boxes, butt-jointed
with glue and nails. The drawer bottoms
serve both to square the drawer and as
1069
An awkward thing to
store is the card table.
Desk here has pxicket.
drawer glides in dadoed side spacer pieces.
Before putting on the drawer front
facings, assemble all the drawers (com-
plete with bottoms) and slide them into
place. Lay the desk on its back and put a
strip of double-surface pressure sensitive
tape on the back of each drawer front. Lay
the fronts lightly in place and arrange them
to provide a Yi.-inch gap between them.
Then press the fronts firmly against the
drawers so the tape will hold them in place.
Carefully remove the drawers so the posi-
tion of each front can be accurately
marked; then attach them permanently in
place with two screws driven from inside
the drawer.
The additional cabinet is constructed in
a similar manner and again the Vi-inch
back is carefully cut and squared to align
the unit. The base is attached after the
cabinet is assembled.
The sliding doors can be Vs-inch tem-
pered masonite with edges sanded smooth
and slightly rounded. Cut the door guide
strips from 1-inch pine stock and form the
dadoes. The grooves, should you lack a
dado assembly, can be formed by making
successive passes with a regular saw blade.
To attach the guides, nail them in place by
driving the nails through the grooves with
a nail set.
Fill all neiil holes, sand carefully, prime
and paint to suit. A new trend in kitchen
cabinets is the use of natural woods and
if the desk is to match, a similar plywood
should be selected. Take a door or drawer
with you to the lumberyard, and then
experiment with finishes in scrap.
Although the design of this desk calls
for some fairly elementary construction
techniques, the final appearance will belie
its simplicity.

By R. J. DeCristoforo
Oversized drawer bottoms do double duty as
drawer slides in dadoed side spacer-pieces.
Make grooves for the cabinet sliding doors
with a dado or with multiple sawblade passes.
1
ce'/e-i
l/g- X 4 FT. X 8 FT. PLYWOOD PftWEL YgUS MAJOR MHTS
-13^"-
-1 r6!6-
,1-
It m .
5|
s-c
V
m^- -lOa
1
1/4-X 4 FT. X 8 FT. PLYWOOD YIELDS BACK
PANELS
-
ALSO ALL DRAWER BOTTOMS ANO
DOORS IF YOU CUTDADOES TO TAKE l PLY
INSTEAD OF 1/8 HAROBOAHD AS SHOWN

1/2* X
4
FT. X
8
FT. PLYWOOD SETS OUT ALL DRAWER SIDES AMD EICS
eil^'-
F-FRONT S-SneS E-ENDS B-BOnOM UL-UPPERLEFT
LL- LOWER LEFT UR- 0PPERRI6HT C-CENTRAL (3AUKE)
Simple box drawers are finished off with a
facing piece fastened with screws from back.
Glue and nail the door-slide guides with small
finishing nails set below surface with nail-set.
DISH CABINET
YOU
LITERALLY pluck storage space that did not exist from
mid-air when you hang this cabinet. In addition to its
handsome, modem appearance and simple construction, sliding
doors' on both sides make it most convenient and accessible.
Cut all parts to size, adjusting dimensions to conform to your
space and the optional construction details you decide to follow
Grain directions of face plys should run vertically in ends and
doors; from end to end in top, shelves and bottom.
Sand edges and fit parts together carefully. Assemble with
glue and 6d or 8d finish nails.
Note the vertical dimension on the sliding doors, which per-
mits them to be removed. All edges of doors should be sealed
well against moisture and both front and back faces should
receive the same number of finish coats.
Finish the cabinet as desired and install with hanging straps
or by driving screws through the top into the ceiling or an
exposed beam.

1072
A" DOORS]
E-Z GLIDE
#3814
FIBRE
TRACK
ALTERNATE
TOP
CORNER DETAIL
SLIDING DOOR DETAIL
KNAPE
& VOGT
ADJUSTABLE
SHELF
STANDARD
NO. 255
FLUSH OR SURFACE
MOUNTED
OPTIONAL ADJUSTABLE
SHELF DETAIL
ALTERNATE DOOR
TOP DETAIL
1073
DIVIDERS
91
^^H
Fold-down desk top in each side of
divider is a novel and valuable idea.
Cabinet units can be varied accord-
ing to individual home storage uses.
Divider provides complete room sep-
aration without impeding ventilation.
1074
PLAN
DIVIDERS
Room
Divider
with
Storage
DIMENSION
VARIES
-
DEPENDING
ON DESK HT
DESIRED
A room
divider should serve to beautify
a room,
not just chop it in half.
This handsome project
provides
divider, storage space and desk area.
SINCE
every room offers its own problems and every
home has its special storage needs, the room divider
shown here has been designed for flexibility. You can
combine various multiples of the units illustrated, to suit
your room and
requirements.
Cabinets can be made
either with drawers or door sections.
Follow the cutting diagrams and parts schedule for the
four basic sections.
Throughout the project, butt joints
are used to simplify cabinet construction, and are merely
glued and nailed.
PIANO- HINGE
F0LO-DO1*N
DESK TOP',
SECTION THRU
DRAWER UNIT
SECTION THRU
DOOR UNIT
a
DESK
1075
fnrom
^-.
CEIUNG
/ ) UNE
^
(fih
DRAWER UNIT
ON OTHER SIDE
OPEN
PAINTED PLYW00D
(R>-
(R>
DESK TOP
FOUJS DOWN
DOOR UNIT
ON OTHER SIDE
PANELS
(5>-
(5>*
DESK TOP
FOLDS DOWN
( OTHER SIDE )
L^.
1
(s)-
(Rh
A
Wd
CUTTING DIAGRAMS
\
ALL PLYWOOD
PLYPANEL A-D EXCEPT AS NOTED
MMN
2 REQ'D
\/2"x 4'-0"x
6'-0'
2 REQ'D
l/2"x4'-0"x8'-0"
I REQ'D -INTERIOR A-^
y^:
DIVIDERS
^
;
DIVIDERS
2X4
DIAGONAL
CUTSTHWXJGH
2 X 4 ON END
I X2
RjOORCUEAT
5/4"X2Aa LATERALS
STRAIGHTACROSS.UNBROKEN
ALL DRAWERS FROM 3M~ST0CK'
i/8 MASONITEINTD \Af X
1/4"
DADOES
Grid of iromewoi^ aroimd dzowets is attodied Use a roher squoze ior occurote moridng oi
with ntdls and glu*. Countondnk the ncdlheoda. center line ol drawer on run's back support
1079
Insert run at center line of drawer. Run pro- TUa U the simple framework of dirider. com-
Jects Vi inch aboTe front drawer-dirider strip. plete with partitions omd ready for drawers.
Side piece is noiled to rabbets cut in drawer Cut 7^-Inch slot in drawer bock. Slot rides
front after cuts hare been coated with glue. on the %-inch wide run and is guided by it
AU drawers ore cat at least Vi inch oTorsize.
Use block plcme as shown to insure a perfect fit.
Construction of this modified unit is basically
the same. The pieces of wood are drawer ports.
li|['ililJ:H
Completed unit hc grille at bottom for wenrm cdr duct coToied in constradion.
joined side by side with %-inch corrugated
fasteners yield the reqiiired 23-inch width.
Plywood could be used for the purpose.
There is a partition wall on each side
of the middle tier of drawers. Centered
above it is a partition dividing the sliding
door space in half. A 1x2 casing was run
around the entire unit and a grid of casing
around all drawers. Redwood was used
here since the intention was to finish it
naturally. Pine would be suitable for a
painted finish.
To support the drawers, lx2's are
notched at points corresponding to each
crosspiece in the front framing. One of
these lx2's is attached to the wall directly
behind the midpoint of each drawer tier.
Other boards, measuring 1x2^^^ inches are
inserted from front to back at center line
of the drawers, with
Vz
inch projecting
above the framing to serve as a drawer
rvui, or guide. Glue and nails secure these
gmde boards both to the vertical 1x2 sup-
port at the back and to the front framing.
The sturdy drawers are little more than
boxes, assembled with glue and nails. A
handhold, cut out of the front, serves as
a pull, eliminating the expense of bought
hardware. A notch cut in the bottom of
the drawer's back board rides astride the
guide which has been previously attached
to the framing.
Masonite is used for the drawer bottoms
'an4 for the shding-door panels above the
drawers. Panels shde in Reynolds alu-
minirni track. PuUs for the sliding panels
are
merely
-
1x4
blocks of wood with
edges rounded.

