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Analysis for Community Base Project

For the Community Base Evaluation of Water Supply and Sanitation


Activities in the Urban Program & Documentation of Best Practices/Lessons
Learned


A. Preface

From the 42 Community Base Water and Sanitation Projects,
these projects can be classified as:

1. Operated

There are 29 projects are still operated by various
operation entities (RW, RT, Private or by another NGO).
And can be also be divided as Profitable operation, Not
Profitable (but still operated) and still operated, but with
lack of maintenance and repair.

2. Demolished

There are 10 projects that have been demolished with
various reason, 7 projects, especially Public Latrine
(MCK=Mandi Cuci Kakus) are demolished by the Provincial
Government due that these facilities are build on Green
Belt area, especially on Levee or River Bank; even one
case that the MCK are on top of the river body. The other
3 are demolished due to natural disaster such as flood or
torn down by quakes or landslides.

3. On Going

There 4 projects that are still on going or have been built
or not yet operated (still under construction). This projects
are the IPLT (Instalasi Pengolahan Limbah Terpadu) or
Waste Water Treatment in Kelurahan Penjaringan
Kecamatan Penjaringan. The Hand washing facilities under
the HP3 Project of the Community Base and other facilities
that still under construction.

The analyses made are mainly for the 29 on going project (28 in
some case due to lack of data). The demolished reports are
made also for the 10 project demolished due to various reasons
and specifically mentioned these reasons.

B. The Observed Facilities

The observed facilities consist of
Hand Washing Station
which are to promote Clean Water and Hand Washing
habits to the population.
Public Latrine (MCK) with adult latrine and baby
suitability latrines
There are two types of MCK :
o Ordinary MCK
o MCK with sludge digestion to abstract biogas from
the excreta deposit in the septic tank.
Posyandu (Pos Pelayanan Terpadu=Integrated
Service Post)
There are two types of Posyandu :
o Ordinary Posyandu
o Posyandu are equipped with Public Latrine (MCK)
Public Hydrant
Water storage tank filled by the PAM JAYA
These types of facilities are variable observed and tabulated
through the following analysis.

C. General Analysis

The Community Base Projects in Urban Jakarta targeted the
slums and squatters for the Urban Poor especially in Metropolitan
Jakarta (27 projects) and 2 projects in Jatake Tangerang of
Suburban or a part of Greater Jakarta (Jabodetabek=Jakarta
Bogor Depok Tangerang and Bekasi).

The slums and squatters in Urban Jakarta suffer the typical
condition: Lack of Sanitation facilities, Source of Clean Water
Supply and also Solid Waste problems. For the sanitation
facilities, the Community Base helps them with the Posyandu +
+ (plus plus), that means the Posyandu (Pos Pelayanan
Terpadu=Integrated Service Post) are equipped with Public
Latrine (MCK), Hand Washing Stations and other facilities such
hygienic room for nursing babies. Other facilities are Public
Latrine (MCK) with adult latrine and baby suitability latrines. The
Public Hydrant and Hand Washing Station are also supplied to
these are to promote Clean Water and Hand Washing habits to
the population.

These projects have various effects and outcomes, some
are
Types of the Facilities
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Hand Washing MCK MCK+(biogas) Posyandu Posyandu ++MCK Public Hydrant

still operating and sustainable, others are operating with
limitation and some are being abandoned.

In general, most of the facilities are still operated and manage
well, even in some area there are success story of the facilities,
That is, that the facilities met the population needs and that the
facilities are the answer of water supply and sanitation problems.
On the other hand, some small amount facilities are not being
used or the facilities are not managed well.

The analyses are to identify the facilities which are operated,
manage well and most likely to be sustainable and which
facilities that are not well operated and are not well managed.
For that, there are the partial analyses and cross tabulation
analyses. With the criteria of Operation / Technical Analyses and
Financial and Management Analyses for Partial Analyses and
Cross Tabulation of those Analyses.


D. Partial Analyses

1. Operation / Technical Analyses

i. Performance / User per Day

a. Population

The number of user of the facilities (all types of
facilities: MCK, hand Washing, Water Supply
etc.) per day can stated as follows:

Number of user (O & M)
0
2
4
6
8
10
0 - 50 50 -
100
100 -
150
150 -
200
200 -
250
250 -
300
300 -
350
350 -
400
No of User

Source: Watsan Survey, 2008

Most of the facilities have 0 to50 users per day
(Eight facilities). Five facilities have 50 to 100
users per day, four facilities have 300 to 350
users per day, three facilities have 100 to 150
users per day, and two facilities have 200 to
250 users per day and 250 to 300 users per
day. And one facility have user 350 to 400 user
per day.

b. Performance

The performance of the facilities can be stated
as Without Electricity and Profitable and are as
follows:
Performance of the facilities
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
No of Project 6 11 3 3 4 1
Without Electicity 3 1
Profitable 4 3
: Hand
Washing
: MCK
:
MCK+(bioga
s)
: Posy andu
: Posy andu
++MCK
: Public
Hy drant

Source: Watsan Survey, 2008

There 6 project of Hand Washing Station which
are all operated, that means, the water are
available from the taps. There are 11 project of
MCK and MCK ceria (MCK with children
suitability), 3 of these MCK are without
electricity (using hand pumps and without no
lamp), and 4 of these MCK are profitable.
There are 3 MCK biogas which are all profitable
and equipped with other facilities such as
Posyandu. There are 3 Posyandu and 4
Posyandu + + (equipped with MCK and
Health/Hygienic Facilities) and 1 Public
Hydrant.