1081
Much routing is re-
quired on this proj-
ect, and you will
soon acquire an effi-
ciency with this very
versatile and flexible
piece of equipment.
Photos by Paul ViUiard
Step-by-step .
. . how to build this handsome piece.
THE
ROOM DIVIDER described in this
article is intended not so much for the
casual
do-it-yourselfer as it is for the
serious craftsman with a minimal
-
equipped shop who is interested in turning
out a piece of very fine furniture with a
minimum of labor and materials.
The piece was designed to divide a large
room into two smaller spaces to accommo-
date two boys. It affords extra closet space,
shelf space and drawer space to each side
of the room. Several novel ideas have been
incorporated in the construction of the di-
vider. The doors, for instance. The author
found a little company in New Rochelle,
New York, who makes a wonderful kind
of sliding door hardware. This is called
Mulray Flush Sliding Door Hardware and
it is just what its name implies. The sliding
doors are straight and flush when they are
closed. No more showcase look! Now fine
cabinets can have the sheer smart smooth
line in the fronts and still have the con-
venience of sliding doors.
The author used striped African ma-
hogany for the divider illustrated herein,
but your choice is limited only by the
availability
of cabinet plywoods in your
locality. Remember though, that you must
use a plywood faced with veneer that is
available in tape form to match.
It is not good to use a number of differ-
ent kinds of woods in the same piece. In
rare occasions a door perhaps, or the
drawer fronts may be made out of a veneer
different from that of which the piece is
made. Great care should be taken though,
to select woods which are compatible and
not in glaring contrast to one another.
For the item which we are about to make
you will need one panel of %-inch fir ply-
wood, 4x8 feet of the type known as ex-
terior grade, good-one-side.
You will also need two panels the same
size, of whatever cabinet plywood you
have chosen for the piece, plus a few feet
of tape veneer to match the face veneer of
the plywood.
The first step in building the divider is
to lay out and cut the material. I use the
very thin fine-toothed plywood blades and
feed the saw slowly but steadily through
the work. The resultant cut is so smooth
that you can veneer right on the sawed
edge with no further treatment.
Always cut a panel face down when
1082
DIVIDERS
You will need clamping bars for solid veneers. Plywood blade must be handled slowly.
using a portable saw since the blades cut
from the bottom up and you will avoid
tearing out of the face veneer if the blade
happens to be dull.
The top and ends are cut from one of the
cabinet panels, and the drawer fronts and
doors from the other. That way the grains
and colors of the pieces are more nearly
uniform. Use three sawhorses to support a
full panel of plywood for ripping. A strip
of scrap lumber is laid along the top of each
horse and the peuiel placed face down on
the strips.
Set the depth of youi- portable saw to
reach through the plywood plus about a
quarter of an inch. With a straightedge
clamped to the panel at both ends, cut two
lengthseach exactly 20^4 inches wide.
One of these lengths will be cut into short
pieces for the ends and the other will be
the top panel. With the same setup rip two
lengths also 20
Vi
inches wide from the
panel of fir plywood. These are for the bot-
tom ind the partition panels.
There will be a Vi-inch setback around
all doors and drawers, ind as the edges of
all partitions show at both sides, some edge
veneering and side veneering will have to
be done on the fir plywood, and the insides
of both end panels will have to be treated
the same.
Cut the ends next from the second panel
of cabinet plywood. The best procedure
is to cut two lengths to about 25 inches,
then matching them together on one edge
with the outside faces together, trim the
excess cutting through both panels at the
same time.
Cut the partitions from the remaining fir
panel, except these are to be made ex-
actly 24% inches long. Use the same
method for cutting as you did with the
ends.
We are now ready to start routing oper-
ations, and you want to take extreme care
and time to check and recheck all di-
mensions and positions before making the
cuts. It is easy to make cuts in boards. It is
ilmost impossible to unmake them. One
thing you want to get into the habit of
doing is to use the same rule for all meas-
urements when making up a cabinet. Rules
vary, however good they are, especially
the folding type of rule. Actually ihe best
kind of layout rule to have in a shop is a
long metal straightedge with the edges
graduated.
A simple routing jig can be made for the
router to speed up the cutting of dadoes.
Take care when assembling the jig that all
members are glued up exactly pai-allel and
that the jig itself is square and true. The
side rails are spaced exactly to fit the
router base and the front member extends
far enough on each side to allow clamping
with a bar clamp when using the jig. Glue
all parts together first and check several
times as you clamp it up for squareness.
After the glue has set and the clanips have
been removed, drill all four corners for two
locking bolts each. Countersink the bolts
and use washers and lock washers under
1083
im^
PUmTKHS (SEE CUT7 OUGMMS) V4 X 20 IM" X 7 FT. MWJMY SUOWG OOOR
'
,TDP a BOTTOM HARDWARE 0-34 (4 IMTS)
the nuts. Set up a straight cutter in the
router and adjust it to cut about
Vs inch
into the front cross piece of the jig, then
make the cut. This will give you an accu-
rate guide for setting the jig when you
use it.
Since we have a number of dadoes to cut
on all pieces let us cut the inside divider
panels to size first. Use the three quarter
inch fir plywood for all divider panels and
shelves.
Having cut these two panels we assemble
them together with the end panels and the
top amd the bottom. Set up three horses
and level them as well as possible. Lay the
top panel across the horses with the
INSIDE face up.
Use a sharp pencil and keep it sharp as
you work. Measure in from the right hand
end of the panel 32% inches toward the
center. Square a line clear across the panel
at this point. Square a second line %
inch
farther toweird the center, parallel to the
first across the panel. Between these lines
you will run a "blind" dado for one of the
dividers.
From the left hand end measure in 28%
inches and square the line across, then
move in toward the center another %
inch
and repeat.
1084
iiuiin:^>t
Set a %-mch straight router bit in your
machine and adjust the depth of cut to
EXACTLY V4. inch. Place the new routing
jig on the panel and ahgn the groove in the
front member with the two guide lines on
the panel. Clamp the jig in place with one
or two bar clamps taking care not to move
the jig as you tighten the clamps. Start
your router and bring it down between the
guide bars of the jig so that the cutter will
start into the panel about
Vz
inch from the
edge. Slowly and firmly pass the router
across the panel, stopping the cut about
%
inch from the other edge. Duplicate this
operation at the lines drawn on the other
end of the panel.
Now make the same cuts on the bottom
panel with these differences; The dadoes
are run on the TOP of the bottom panel,
which is the inside face. When the inside
faces of the top and bottom panels are put
together, you will readily see that the
grooves in one panel are left hand and the
grooves in the other are right hand.
The 32%-inch mark is made from the
left hand end toweu-d the center and the
28%-inch mark from the right end. Just
the reverse from the top panel. Cut the
dadoes as before, starting and stopping
about
V2
inch from each edge.
Now clamp a straightedge at each end
so the router will cut a groove exactly in
the center of the panel lengthwise. Just
make certain that the router cutter is in
the exact center of the panel, and, starting
the cut at the 32%-inch end of the panel,
run the groove down the center vmtil it
meets the dado at tiie 28%-inch mark. This
groove is to accommodate the two divider
panels between the shelf section in the
center of the cabinet and the sliding door
section at the larger end.
Run this center groove on the top panel
as well, making sure that you start at the
correct end so the groove will be over the
one in the bottom panel on assembly. Lay
both panels to one side while you machine
the dividers.
On the door section divider, two grooves
are to be run across the 32^-inch dimen-
sion on each side of the panel. To locate
these grooves, measure in 7% inches from
each end of the panel and square lines
across. Measure in an additional % inch
and run the parallel lines for the router
guide. Using the routing jig sind clamp, run
the grooves clear across, taking care not
to break out the wood as you leave the
panel.
The same grooves in the same position
are run on both sides of the shelf section
divider across the 21%-inch dimension.
This completes the routing to be done on
these two panels and we next take up the
end panels.
One end panel is left blank so we set
this aside for the time being and lay the
other across two horses with the inside
face up. Since this end panel will match up
with one of the partitions which in turn
will match up with the other partition we
cin run a sort of production-line setup on
the next operation which is a groove down
the exact center.
The right end panel gets the groove on
the inside face. The right-hand partition
gets the groove on both sides and the left-
hand psirtition has the groove run on one
side only.
The operation will be the same for all
Use of routing jig makes
duplicate grooves easy.
Always make the bit
work against the guide.
Easily made trammel is
used to scribe curves.
Curved scrap piece is used to draw up veneer. Flush front edges. Dado hides the rear.
Make a template for duplicate routing cuts. Sliding door hardware must be accurately set.
panels. Position the routing jig so the cutter
is exactly centered and run the grooves
clear through the panels from top to
bottom.
The two partition panels will be dadoed
next. On the partition with the single cen-
ter groove measure out
9
'74 inches from
each side of the central groove. Square up
a line from top to bottom of the panel at
these marks. This is to give you a stop line
for the dadoes.
From both ends measure in 7% inches
and square a line across the panel. Come in
an additional % inch eind square these
across also. Clamp on your routing jig
taking care to match up the guide lines
accurately. In fact you want to be very
accurate with all measurements, but even
more so here, since these grooves will have
to mate up exactly with the grooves cut
in the divider panels when you assemble
the shelves into them.
Run the dadoes in this panel and set it
aside. Take the other pai-tition panel and
duplicate the dadoes on one side of it. This
pairs up these sides of the partitions. This
blank side of the one pairs up with the
blank end panel, so we now dado the sec-
ond side of the other partition and the
inside face of the remaining end panel.
On the partition the Tyg-inch dimensions
are the same as before, but we make the
stop lines only 7 inches out from the edges
of the center groove. Run these dadoes and
then set up the right hand end panel on
the horses.
Measure 7 inches out from both edges of
the center groove and square the stop lines
on the panel, then measure in 7% inches
from each end of the panel and squau-e your
line across. Another % inch in will locate
the pai-allel guide line emd the dadoes can
be run in. The difference of a quarter inch
from the ends is noted here because the
1086
rffHiiBi
Above and below show how to use glue blocks
in setting up the mitered base corners.
end panel sits on the surfaces of the top
and bottom panels at assembly instead of
tongue and grooving as the partitions do.
With these dadoes the %-inch routing is
completed and you may now set up a %-
inch straight router to cut % inch deep.
The straight router guide supplied with
the router is used for the following opera-
tions and this shovild be set to position the
%-inch groove exactly in the center of the
edges of the pljrwood.
In routing for spline joints, which is what
we are about to do now, always use the
router with the guide against the outside
faces of the work. If the groove is off-
center in the panel this will insure that the
two members will assemble truly with the
outside faces.
Run a groove in both ends of both end
panels, starting and stopping about
Vz
inch
from each edge to make the grooves
"blind." With the same setting, run a
groove across both ends on the inside faces
of the top and bottom panels, also making
them blind. These grooves will cut across
the %-inch grooves previously cut, but
that does not matter.
This completes the router work for the
time being, so let us cut the center shelves.
There are four of these, and four for the
sliding door section. These last are cut from
the fir plywood to 7% inches by 32^ inches.
Next cut out the shelves for the center
section using a 3-foot beam compass to
scribe the arc. This can be made of scrap
material. The front edges of these shelves
are veneered.
Set youi' jointer to cut exactly Va
inch.
You are going to cut the end reliefs in
several of the pieces. This relief cut is to
allow a tight square joint at the ends of
blind dadoes, and the work shoiild pass
over the jointer head far enough to run a
flat of about % inch long. Then lift the
work carefully off the jointer.
Each end of the veneered shelves is
treated this way on the front edges only.
The partitions have the relief run on all
four ends of the top and bottom. The long
door section shelves also have the relief
cut on both ends at the front edges.
It is time for oxir first "dry" assembly to
check all our operations. Here you will
appreciate the simple unit assembly plan
with which this cabinet is put together.
Lay the bottom panel across three horses
and slip the left-hand partition into the
left-hand dado. Match up the center
grooves in the partition and the bottom
panel and slip the short divider panel into
place in the center grooves.
With the divider and partition holding
each other in place, slide in the four
shelves, flushing their front edges with the
front edge of the partition. Place the right-
hand partition in the right dado and en-
gage the shelves in their respective dadoes.
A bar clamp can now be eased onto the
assembly to hold it tightly together while
you continue.
Put the large divider in place and insert
the narrow door section shelves into their
dadoes.
From a scrap of ^-inch plywood cut fovir
strips across the grain of the core long
enough to fit into the grooves on the end
panels and
f|
inch wide. This will allow
you,a ^-inch glue clearance in the grooves
at assembly.
Place a spline in each end of both end
panels and slip the right-hand end panel
into position. A second bar clamp may be
put from this end to the partition to hold
all together. Put the left- end panel in place
1087
nrwi
1/2"
X
7/8" COUNTERBORE
FOR I l/2~N0. 9 SCREWS
DRAWER SUPPORT RAIL
ASSEMBLY (MAKE 4)
ALL3/4"XII/2"ST0CK
3/4X3/8
TONGUE
and carefully lowej- the top panel into po-
sition engaging the splines and the par-
titions and dividers in all the grooves.
Pull up all joints with bar clamps until
they are snug and tight. Do not force the
clamps beyond tightly closing the joint
either now, or when you finally glue-up.
Clamping is not intended to compress the
wood, but merely to hold it tightly in po-
sition while the glue sets up hard.
Check all squares and levels. Now is the
time to lefit any joint that is not perfect.
The next time we assemble the cabinet,
that's it, brother! It's built to stay. You can
now disassemble the parts and lay them
aside while we rout the sockets for the
Mulray Flush Sliding Door Hardware. By
fai- the easiest way to cut these is to make
a template out of a piece of masonite. Lay
out the hole in the template sufficiently
oversize to accommodate whatever routing
template guide you are going to use.
Make certain that you have sharp and
clear center lines on the masonite so you
can match them up with guide lines on the
work. Four of these sockets are to be cut.
Two on the top panel and two on the bot-
tom. These are to be located exactly in the
center of the door opening and centered
In;
inches in from the edge. Lay out the
cavity to the dimensions given on the in-
stallation sheet accompanying the hard-
ware and be careful to have the cavity in
the top panel exactly above that in the
bottom panel on both sides.
If your work has been careful to date,
the center of the door opening should be
just 16% inches in from the end.
Assemble the components of the slides
and fasten them in place for a trial run. I
might mention here that the hardware
comes in two stylesend pivot and center
pivot. I like the center pivot best, but you
can use either one if you like.
1088
3/4" STOCK
HARDWOOD
COVER
EDGES

a (i) 3/4 X 20
1/4."
X 241/2"
^^
^-^
INCLUDES VENEER
ON TW) EDGES \
miSH
The toekick assembly is next. This is
made from 3-inch wide pieces of the cabi-
net plywood or boards of matching solid
lumber. For appeai-ances the end joints of
the toekick should be mitered.
Two pieces 78 inches long and two pieces
16
V4
inches long should be cut and mitered
to 45 degrees. An easy way to clamp up
miter joints is to place a glue block
V2
inch
in from each end on all the members. Make
sure that the fiat base of the triangular
glue block is parallel with the face of the
miter. When the glue has set up hard on
the glue blocks it is a very simple matter
to apply Weldwood glue to the joint and
pull it up tightly with a small "C" clamp or
handscrew. This method eliminates the
need for using four long bar clamps and a
lot of trouble holding the joints true while
applying the pressure. After the miter
joints have set up, saw off the glue blocks
close to the surface of the work and sand
the remainder off. Do not attempt to chisel
off the glue blocks or you will almost cer-
tainly rip off the face veneer.
Cut three inner braces about ZVz
inches
wide and long enough to fit snugly inside
the toekick frame the short way. Cut 56
glue blocks about 2 inches long out of %-
inch quarter-round molding and sand the
sharp edge off the 90-degree angle. Place
the bottom panel upside down across three
horses and be sure that the horses are as
level as you can get them. Position the
toekick frame on the bottom panel so there
is a 3-inch space on each end and a 2-inch
space on each side. Hold the frame securely
in plarce and with a sharp pencil draw the
outline around the frame on both the in-
side and the outside.
Mix up a good supply of Weldwood glue,
and remember that glue-blocking takes
much more glue than other kinds of joints.
Float a thick layer of glue all around the
1089
DIVIDERS
SUnNG DOOR PASSES BEHIND OTHER WHEN OPENED
- BUTT TOGEHCR WHEN CLOSED
'
bottom panel between the lines of the
frame. Lay the assembly in place over the
glue and "wipe" it down snugly. Clamp it
down with hand screws or large "C"
clamps.
Put the bottom panel right side up across
the horses. Only two horses are needed
now to support the panel because of the
stiffening action of the toekick assembly.
Using a small drill with a medium to high
speed, drill through the dadoes for No. 10
wood screws. I should recommend about
three screws in each dado and put the
holes in the centers of the width of the
groove.
Sand all the parts of the center subas-
sembly. This will include the four curved
shelves, both partitions, and the center di-
vider pzinel. The parts will be enameled
when the cabinet is done and you want a
smooth flat surface for a "tooth" for the
paint.
We will start with the "H" subassembly
for the center section. Run Weldwood glue
into the center groove of the left-hzuid par-
tition and insert the mating divider panel.
Slip the two parts into their grooves in the
bottom panel but do not glue them in place.
Glue up the backs and ends of the curved
shelves and put them in place. Run glue
into the center groove of the right-hand
partition and slip it into its dado on the
bottom panel engaging the ends of the
shelves as you do.
Gently lift the top panel into place and
engage the subassembly in their grooves.
Pull up a bar cleimp across the fronts of all
four shelves and lightly clamp up each
corner from the top to the bottom panel as
well. Use pads under all clamp faces, or
better yet, do as I have done to all of my
clamps in the shopcement a square of
cowhide obtainable from any leathercraft
dealer to each clamp face with Miracle
Adhesive. This makes permanent pads.
The reason for assembling the "H" with
the top and bottom panels should be ob-
vious. This is done so they will set up true
and square and go in the grooves at the
final assembly. If you pulled them even a
trifle off-square you would not be able to
assemble the cabinet and would have to
break open the joint and reglue which is
almost impossible when you use Weldwood
glue.
When set up, temporarily remove the
top panel and start the next subassembly.
This is the right-hand door section, and
this is added to the center section right in
the bottom panel. Slip one of the plywood
splines in the end panel groove without
using glue. This is merely to hold the end
panel in place while gluing.
Run glue into the center groove on the
right-hand partition and on the back edges
and ends of the four door section shelves.
Slip the partition ip place in the dado on
the bottom panel and mate it with the cen-
ter groove of the right-hand partition. As-
semble the shelves, then run glue into the
center groove of the right end panel and
set this down without glue onto the spline
on the bottom panel. Mate the end panel
up with the shelves and divider and again
set the top panel in place and clamp up as
before. Use the top spline here.
Take care that you do not pull up the
bar clamps in front of the shelves too
tightly, or you will bow the end panel and
the partition because of the wide space in
front of the shelves.
When the assembly has set up, remove
all clamps and the top panel. Gently Uft out
the subassembly and slide it a little to one
side of the dadoes. Remove the splines
from the end panel, then run a little glue
into the end panel grooves and insert the
splines again. Perform the same operation
on the left end panel.
Now run Weldwood glue into all of the
1090
rffitnTfl
aoz
20i:-
2'i-
.3S^
4x
3/4"
X 4 FT. X 8 FT. FIR PLYWOOD FOR HIDDEN AREAS
Always saw off glue blocks to protect veneer.
Vibrating sander allows close-corner work.
Always mix a-little-more-than-enough glue.
Pilot hole, shank, and countersink in one.
Heavy duty orbital
Sander is used here.
Countersunk screws help
pull up the subassembly.
Bar clamps help a lot in
the subassembly stage.
grooves and dadoes on the bottom panel
and slip the subassembly back into place.
Set the left end panel in place next. Run
glue into all of the grooves on the top panel
and cai-efully set it down in place, engag-
ing the splines first and then working
toward the center partitions making sure
the partitions are seated in their dadoes
properly.
Clamp the whole assembly home with
bar clamps, using three on each end and
one at each end of both partitions. Snug up
the clamps and immediately check each
section for squareness. If it is at all out of
square, and it shouldn't be if you were
careful of your cutting and dadoing, loosen
the bar clamps slightly and pull the carcass
into square with a long bar clamp diagon-
ally across from end to end, Retighten the
bar clamps and go read a book while the
joints set up.
We can now start the drawer frames.
These are made of clear pine or mahogany,
and are cut out of three-fourth-inch stock.
The frames are assembled with open
mortise-and-tenon joints, and the easiest
way to cut these is with the dado head set
in the saw to cut % inch wide and % inch
deep. You want the flat bottom of the
mortise to be about two inches long. Dis-
regard the curve of the dado head run-out
since this will not bother us at assembly.
Use a stop clamped to the saw fence to
guide the work, and feed one end into the
saw normally, then making sure the same
face is toward the fence, come down on the
cutter from the rear and carry the cut off
the board. Mark the faces toward the fence
on all the pieces, and run these mortises on
only eight of the longer frame members.
The next step is to cut a tenon on both
ends of all the short lengths % inch thick
and % inch long. Make sure that the tenon
is centered the same as the mortise so that
the faces of the members will be flush on
assembly.
Three holes are drilled through the short
members edgeways using a number nine
drill, and counterbore
Vz
inch in dieimeter
and
%
inch deep. Perform this on only six
of the short pieces, and center one hole,
then make the other two holes 6 inches
each side of center. These will accommo-
date 1^-inch No. 10 flat head wood screws
without having the screw come through
the end panels.
Cut three guide blocks uniformly to a
length of
5V4 inches. The side drawer rails
are 17 V4 inches long and the cabinet is
20^ inches wide plus the thickness of two
veneers on the edges. Set a square to the
dimension of 1^ inches plus the thickness
of one veneer which is just half the differ-
ence of the drawer rail and the cabinet.
Take the two short rails which you did
not drill and plane a slight chamfer along
one edge. When you do this, pair the rails
right and left with the marked faces both
showing one direction. Spread a little
Weldwood glue on one face and slip the
rail in place inside the drawer section on
the bottom panel and snugly up against the
end panel. Position it with the preset
square held against one face of the cabinet.
Drill through the rail in two places for
a IV^-inch No. 10 wood screw and sink the
screw home. Place the second rail the same
way on the opposite side of the opening
1092
riHnBi
and glue and screw it tightly in place. All
dimensions correct, the rails should be ex-
actly centered on the bottom panel, fore-
and-aft.
Stand up the three guide blocks on one
of the rails just placed, and spread glue on
the inside edge of one of the drilled rails
and position it on the guide blocks, wiping
it home with the location set by the square.
Insert three screws in the holes and run
them up tightly. Make sure that the rail
is held tightly down on the guide blocks.
Work up both sides of the cabinet this way,
moving the guide blocks up a step each
time you set a rail. While these joints are
setting up you can prepare the front rails.
On four of the long rails cut a notch out
of each and on the front edge of the rail,
%
inch deep and 1 inch long. This is for the
drawer roller.
These rollers are called Roll-Eze, and
they are found in any good hai-dware store.
They come in many different styles, but
we are concerned orily with the ones called
Type N. You will need four of these for
each drawer, two in the notches just cut
in the front rails and the other two on the
drawer itself.
With the nails supplied with the rollers,
fasten them in place in the notches, mak-
ing sure that they are just below flush on
the front edge, and out as far to the end of
the rail as possible.
Pair up sets of rails with and without
the rollers. Apply glue to the mortises on
one pair of rails and push the plain one
over the tenons on the bottom side rails.
Push the roller rail ovei' the tenons on the
other end of the same side rails, and pull
both sides up tightly with a bar clamp on
each end reaching through the cabinet.
Make sure when you place the front and
back rail that their marked faces match up
with the marked faces of the short side
rjiils.
Work up the frames the same way, al-
ternating roller and plain rails on each side
as you go. Set your square to the face of
one of the front or rear rails and use this
setting to position the one long rail which
was not mortised to the underside of the
top panel exactly in line with the other
rails. Use glue on the face of the rail and
fasten it with two screws into the top
panel.
The doors are easy. They should be cut to
16x24 inches out of the cabinet plywood