The MCK and MCK biogas, including the MCK
ceria, in some places are profitable. These MCK
are operated with a management who collect a
sum of money in two ways, the first is the
neighboring houses without a private latrine
which pays about Rp 5,000 to Rp 10,000 a
month. And the second income comes from the
entrance fee per person for Rp 1,000 to Rp
1,500 for bathing and washing, and another
entrance fee of Rp 500 to Rp 1,000 for the
latrine.

There expenditures are for the electricity bill
(for the electricity pump and lamps), employee
daily cost and minor repair.

ii. Water

a. Water Volume

Water Consumption
0
5
10
Liter/day
N
o

O
f

P
r
o
j
e
c
t
No of Project 5 7 8 4 2
0-500 500-1000 1000-1500 1500-2000 2000-5000

Source: Watsan Survey, 2008

Most of the facilities are using water of 1,000
to 1,500 liter per day (8 facilities). 7 facilities
are using 500 to 1,000 liter a day, 5 facilities
are using water less than 500 liter a day, 4
facilities are using facilities of 1,500 to 2,000
liter a day and 2 facilities are using water for
more than 2,000 up to 5,000 liter a day.

Water Consumption
0
1000
2000
Liter/day
N
o

O
f

P
r
o
j
e
c
t
No of Project 5 7 8 4 2
Average Population 1,220 1,835 693 1,178 560
0-500 500-1000 1000-1500 1500-2000 2000-5000


Based on the figure above there is no
correlation between the population served and
the water consumption.

b. Water Quality

Water Quality
0
10
20
30
No of Project 4 23 1
Brackish OK OK PAM

Source: Watsan Survey, 2008
From the 28 facilities, 23 facilities are using
good quality water (no color, no odor and no
taste); some of these facilities are using Air
Rahmat (Sodium Hypochlorite) to treat the
water. 1 facilities are using PAM Jaya water
with a quality of Clean Water (Air Bersih)
1
. And
4 facilities are using the brackish water (not
suitable for bathing or drinking).

c. Well Depth


Depth of the well (m)
0
20
40
60
Depth (m) 15 20 12 16 20 20 15 20 50 50 20 20 15 20
Brackish 0 0 0 0
Kel
Penjari
ngan
Bendu
ngan
Hilir
Jelamb
ar Baru
RT
Kali
Anyar
RT 02
Karet
Tengsi
n
Keagu
ngan
001/09
Kel
Penjari
ngan
Kel
Rawa
Terate
Kelura
han
Alam
Kelura
han
Gembo
Krenda
ng
Selatan
Petojo
Utara
002/08
Prump
ung RT
01
Rawa
Bunga
006/05


1
Clean Water is based on Permenkes (Regulation of Health Minister) No 416 year 1990. Suitable for
washing and bathing, but the water have to boiled (100
o
C) to be able match the Drinking water standard.
Source: Watsan Survey, 2008

Most of facilities are using well of 20 meter
deep or less / shallow well (26 projects) and 2
facilities are using the deep well of about 50
meters deep.



iii. Waste Water

a. Waste Water Flow/Discharged waste water

Waste Water Flow
0
2
4
6
8
10
Flooded sewer
system
Straight to
the pond
Straight to
the river

Source: Watsan Survey, 2008

There 9 facilities that are using the sewer
system, the other are 6 facilities are causing
small flood in which the discharge water
become stagnant in a small pool of water, 3
facilities are using pond as the waste water
disposal and 9 facilities are using river as
waste water disposal. All MCK waste water are
treated with septic tank before discharge to
the next water body except in Rawa Bunga and
Perumpung.

b. Contamination

Level of contamination
0
5
10
15
20
High level of
contamination
Low level of
contamination
N
o

P
r
o
j
e
c
t

Source: Watsan Survey, 2008

As the 18 facilities are not using the sewer
system, the levels of contamination are high.
And the other 9 facilities with the sewer
system have a low level of contamination.