four of them. Run a groove in both ends


of all the doors,
Vs
inch wide and V4 inch
deep in the bottom ends and % inch deep
in the top ends. Both ends of each groove
should be "belled" or flared out to help the
door shift on the tracks without binding
when opening and closing.
After the doors are cut and sanded, slide
one of them on the track which you have
temporarily installed in the cabinet and fit
the other to it so that they fill the opening
nicely with about
r
inch of space all
around. Bevel the edges of all doors to the
rear slightly so they will clear each other
when shifting. After fitting, drill them to
accommodate whatever hardware you are
going to use.
The drawer parts and the blank fronts
should be cut now. You will need eight
front pieces out of the cabinet plywood.
Provide clearance for the rollers on the
backs of the drawers.
These front blanks can now be installed
by drilling through the drawer frames
from the back and gluing and screwing the
blanks from the inside of the cabinet. Po-
sition these blanks so their top edges are
flush with the bottom of the drawer frame
immediately above, and their bottom edges
are about
^
of an inch above the bottom
edge of the frame that they are screwed to.
They will be supported by the frame on
their bottom edge only. The top edge is
free.
The sides and backs of the drawers
should be made of one-half-inch mahog-
any, although clear pine could be used. Se-
lect one edge on each and on the remaining
drawer fronts and mark it with a lightly
pencilled "X." This is to help you when you
cut the dovetails.
For this operation you again use the
router, together with the dovetail fixture.
After dovetailing which is done, by the
way, with the marked edges of all mem-
bers acting as the top edges when setting
them up in the dovetailing fixture, a groove
is run in all pieces to receive the bottom
panel.
As you run the dovetail, keep all foui-
members of each drawer in a separate
group and continue to keep them so until
the drawer is completed. Set up the dado
head in the saw to cut V4
inch wide by V^
inch deep, and set the fence so the groove
vidll be started % inch from the bottom
edge of one of the backs or sides. Run the
grooves on all the backs and sides taking
cai-e to put the groove on the inside faces
of all pieces. Run the front membei-s
through on the same setting, although this
will leave IVs inches of wood on their bot-
tom edges.
Now set up the jointer to cut V4
inch
deep and run this cut off the TOP edges of
1093
ill the back pieces. With the same setting,
clamp a stop block on the jointer fence to
stop the side members 2 inches short of
passing clear across the blades.
Taking great cai-e to pair them cor-
rectly, carefully run the side members
across the jointer stopping against the
block 2 inches short of the FRONT ends.
The four bottom pieces are cut from V4-
inch mahogany plywood if mahogany is
used for the drawers, or birch plywood if
you are using pine. Sand up all inside faces
of the drawer members and the inside face
of the bottoms and dust the pieces well.
Assemble the drawers, putting the sides
and the front together first. A rubber mal-
let will be found very handy for this type
of assembly, since the dovetails are very
accurate and hard to close up with glue on
them. Be careful to drive the joints home
straight so you do not split the side.
Slip the bottom in place and glue in the
back piece, again driving the joints home
firmly with the mallet. Lay aside on a flat
surface to set. If there is any spring at all
in the drawer when it is put on a flat sur-
face with the front overhanging the edge,
put a heavy weight such as a brick or two
on the high corners and leave it there until
the joints have set.
The next step is to glue a strip of veneer
on the top edges of the fronts. Sand the
edges down nice and flush then apply the
type "N" rollers to the two back corners of
each drawer.
Fit the drawers in their individual open-
ings by taking light cuts oflF the BOTTOM
edges of the fronts until the space between
the drawer front and the false front below
it is about one sixteenth inch. The drawers
and the false fronts are, of course, put in
place alternately on each side so that the
Lower top into position, adjust subassembly.
Set rails accurately for easy drawer closing.
t
Long pipe clamp helps to pull ends in line.
Always use a clamp on joints such as T-&-G.
Jig
makes dovetail in side, front at same time. Keep bits keen with self-sharpening device.
BIHHTB
3/4"
X 4 FT. X 8 FT. MAHOGANY VENEER PLYWOOD SUPPLIES ALL EXPOSED RftNELS (TWO SHEETS]
1
6'
5^ AFTER SAWING
h
28"
DRAWER FRONTS (4)
"
6 I BACK PANELS (4)
working drawer on one side is number one
and number three and on the other side is
number two and number four. This gives
full width drawers on both sides of the
cabinet.
After fitting the drawers they can be
drilled for their hardware, and then sanded.
Clean all excess glue from the entire cabi-
net and finish sand with fine garnet paper
Apply two coats of Satinlac and rub the
last coat down with 000 steel wool. Apply a
coat of the hard liquid wax and rub the
cabinet down with a clean soft cloth. Do
the same to the drawer fronts and their
top edges.
This might seem like a complex project
just to read tiirough, but taken in the
logipal sequence of steps as outlined, it
will prove to be much easier. The point
to stress is accuracy of measurements and
squareness of cuts. It will pay you to take
great care to aUgn your table saw, and
check and recheck before and after each
operation.

By J. H. deGros
1095
DIVIDERS
Space Divider
Two dividers are shown above in lacquered plywood and black battens giving a shoji efEect.
1096
You
can use plywood space dividers to
great advantage without destroying
the overall spacious feeling of today's
home. Merging living, dining, and cooking
areas does give a spread-out feeling but
can also give the whole family an over-
exposed feeling.
Space dividers, carefully placed, can de-
fine areas without confining and, when
made of fir plywood, are easy and economi-
cal to build. Depending on size and place-
ment, you can cut off that view of the cook-
ing area from the dining room, shield an
entryway, separate a TV viewing spot from
an adjacent area requiring more privacy,
and you can also use them to direct traffic
through the house.
A screen, like the one shown, requires
no more than %-inch plywood panels set
into sturdy, dadoed solid lumber frames.
Variety in pattern is achieved through the
use of varying size rectangles artistically
arranged symmetrically.
Wood used can be stained, finished nat-
ural, or painted. The use of framing mem-
bers that contrast with the inset paneis
also provides a means of adding a dec-
orator's touch.

By R. J. DeCristoforo
r/4"X 4FTX 6FT.4"
PLYWOOD PANEL
MAY BE FASTENED
TO CEIUNG
ON BATTENS
i/2"x r
HALF
ROUND
MOULDING
1097
DOORBELL
^
Add a bell extension from your chimes by
connecting new wires to termincds leading
to push buttons at the front and rear door.
Need
Another
Doorbell?
THE
advent of room air conditioning,
greater use of the basement play-
room and separate laundry rooms have
established a need for extra door bells,
mainly because the usual centrally lo-
cated bell cannot be heard in a shut of?
room, or in the basement.
One or more bells can be connected
to extend the present doorbell circuit.
You can do the job yourself without fear
of electrical hazard as the voltage is
usually very low. The extra bells or
buzzers can be located in the bedrooms,
basement, plajrroom or laundry utiUty
room. As the bells are wired in parallel,
you can place a switch near each one so
it can be disconnected when desired,
without affecting the other bells.
Multiple bell installation consists
simply of splicing new wire into the
present circuit, between the push but-
ton and the main bell or chimes if the
wiring is accessible, or connecting the
wires to the present bell terminals.
The next problem is to bring the con-
If there is a closet at the back oi the
chimes or belL drill a hole close by and
carry the new wires through inside closet.
DIAGRAM B AS PLACED IN TYPICAL
HOME (WIRES USUALLY IN X>ISTS)
2
-WAY BUZZER
^
m
V
m-
C
-
CONTROLLING ONE BELL WITH TWO
BUTTONS CAS IN Ml- FEB. 1955)
TRANSFORMER
DOORBELL
^
m
A
-
BASIC BELL CIRCUIT IS SIMPLE
TO ADD ANOTHER
BELL, CUT INTO
LINE BEYOND
PUSH BUTTON ^
T
^
m
110 V
BUTTON
EXISTING
BELL
B
-
ADDING ANOTHER BELL OR BUZZER
TO BE WORKED FROM ONE BUTTON
ADD ANY
NUMBER
OF BUTTONS
PLAIN BUZZER
POSSIBLE ALTERNATE TO DIAG. C
cealed wire to the bell station. If the
bell is to go in the basement, you will
find it easiest to drill a hole in the floor-
ing, preferably inside a closet and snake
the wire down through. The hole can
be drilled with a regular auger bit.
If the bell is placed in a bedroom on
an upper floor of the house, bring the
wire leads into an entry hall closet, drill
through the ceiling and carry the wire
along the baseboard molding to the de-
sired location.
The accompanying wiring diagrams
above clearly show various methods in
which additional bell and buzzer instal-
lations can be made.
*
BasmaoKaraa
Drill a hole in closet floor
close to the comer or wcdl
using auger bit for drilling.
The wire is snaked through
the floor into the basement
to attach to extension beU.
Bell or buzxer ib placed in
basement on studs or joists.
In bedroom, place in closet
What
You
Should
Know
About
Doors
You can purchase p<3cku<jtd Luiit&, iiVe this one in the photo above,
that contain all oi the parts and even hare the door hinged in place.
Construction of doors and methods of hanging them is a must for homeowners
THERE
HAVE BEEN many door im-
provements and innovations in the p>ast
few years that the modem homeowner
should know about. In addition, he should
be aware of the simple procedures in-
volved in hanging a standard door.
Main differences between interior doors
and exterior doors are in width and weight.
An exterior door is solid, and so, heavier,
and is about three feet wide. Interior doors
are lighter (most interior doors today are
flush, hollow core) and are narrower.
Hardware is different in that exterior doors
can be locked and opened from either side.
Interior doors are locked and opened from
the inside of a room usually, unless some
special reason dictates that it can be locked
to prevent entrance except with a key
(Daddy's very private den, for example).
Since interior doors are hollow core they
are usually hung on two hinges. Heavier
exterior doors require three. There are
some schools of thought that feel any door
should have three hinges, but most new
homes employ just two hinges on interior
doors.
Hanging a door is a very simple proced-
ure especially if the jambs have been cor-
1100
Mark hinge size and location by putting a hinge
in place as a pattern (see photo above). A neat
mortise and a snug fit denote a careful workman.
When a large niunber of doors must be installed,
it is advisable to get a butt-hinge template for
attaching hinges. This equipment can be rented.
rectly installed. If you are starting from
scratchthat is, framing the rough open-
ing firstit will pay to be particularly
careful with header and studs. If height
and width of opening are correct and if the
studs are perfectly plumb and the header
square to them, it will be much easier to
set the jambs so they are perfectly square.
Rough OF>enings are wide enough to permit
adjustment of the jambs to accommodate
the door. Wedges (tapered shingles are
most often used) are used to adjust the
jamb position.
Actually, if you are starting from
HEADER IS ELIMINATED
WITH HIGHER DOOR
NEWTYPE FULLHEIGHT DOOR CONVEKnOHALOOOR
You can purchase these packaged doors in aay
design you need. The wall covering is always put
up after entire door unit is assembled in place.
When making door and jamb, fit the door in posi-
tion, then remove door to prevent any damage to
it. In above photo, note how iamb and trim fit
When house is under construction, make pockets
for sliding doors. The header spans the entire
opening and is installed with the rough framing.
RLLER
STUDS
DOUBLE
2X4
HEADER
USE DOUBLE 2 X4 OR 2 X6
OVER LONGER OPENING SPANS
LIKE CUDSETS
-ESPECIALLY
UNDER
A JOIST
BEARING
SECTION OF WALL
SMALL CLOSET CAN
BE EXPANDED BY
REMOVmG STUDS AND
INSERTING THE HEADER
DOOR JAMB FOR FOLDING
OR SLIDING DOORS
1102
Pictured above is prepackaged sliding door Irame,
made by Stanley Hardware, which con be pur-
chased; all the necessary material is included.
The overhead tracks of a by-pass sliding door con
be easily hidden by using a decorative molding, as
is done in the photo above with scrolled cornice.
EXTERIOR DOOR HMME
NEEDS AOOmoNM.EFPDRr
FLOOR MUST BE
NOrOIED OUT FOR
THRESHOLD
A ready made track is used, see photo above, and
is screwed into the surface of the top jamb. The
front strip conceals the track from room interior.
scratch, it makes sense to take advantage
of the modern way of hanging a door. This
means simply that you buy a door assem-
bly in a package that includes the jambs
and the door already hinged in place. All
you need do is to make sure that it is set
level, in place, and secure it. In new con-
struction these packages are often put in
place even before exterior and interior
wall facings.
To hinge a door, make some provision
for holding it with the hinge edge up so
you can work on it. Then measure down,
from the top and bottom edges, the correct
distance for placement of the hinges (see
drawing). Use the hinge itself as a tem-
plate and mark around it with a sharp
knife or pencil. Place the hinge so the pin
side is on the inside of the door.
On the inside edge of the door, scribe
a line in the hinge area that will indicate
the thickness of the hinge. Square off the
lines, then use a sharp chisel or a sharp
knife to incise the lines to the depth mark.
This should be done cleanly so the hinge
will fit snugly in place.
Clean out wood between the lines (to
full depth) with a very sharp chisel. Work
1103
PANEL ANO FUJSH DOOR CONSTRUCTION
SOUD CORE OR l/8"Pi:rW0OD
FACES
PLYWOOD PANEL
INTO DADOS
BOTTOM RAILS
The simpleit part of the Job is installing the sur-
face mounting of the hardware. Mount hard'ware
on back of the door so it can't be seen in front.
A sliding door is easy to hang or to remoTe when
necessary. The wheels are attached to the door
(as in the picture below) and hook orer the door.
slowly and don't try to remove too much
wood at one time. When the recess is fully
forced (this is a "mortise") set the hinge
in place and use an awl to mark the screw
locations. Depending on size of screw and
hardness of wood, use the awl or a drill to
make starting holes for screw^s, then drive
them in place.
Measure accurately for the hinge loca-
tions in the jamb. Remember to allow^ for
at least ^-inch clearance at top of door.
Follow the same procedure for making the
hinge mortise on the jamb. If possible set
the door temporarily in place and scribe
around the hinges themselves for correct
location. When these mortises are made,
put the door in p>osition by driving one
screw in each jamb hinge. Then test by
closing and opening the door several times.
If all is well drive in the remaining
screws. If not, you can make adjustment
by removing the first two screws and driv-
ing two others in different holes. The first
holes can be plugged up before the screws
are replaced. The iV-inch clearance at top
applies also to each side. At the bottom,
you want sufficient clearance pliis for
flooring and floor covering.
Before you decide on doors, whether re-
modeling, adding on, or building a new
home, become acquainted with the new
door styles. Doors are available now that
go from floor to ceiling. This gives the
advantage of more headroom and easier
framing and doesn't chop up the wall sur-
face.
Sliding doors are especially suitable
where you don't have and/or don't wish to
provide, swing space. A hinged door re-
quires an area on the hinge side so you
can swing it open. The waU against which
it opens must be clear for at least the width
of the door. You must also provide for a
bumper to avoid marring the door and the
RECESSING
A HIN
OmJNE
^
The trock in the photo below can be adjusted with
a screwdriTer after the door is set in ploce. It is
manuiactured by the Stanley Hardware Company.
CHISEL WITH
CARE TO DEPTH
FOR ONE
LEAF
PENCIL HOLES
THRU LEAF
DRIVE NAIL
PARTWAY
FOR SCREW
ENTRY
v
1
'7
- !
Tliese louTered doon, photo above left are used
here in a Bi-Fold setup. No need to use a cen-
ter post between doors. Note where knobs are put
These same lourered doors, as pictured aboTe. are
shown here Tiewed from the rear. Special surface
mounted Bi-Fold hardware was used on the doors.
Another type of Bl-Fold doors, shown in photo at
the left, has dotible door dirided by center post
Manufactured by Stanley Hardware Co. in kit form.
wall when they maKe contact. None of
this applies to a sliding door.
A sliding door is either built into a wall,
that is, the wall has a pocket that accom-
modates the door, or they are double doors
that bypass each other. You've seen these
mostly on closets. The pocket door, if you
wish to install one after the house is built,
requires some wall modification. You've
got to make a place for the pocket and
you've got to provide a suitable header for
ceiling support since the pocket enclosure
eliminates some studs.
The bypass sliding doors require noth-
ing but a conventional frame and jamb, set
up to accommodate the combined width of
the doors minus the center overlap. Sj>ecial
hardware kits are available for the in-
stallation of bypass sliding doors and these
make installations a really simple job,
esjjecially if you choose to mount hard-
ware on the surface of the doors. Since
this hardware is placed on the back of the
doors, it's never seen except from within
the closet.
If you have a door where you wish to
1106
HERE IS* DOOR TH<TL*PS THE JOMB
The door shown in the obore photo is the latest
thing in door styling. It oTerlaps the opening
which it clears completely at ninety degree angle.
Strike on the door engages with a nylon latch
cam and holds the door in with 12-lb. pressure.
Doors can also be equipped with a priracy lock.
-CENTER LATCH VERTKALUr
M OPENINO.ANO
SECURE
SPACMS OF EOUM. PANELS
eliminate swing-space, and don't want the
bother of installing a pocket sliding door,
then think about a folding door. These are
like accordions, in that they fold open to
fill the opening smd then fold shut, flat
against the jamb. You can make doors hke
this fairly easily or you can buy them in
conventional design or louvered.
Special folding doors made of plastic
and wood are also available and these can
be purchased, or made to order, to fit any
opening, and they are deUvered fully as-
sembled. Bi-Fold dooi-s are also used on
closet openings. Here, too, special kits of
hardware shovdd be purchased for the in-
stallation. These include all hardware,
sliding track and hinges and make the job
much easier.
Another new concept in modern door
styling is made i>ossible by Stanley's Hard-
ware new "Surfaset." As the name im-
plies, the door overlaps the opening, thus
eliminating the jambs and the casing on
the door side. The accompanying photos
and drawings show how conventional and
new-style doors look and are installed.

1107
DRAINING
miAINmG
AND DRYING
YOUR BASEMENT
^ven suggestions
BASEMENTS
that are damp can, in most
cases, be readily cured. Those that
are wet, with water standing on the floor
some or most of the time can be cured,
too, but the treatment is hkely to be more
elaborate and entail some hard work.
Odor and Mildew. A basement that
smells musty and damp, but which has no
actual water seepage, usueilly requires only
four simple measures to effect a cure.
1. Cover the floor with resUient tile.
2. Finish off the walls. Before building
wall framing and applying wall finish, coat
the walls with waterproofing mastic and
cover it with asphalt felt and a coat of as-
phalt paint.
3. Cover sweating pipes with insulating
material. You can buy wrap-around glass
wool, or rigid-type materials, such as wool
felt.
4. Increase ventilation by leaving a win-
dow partly open, or provide louvers and/or
a fan.
Condensation. Wet and clammy base-
ment walls and floors are often due, not to
leaks, but to waim air condensing mois-
ture on their cold surfaces. If beads of
water hang on cold water pipes you can
be sure that at least some of your basement
dampness problem is condensation.
Here's what to do:
Keep basement doors and windows
closed when outside temperatures are high.
To refresh basement air, open doors and
SUREST CURE for perennially wet basement is to
lay bore its walls, waterproof them from outside.
COMPLETE exterior waterproofing consists of drain
around footings, mastic and membrane on walls.
Visking Co.
NEW AND SUPERIOR 'waterproofing membrane is polyethylene plastic fihn, shown in the photograph
above. This product is toughs rotprooi, permanent It con be used wh^iever a vapor barrier is needed.
windows only at night, and when temper-
atures are low.
Since condensation is caused by a dif-
ferential in temperature of walls, floor and
air, running the heating plant will often
dry out the area. If this is impractical, a
mechanical dehumidifier may be worth
while.
Insulation can eliminate condensation on
walls. One of the best insulations for the
purpose is Styrofoam. It is applied to the
wall with mortar and can be plastered over.
Check These Points.
1. Apparent leaks in basement walls are
sometimes due to defective window frames
and flashing. Check, and replace or re-
pair, as required. Seal window frames in
their opening with mortar or caulking com-
pound. Use mortar to give the window
sill a pitch away from the frame.
2. The slope of land should be away from
foundation walls. Correct the grade, if
necessary, to direct the flow of rainwater
away from the house, and seed the area
well. Thick turf helps runoff.
3. Downspouts that empty at the foun-
dation are troublemakers. Use splash-
blocks to direct water away. Make your
splashblock gutters as long as necessary
to insure proper diversion. A length of
10 feet is not excessive. It may be prefer-
able or necessary to use underground drain
tiles to conduct the water to a storm sewer
or' dry well.
'
4. Existing downspouts may be clogged
below ground level. A symptom is a wet
basement wall in the area of the down-
spout. Trees near the foundation wall often
clog drain tiles with their roots. For this
reason, Orangeburg or bituminous type
1109
^^
DRAINING
COATING oi clear silicone water repellent (shown
here) is helphil in reduction of moist\ire absorption.
CORRECT LEAK at floor-wall Joint by chiseling
joint out to depth of 3 inches, filling with mastic.
portant that the floor be reinforced with
wire mesh so that it can resist water pres-
sure without cracking.
A simpler method of treating a deterio-
rated floor is to put the plastic film over
the floor and apply a %- to 1-inch wearing
coarse of concrete over it. Sakrete Sand
Mix is a good topping mixture. Camp's
Latex Industrial Flooring and Concrete
Resurfacer contains real rubber, and is
diu-able in a thickness of only % inch. It
requires no curing.
If there is a small break in the basement
wall, it may be feasible to dig up the earth
outside the wall to the point of the break.
Filling the hole on the outside is gener-
ally more satisfactory than attempting re-
pairs from inside. After patching, apply
two coats of foundation coating.
Cement Paint. If basement walls become
wet after heavy rains, the simple cure
may be a coating of portland cement paint.
Mark one or more areas that become wet,
and apply the paint to them after they have
become dry. If inspection after the next
heavy rain reveals the wetting has been
eliminated, proceed to paint the entire wall
area.
Cement paint can be applied only over
bare walls. Clean the surface with a wire
bnish and wash down. Remove white-
wash, cold water paint, or efflorescence by
scrubbing with a solution of 1 part muriatic
acid in 5 parts water. Allow the acid to
work for about 10 minutes before flushing
the wall clean. Remove oil paint, shellac,
or glue size with a solution of 1% pounds
of lye to a gallon of hot water.
When using either muriatic acid or lye,
wear rubber gloves and protect skin and
clothing from splashes.
Fill small cracks with a thick paste made
SEAL leolcy window frames with mortar. Slope
mortar on sill to (Urect water away from window.
SUMP PUMP set in tile-lined pit can easily pump
3.000 gallons of water an hour from basement
1111
RAINWATER from leodan thot
othrwls might penetrate
basement is led away by
sealed drain line to dry welL
storm sewer, or other runoS.
SIMPLE METHOD of dlrerting
rainwater from leaders is to pipe
it to spot safely away from the
house. Onmgeburg pipe is dura-
ble and economical for purpose.
CONCRETE TROUGH, cot-
ered by grille^ catches
water washing down driTe-
way toward house, diTerts
It to sewer catch basfai.
US
of cement paint and water. Follow manu-
facturer's directions and mix only as much
paint as can be applied in two hours. Stir
at intervals while using to prevent separa-
tion.
When ready to apply paint, first dampen
walls with a fine mist spray. Don't soak.
Scrub the paint on with a fiber scrubbing
brush, and lap over 1 inch where wall joins
the floor.
Let it dry 48 hours and then apply a sec-
ond coat without first dampening the wall.
Let it dry overnight, dampen it with spray
in the morning and again in the evening
and the job is complete.
Various other waterproofing compounds,
such as Cuprex, Bondex, Rox, etc., are
available for apphcation over unpainted
walls. Follow manufacturer's directions.
Cement Plaster. One of the best water-
proofing materials is a 1: 2
V^
mix of water-
proof cement and sand, with suflBcient
water added for workability. Apply it in
two coats, each % inch thick. Hollow
concrete blocks are highly i>ermeable to
water, and foundations made of them
should be plastered on the outside. In ex-
isting wsdls, they may be plastered inside.
Dampen the wall just before applying
the first coat, but don't soak it. Apply
grout (waterproof cement and water
blended to the consistency of thick paint),
then plaster while the grout is still damp.
Start at the top of the wall and work down,
making the coat slightly thicker at the bot-
tom.
In the case of exterior walls, start 6
inches above grade level, work down to the
footing and cove over the footing to make
a watertight joint where footing and foun-
dation wall join.
After the first coat has partly hardened,
scratch it with a wire brush or a regular
scratching tool. Don't use a nail or trowel
for scratching, and don't scratch too deep.
Scratch horizontally and vertically. The
scratching helps make a good bond for the
second coat.
After 24 hours, dampen the wall again
and apply the second coat. After the sec-
ond coat has hardened, keep it damp for
48 hours.
On exterior walls where the soil is poorly
drained it is advisable to follow the plas-
1112
ITW!t!l
tering with an application of mastic and
polyethylene film. Many builders skip tJhe
plastering and apply mastic and film oidy.
On concrete walls, to provide proper
bond for plastering it is usually necessary
to roughen the surface with hammer and
chisel so it is pitted with
V4- to %-inch
holes. Scrub with a 1:10 solution of
miu"iatic acid and water and hose off after
10 minutes. Before plastering old masonry
rake out joints and repoint with stiff mor-
tar. After spraying the surface, apply a
grout coat, then plaster.
If you plan to coat floors as well as walls,
do the floors first and carry the coat 18
to 24 inches up the wall, coving it at the
floor-wall joint and finishing it off with a
rough top bevel.
Drain Tile. Where the level of ground
water is higher than the basement floor,
considerable water pressure may be ex-
erted against basement walls and floor.
PORTLAND CEMENT PAINT Is mbmd ort the rate of
4 to 5 quarto el water to 10 potiacU of polat powder.
Even good, monolithic concrete may leak
under such circimistances, and drain tile
placed around the footings to conduct xm-
derground water to a level lower than the
floor may be the only way to insiure a dry
basement.
Such drainage costs relatively little to
install when building, but is usually re-
sorted to in existing structures only after
all else fails. It is necessary to dig down
four or more feet all around the periphery
of the foundation to lay it bare down to
the footings. It may be necessary to shore
up the ditch with planking if there is any
tendency toward cave ins, particularly if
you have to go down over four feet. After
scrubbing, clean the walls; they can be
waterproofed, and drain tiles installed, in
the same manner as for new construction.
Drain lines can be laid with little slope.
Use 4-inch land or field tile. Keep joints
open and cover with strips of building felt.
CEMENT PLASTER and stucco ore applied In two
cooto. each H inch thick. Begin applying at top.
CONDENSATION on bosenent walls is eliminated
hj insulating with StTrofoam, a good piaster base.
WHEN FIRST COAT of cement i^aster or stwxo is
set scratch it. After 24 hours, apply second coat
EMBa
^

^jwrnmi^aa
USE LONG STRAIGHTEDGE In mokin? surface unilormly thick and smooth, eliminating hurcr d de-
pressions, as workman Is doing in the photograph abore. Coat may be thicker at bottom ot the wall.
Cover the pipe with a minimum of 12 inches
of coarse gravel or crushed rock, but pref-
erably to within a foot of the finished grade.
To keep dirt from washing down into the
porous fill, cover it with felt or screening
before applying topsoil. Drain lines should
be conducted to storm sewers, dry wells,
or other runoff.
Curtain drains are lines of drain tile laid
like a protective wall around a house,
often some distance from it, to divert
ground water and keep it from ever
reaching the foundation. The tile is laid in
a ditch whose bottom is lower than the
basement floor, and the ditch is then back-
filled with coarse gravel or crushed rock.
The line leads to a free runoff. The cur-
tain drain is especially effective where
septic tank fields, as well as the basement,
must be kept from waterlogging.
Sump Pumps. If your basement is peri-
odically plagued by backflowing sowers or
flooding from subterranean springs, you
can keep water out with a sump pump.
Check the pitch of the floor and install
the sump at the low end. The pump can
usually be set in a section of 2-foot diam-
eter drain tile. A float automatically
starts the pump working when water level
rises to dangerous height. Most will pump
out 3,000 gallons or more per hour. Cost
of the pump may be as low as $50 or $75.
Dry Wells. To dispose of runoff from
leaders and drain tile lines, a dry well
can be invaluable. It can be no more
than a large hole filled with rocks. Better
wells are built of concrete blocks laid on
their sides to form a perforated cylinder.
The well is tapered toward the top for easy
covering.
New Construction Tips. To insure a dry
basement, select a site that is dry during
the wet season. Sites that prove trouble-
some in spring are often bone dry in sum-
mer.
Avoid building on filled ground. If
there is any doubt whatever about drain-
age, install drain tile around footings and
1114
rwiffii
DRY WELL to catch rainwater irom a single leader may be no more than a pit filled with large rocks.
be sure that the exterior of the foundation
walls is waterproofed, preferably with a
plastic membrane.
To help prevent damage to foundation
walls bulldoze backfill against walls only
after first floor framing is in place. Back-
fill should be clean, porous material only.
If walls are of poured concrete, they are
most likely to be watertight if placed when
temperatures are between 50 and 60 de-
grees. The concrete should be placed
continuously to avoid seams. It should be
spaded to eliminate pockets, but care
should be exercised to avoid overwork-
ing it. If work is stopped, keyways should
be provided to help bond new concrete to
that previously placed.
Curing is important in the making oi
waterproof walls and basement floors.
They should be kept continuously damp
for two weeks. Intermittent sprinkling is
not enough. Floors should be reinforced
and all joints where floor meets walls
should be coved.

LATEX CONCRETE has a rubber base and is ideal
material ior doing many kinds of waterproofing.
1115
LEFT is typiccd drorwer layout of
cdl ports: drawer front is at left
drawer sides at top and bottom.
BELOW, side is nailed into rab-
bet in drawer front after gluing
parts: use 4d finishing nails.
They may be the smallest physical part
of
your project^ hut
they're not the easiest to m,ake. Yet they needn't be tough.
YEARS
AGO, a drawer was the re-
flection of a craftsman

perhaps be-
cause most cabinets had more drawers
than those found nowadayswere
made of heavier sohd woods, and were
considerably larger than you see today.
The only joint known then for drawer
construction was a handcut dovetail.
This type of construction is a dying art
today, due mostly to the change in ma-
terials used now in cabinets. It would
be hardly feasible to dovetail a plywood
drawer front, and would probably do
more harm than good.
While a rabbet joint, used as illus-
trated in this story, may not be the very
best drawer joint, it has proved its
ability to withstand the ordinary use
and abuse of a drawer. Andvery im-
portant, tooa rabbet joint is very easy
to repair. The serious adventurer into
fine cabinetry may wish to tackle a
more complicated and perhaps superior
type of joint, but for the home hobbyist
with practical considerations of time
and available) equipment, the rabbet
joint is more than adequate.
Following is the procedure for pre-
paring a drawer for assembly: After
having one straight edge for its bottom,
the drawer front should be squared up
on one end and then fitted to the open-
ing with a clearance of
,V;
inch on each
edge. It's advisable to use cardboard
,',; inch thick to test for proper clear-
ance. Next, the drawer sides are fitted
into place and the inside bottom and top
edges are marked for assembly identifi-
1116
Photoi on these pages br Milton RaUmon anleas otbetwiM notm).
DRAWERS
DRAWER BACK is mounted by ncriling into sides, with back clearing dadoed gtoore in sides.
Center, drawer is squared before inserting bottom; do this by
measuring diagonaUy
across.
Right, bottom is inserted from back, and should be 1/16 inch smaller than groove, and square.
Edward DeLong photo
REAR EDGE of drawer sides is chamfered % inch to enable drawer to be used more easily.
If drawer fits loosely put thumbtacks near runners, around 1 inch from drawer opening.
For drawers without handles, y4-inch elevation with front piece cut out allows opening.
cation. A ^4-inch groove is then dadoed
into the sides and front, ^ inch from the
bottom edge, for the drawer bottom.
Especially in small drawers where a
thinner plywood bottom may be used,
the dadoed groove is adjusted accord-
ingly.
Rabbet the ends of the drawer front
to half the thickness of the drawer front,
and as wide as the thickness of the
drawer sides used. Now the drawer
back is cut out. The length of the back
extends from rabbet to rabbet on the
drawer front, and the height of it from
the top of the dadoed groove for the
drawer bottom to the top edge of the
sides and front.
Before assembling the drawer, all in-
side surfaces should be sanded, but care
must be taken not to round off the
edges. The drawer sides then are glued
and nailed into the rabbets on the front,
making sure that the dadoed grooves
line up perfectly. Next the drawer back
is mounted between the sides with glue
and nails, keeping the back flush with
the back edge of the drawer sides. In
making a smaller, hght drawer, 3d
finishing nails will suffice; they can be
set
Vs
inch and the holes puttied. A
larger, heavy-duty drawer may require
the use of No. 8 flathead screws driven
in on a slant in the front only.
Excess glue should be cleaned off. The
drawer is squared up and the drawer
bottom is then mounted, and the drawer
is again checked for squareness and
straightness. The drawer bottom is
now fastened to the bottom edge of the
drawer back with %-inch nails.

1117
DIVIDERS
By Ralph Treves
A simple jig
for cutting y^-inch grooves into %-inch
half-
round molding is the secret behind better drawer space use.
Tjr/"OULD you like to divide a dresser
drawer into small compartments to
separate costume jewelry and other
items? Or, perhaps, the uprights of
your bookcases are too far apart and
you want additional vertical supports.
How do you hold these partitions in
place? The answer is simple enough.
Lengths of half-round molding into
which a narrow groove is cut are nailed
to the inside surfaces. Dividers of Vi-in.
plywood then are inserted and held se-
curely in the grooves.
You can groove the divider support-
ing strips easily on a bench saw with
the aid of a simple jig. The strips are
half-round molding, %-in. size, into
which
Vi-in.-wide grooves are cut ex-
actly in the center of the rounded sur-
face. The jig is designed to hold the
rounded surface evenly against a Vi-in.
dado blade.
To make the jig, use a 24-in. length of
clear, warp-free 1x3 pine lumber. Draw
a center line along its length, then cut a
%-in. wide dado to a depth of % in. Run
the board through again but with the
blade widened to
Vz in. and cutting only
to a depth of
V4 in. Next, run the board
over a %-in. dado blade but cut only to
1118
SIMPLE JIG, above, mcdces it easy to cut a
narrow groove into the half-round molding.
NAIL SHORT lengths of the molding to inside
of drawers. Use nail set to drive home ncdls.
MAKE IIG from Ix3x24-inch pine board.
Slot pattern is laid out in V^-inch squares.
COMPARTMENTS for record storage can
also be made with the help of the molding.
a depth of % in. Make sure to adjust the
fence each time so the cuts are in the
center. This will give you a rough slot
with staggered edges. Now sand this
slot so a piece of half-round molding
will fit snugly in it, with the top flush
along the board surface.
When this is done, cut a Vi-in. wide
slot along the center hne to a depth of
% in. For a distance of eight inches at
the very center of your jig, let the dado
go clear through the board. Nail a
couple of long strips of thin plywood
over the slots at each end; this helps
hold down the molding so grooves are
cut uniformly. Make a few test passes.
To operate, place the jig on the saw
so a V^-in. dado blade will fit into the
slot and adjust the saw fence to that po-
sition. Hold the jig so the open center
position is over the saw blade and ad-
just the blade height to about %
in.
above the table. This wiD result in cut-
ting a groove about
f\;
in. deep into the
half-rounds.
The jig remains in one position while
the half-round is pushed under the hold-
down plates and fed into the saw. Once
the set-up is arranged, you can run
through a dozen lengths in minutes.

1119
DRAWING
Perspective
ait
A knowledge of perspective and proportion
is indispensable for anyone who wants to draw
PERSPECTIVE
is the principle by which an object receding from
the position of the viewer appears, to the viewer, smaller than its
true size. Conversely, an object approaching the viewer's position
seems more and more to approximate its true size. Take a ruler and,
holding it vertically at arm's length, "measure" a person 30 feet away.
As he approaches, see how much larger he becomes. This test shows
the apparent variation in size of an object, depending on its distance
from the viewer. The VANISHING POINT is that point on the hori-
zon where parallel lines, which are perspective lines, seemingly come
together and terminate. This point is always on the horizon. The
horizon line is always on a line with the viewer's eyes, and it changes
with the viewer's changing position.
PROPORTION is the comparative relation of one thing to another.
In art, the standard of measure which establishes this is known as
the "head," which is the distance from top of skull to tip of chin.
The illustrations in this book are based on the proportion of seven
and a half "heads" to the height of an erect figure. But bear in mind
that this standard is modified by race, sex, age, and other physical
differences peculiar to the individual.
Above, a sample of +wo-point perspective. Note that point of sight
does not have to be centered. Right, worm's-eye-view of skyscraper
illustrates that lines may also converge when viewed from ground up.
1120
b^
Llfe*i
;JfjNfl
l:'A
1121
imam
M'm.
The vaiiishiii^: point need not always be in the center of the picture.
Eye level
DRAWING
Sketched from a four-story building
across the street, the horizon
ine is eaually high in drawing, above left.
Sketch not only illustrates perspective
of line, but also shows heavy weight of
line detail in foreground, as compared
to thinner lines in extreme background.
'In photograph above, note the proportion
of the building at left in relation
to perspective. Front of the building
is larger than it is ai center. This is
due to the converging lines. If you will
observe any photograph, you will
find this to be the case in every instance.
1123
i\mm
A square-paned window provides a framework of vertical and horizontal lines which
helps to determine the angle of the perspective lines. As you will see,
the vanishing point need not always be in the center of the picture. It may
suit your composition better to shift it to one side or the other of the horizon line.
1124
When you look direc+ly
up at a tall building,
you will find the center
vanishing point too high.
1125
When you look down to a vanishing point, the
subject is foreshortened to your view. But when
lootcing directly up at a building you may be
standing too close to make a pleasing drawing.
The answer is that if you sketch a building 500
feet high, you should stand 1500 feet from it.
1126
rs^

'.^" '
"!
'
I

.. .
W^
If!
r. 1
> 111
i
I
S
^>
"

*
'
i^-^t
s
Pencil. Pen ond Brush Technique
THE
materials needed are graphite pen-
cils HB and BBB, a soft rubber, a pli-
able pen, black ink, sable brush No. 1, and
a drawing pad 8x12". Too many tools are
confusing. It is much better to have a few
which you are able to master. The harder
pencil HB is generally used to start a
drawing as its lines are lighter and details
can be indicated for a bolder technique
"
mm
later with the softer BBB. Drawings made
entirely with the EB pencil are apt to be
hard and lacking in a sufficient variety of
tones. It should be insisted upon here that
haste is the greatest pitfall. Always take
plenty of time to study your subject before
you even pick up your pencil. Decide on
your plan of composition

then execute it.


This will save much erasing.
IfHil'!:
I

Practicing the above shading technique by varying the pressure of the pencil,
will give control of the pencil and its possibilities for obtaining light and dark tones.
.^
In order to execute broad strokes with your pencil, the lead should be worn
down to the form of a chisel. And do not grip the pencil, hold it lightly, firmly.
1128
DRAWING
^-
-"i^
'-?^m^
r:Mt!-j
<f^
The first line in a drawing should be the most important and the last of least value.
It is, of course, a very good idea to make preliminary sketches before you begin in earnest.
Now practice bold strokes keeping their weight and relative distances.
It doesn't matter whether you are right- or left-handed, this will prove
excellent training for future work. Bold tones are used in styllzea sketching
ff*^^*^-^-^
Now keep your lines closer together, melting them into flat tints and graded
ones, as illustrated above. Practice this shading until you are
proficient in controlling your pencil-pressure, which will give you the
ability to vary tints that your composition may eventually require.
Sharpen the lead of a B6B pencil so that it resembles a chisel, and wear down
the fead to make it smooth for broad strokes. The pencil will then prove
highly effective for sketching. In other words, it will help vary the width
of strokes with the result that your drawing will have a nruich more interesting
quality. The foreground can usually be treated with broader and darker
strokes and the distance made lighter. You will see this in any picture you study.
It is useful to learn to use the pen in different directions and to cross hatch at
various angles. Practicing these strokes will give control of the pen, and added
freedom. Carefully study the different strokes in the illustration below, then practice.
1129
Composition
TRY
to make the basic lines conform to a pattern, and on the design
draw a realistic landscape. Observe in the patterns on these pages,
and in the photograph, that no two areas of space are alike, which lends
more interest to the composition. Use a silhouette methwl to feel out
the balance of areas of light and of dark, and this will help keep the com-
position simple. For practice, you might try copying the photograph.
Photo by Raymond L. Propst, 19th.
Annual Newspaper National Snapshot Awards
DRAWING
HeadjS
The easiest way to learn about drawing a head is
to start by drawing circles, then build from there
THE
top of the head, or cranium is very like a ball in shape. So
when starting to draw a head begin with a ball. Then you can
add other shapes to it. It's the same principle as the addition of
clay to the framework of a piece of sculpture. You work always
from the inside out. Facial expressions come later. And they must
be studied cau-efully. Most of us ah-eady know that a person's facial
expression reveals a good bit about his character and emotion. A
scowl, for example clearly reveals its meaning, so does a smile, a
puckered forehead. Each facial expression can be broken down
into detail, for there is a special movement of each separate feature.
Important, too, in the revealing of character is the angle of a per-
son's head, the way he holds it and moves it about. Also the tension
of the neck will indicate a lot about someone. Is he a rigid sort of
person? His neck might then be hard, his head thrusting forward.
Is he a withdrawn type? His head might then have an attitude of
"ducking." The habit of observation then is an important one for
the artist, professional or amateur, to acquire if he does not already
have it. And for the amateur, drawinglooking at people with the
idea of sketching themwill give him a new point of view and will
teach him a great deal about people that he might not have known
before. It is one of the bonuses of art study that it not only teaches
us how to draw, but it also teaches us about people and a good bit
about ourselves, too.
Some of the changes fhaf occur at difFerent ages. In middle
life, for example, fat accumulates and fills out the
features, then the skin loses its elasticity and wrinkles
more easily. The jaw changes form, the mouth tends to get larger.
1132
liTMH
Infant
Adult
1134
Coronoid
TempordI
hone
ISM
'Mastoidbone.
.nncfU "flowerjdw
ArticulaHon ^mw
Tp vjetv
If you understand fhe movements of the skeletal structure, in this
instance, the articulation of the jaw, then you will be
better equipped for drawing the various expressions of the human face.
1135
IffTHffl
fronta.lis
-
CompreJ3
or
Tlari3
Levator IolItil
3upe.rcori,s
ObicuIa.ris'
pdipehyarum
'Zugomaticus
^
Jninor
"
major
0/'h/cularLS> oris
Buccinator
Ri5oriu.s>
Depressor lahi c
.Inferioris
^
^
Depressor a.nauii
Diaastrcc

Mylo-hyoid
3tt.rno-hyoicl
OmO'hyoicl
^lemo-mas
Ma.s5e.teir
pemispinalis
SpleniuLS
StyJo-hyoid.
M
iJdle constnctor
Levator
scap-LcU
OmO'hyoid
Scalenus
medium
3c cilenus
anterior
Trkpe-zius
toid
Frontalis
Temporal
Orbicularis
palpebrarum
Levator labii {[^
superiorly alaegue\ i ,)
,
/JdLit
y-i^
Xugomatic major,
f "
minor-
Risorius
M<33seter
Depressor anauli oris
Inferior
constrLcto.
Thyro-hijoid
Orrto-hijoidL
7repe2LU3
Acr^
of
scapula
Clavicle.
"Jfie underlining
and the superficial
nempoml
^'i'LeMtor paJvehr^rum iuptrior'is
R^ramidalis
^^Compressor naris
Levntor labii superioris
Buccinator
Orbicularis oris
Depressor labii inferioris
Levator mertti
Sterno-mastoid
Scalenus posterior
Jterno-hijotd
Levator scapula
calenus medius
^Scalenus'interior
Omo-hyoid
:les 'fth face andneck
Muscles control expres-
sions. They work
by shrinking. The
skin, fornrting the
expression, is wrinkled
a\ right angles to
the pull of the muscle.
Try now to imagine
what muscles are
controlling the ex-
pression of the young
lady in the photograph.
1136
DRAWING
."^v
V
Em
^i
;i;
^_ii
;i;
/
I
'';
^Kj
>
_. .jJ
^
.
i^J
.'
i- _ .
u:^
^Hrf
The ox/clI l5
ofierr ij.5ecj as a basis for alvCnq the oeneraL"outline.
of the heacL.
imaginary Lines will help io
place iHe {ecittcres ih"the,ir
proper re.la.iioti and to ^ive. conveyity to
the, ke,OLcL
,
Begin with an elonqafed bail, or oval
for the general outline of the head.
It helps to indicate the size
and position desired. Then draw a
facial line right down the front
of the face, then a line across
the eyes about nrtidway between the chin
and tne top of
the head. Draw a line for
the base of the nose. Divide the
space between the nose and chin
into three parts, and place the mouth
one third from the nose. These
are known as the basic drawing lines.
1138
IMIWI
J
DRAWING
Note here the contour and shading
of the lips. Hold in mind the
fact that hair has a definite
sh^pe. When blocked it is greatly
affected by light and shade. Be
careful to avoid making it look like straw.
1140
m
nifwi
Do not keep sharpening your medium
soft pencil. A blunt point gives
a richer and more vigorous
line and is more easily read.
If you need thinner lines at times,
keep turning your pencil
so tnat you'll nave a sharp edge.
1142
DRAWING
The lines of men's faces have much sharper
angles. Eyebrows straighten and seem
much closer together than on a woman. In
copying the expressions above try to use
few shadows to show how they can be illus-
trated with only just a little more than outline.
1144
DRAWING
DRAWING
\\
JLi
^
DRAWING
aii riaii
study the motion of hands and arms, understand
what they can do, then sketch as
many as you can
IN
this chapter the anatomy of the hand and arm has been empha-
sized because it is so very important to the drawing of these
members. The reason for this, especially in the case of the hsinds,
is because they are almost constantly in motion. The hand, it
should be said, is second only to the face in terms of expressive
quaUties. Hands help to deteiinine personality, age, sex, even race
and profession. Indeed, often one can learn more from studying
another person's hands than by looking at his face, which more
often than not is masked. The basic thing to note in drawing a
hand is the relationship between the knuckles. And it is best in
starting to draw the hand to use the blocking method. Study the
diagrams on the following pages carefully, familiarize yourself with
just what a hand and an arm can do. Kow does the arm hang? How
does it bend when someone is lifting something or reaching out,
or up? Study your friends' hands. Note them by profession. An
artist's hands are different from a butcher's. An actress' hands
are different from those of a business woman. And practice. Keep
making sketches of hands and arms whenever you can. This is
the best way to acquire speed and skill.
Drachia-hs einficus
A In a
Outer
Vtew
'fRtaht Arm
Eycteyisoy dtcfitt
auiyiCt
cotrimuiiis
Cxtensof
communis c^tattorum
Exte.nsof'ca.rpt.
r<Ldta.Us lon^9

5-upi-i itor U
Here you see how fhe arm can bend and twist, what lies beneath
the skin to make it the way it is. Limbs in particular must
look "alive" when they are drawn. This cannot be overemphasized.
1147
DRAWING
1148
ril;U'.']l!ft|
r> t of Ihe hanc
The furthef-joinls ofifis fin^eysy^^'*^
/^;^q^ JqI
are hmoejoints and
jiave
no lafej-al
f
''

pioLQ'
Jhey only flex andextend.
Back view
of the hones
of The wrist
and hand
. This Spojce
permlts
of <^ea tat-play
on
the little finger
side, of the hand
"^Eight carpal
bones
Cartilage hetweeri
ihe carpal
hones
series
as cushions.
The short liga-
ments bin ding
the hones toqetntr
make a resilient
compactmass.
Ball joints of
the metacarpal
hones permit
the
rr>ovement
of thz finders
from side to
side.
The long^metacarpal
bones form the corn/ex
curve, on the back of
Ihe hand andthe cori'
cave curve on the pain
of the hand.
>pi
uy
Understand the hinge joints of the hand, especially the relationship of the
thumb to the fingers. And note how the hand, even in a relaxed position
has grace and character. Now try to imagine the skeletal structure of your own hand.
1149
DRAWING
Te^iS and Feet
i<f3:'^jj^'fr*<r??5'ii>i-aijt;ix-:.rss!!r
Master the principle of foreshortening,
and this will help you in drawing legs and fi
''T'^HE same principles apply in drawing the legs and feet as in
X drawing the other extremities. Knowledge of the basic struc-
ture and manipulation of the limb will help you understand just
how to set a foot on the floor, how to show a person actually walking,
with the correct tensions in the ankle and calf of the leg. Proportion
is important here. One of the pitfcdls of the beginner is inability
to foreshorten a figure when in a reclining pose. The beginner
often makes the legs either too long or too short. The main thing
to remember is that actually foreshortening is drawing in perspec-
tive. All lines tend to meet the level of the eye and in doing so
some lines become hidden by others, some are shortened, some
lengthened, some come forward, others recede. We mentioned
earlier about objects growing smaller as they move away from the
eye, and larger as they approach it. In a leg bent at the knee, for
instance, the mass of the knee will be most prominent, the forepai't
of the calf next, and because of its size, the foot next, with the rest
of the leg tapering sharply into the foot. Think of a figure as sec-
tions fitted together. Build your drawing carefully.
Greater- trocUu-nter-
Lesier trochanter
Femur
T*-hulA
1150
lil:M'.']liH
Comparing the sketches with the photo-
graph, we can see exactly what is
inside the figure, what hinge
joints are operative, how the pelvic
girdle is in relation to the
thigh bones. Giving the impression
of weight is important. The model looks
like she really is sitting and lying down
1151
Brfnifry
(
^
y\
[A
ti'^"
_i_3