The high level of contamination is shown by
the surrounding stagnant flood of water which
can be a potential source of disease. The odor
of water has a highly bad smell and the color
of the water is black (black water)

The low level of contamination is shown
by the
water to be disposed in the sewerage
system which has low impact for the
surrounding water. The wastewater
outflow has a low contamination
classified as grey water


2. Financial and Social Analysis

i. Financial

No of Facilities
0
5
10
15
20
No of Facilities 12 16
Cost recover NonCost recover

Source: Watsan Survey, 2008

As the facilities are operated by obtaining
income from entrance fee and use this income
for the facilities costs (electricity, employee
and small repair). From 28 facilities, 12 of this
facilities are cost recovery (income exceeds
cost) and 16 of this facilities are not cost
recovery (cost exceeds income). In this case,
some of this facilities are turning to hand
pump, instead of electricity pump, and low
maintenance (the latrine are dirty, no lighting
and no repair).

ii. Adaptation

a. Adaptation

Adaptive
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Adaptive Not Adaptive
N
o

P
r
o
j
e
c
t
s
Cost Recovery
Non Cost Recovery

Source: Watsan Survey, 2008

Adaptive means the user of the facilities can
adapt to newly introduced technology
embedded by the facilities. The innovations
are:
1. The biogas digester MCK
2. The use of Air Rahmat (Sodium
Hypochlorite) as water disinfectant.
3. The use of Hand Washing facilities as a
habit.

From the 28 facilities, 21 facilities are adaptive
to the innovation and 7 are not adaptive. The
facilities that are not adaptive, mostly which
are not well managed (still using a hand pump,
the facilities are not cleaned regularly etc.)

The graph shows that the adaptive facility has
a correlation to the financial aspect in which
that most of the adaptive facilities has manage
to be more cost recoverable

b. Operation

Operation Condition
0
5
10
15
20
25
N
o

O
f

P
r
o
j
e
c
t
No Of Project 20 2 4 1
In Operation
Partially
Operation
Not Yet
Operated
Not Operated

Source: Watsan Survey, 2008

From the 28 facilities, 20 facilities are in
operation and 2 are partly operated (not well
managed), 4 are not yet operated (used
occasionally) and 1 are no longer operated
(Public Hydrant in Rawa Terate RW 06).







iii. Organization

a. Management
Management
0
5
10
15
No Of Project 13 8 2 1 3
RW RT BEST Private None

Source: Watsan Survey, 2008

From 28 facilities, 13 of these facilities are
managed by the RW (Rukun Warga =
Community Organization), 8 facilities are
managed by the RT (Rukun Tetangga =
Neighborhood Organization), 2 facilities are
managed by BEST (Bina Ekonomi Sarana
Ekonomi Terpadu = a Local NGO) and 1
facilities are managed by private entities.

b. Building Permit
Building Permit
0
5
10
15
20
No Of Location 9 19
IMB No IMB

Source: Watsan Survey, 2008

From 28 facilities, 9 of these facilities have a
IMB (Ijin Mendirikan Bangunan=Legal Permit
for the Building), 19 of these facilities does not
have an IMB (Illegal status).

















c. Number of Staff

Management staff
0
5
10
15
20
N
o

o
f

P
r
o
j
e
c
t
No Of Project 1 1 1 2 1 3 3 15
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Source: Watsan Survey, 2008

From 28 facilities, 15 of these facilities have 8
staffs, 3 facilities have 7 staffs, another 3
facilities have 6 staffs, 1 facilities has 5 staffs,
2 facilities have 4 staffs, and there are 1
facilities have 3 staffs, another 1 facilities have
2 staffs and also 1 facilities that have 1 staffs.

d. Ownership
Land Ownership
0
5
10
15
20
No of Project 17 5 2 1 1 1
Comm
unity
PEMD
A
BEST
Donat
ed
KSDA Private

Source: Watsan Survey, 2008
From 28 facilities, the land of 17 of these
facilities belong to the community, 5 facilities
belong to the Local Government (PEMDA =
Pemerintah Daerah), 2 land belong to BEST (a
Local NGO, 1 land belong to KSDA and 1 land
belong to private ownership.



E. Cross Tabulation Analysis

1. Performance cross tabulation with Financial

















Source: Watsan Survey, 2008

Most of the facilities that is Cost Recover perspective are
the Public Latrine (MCK) and MCK biogas, followed by
Posyandu and Posyandu ++ (with MCK). The hand washing
station is Not Cost Recovery, but that is understandable,
because it is a free facility.


Financial Performance of the facilities
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Cost Recover
Not Cost Recover
Cost Recover 7 3 2 3 0
Not Cost Recover 6 4 0 1 1 1
: Hand
Washing
: MCK
: MCK
++biogas
:
Posyand
u
:
Posyand
u ++MCK
: Public
Hydrant
Operation time (years)
0
5
10
15
5 - 8 y ears 5 7 2
0 - 4 y ears 1 7 5 1
Hand Washing MCK Posy andu Public Hy drant


Half of the MCK observed has been built 5 to 8 years and
the rest is under 4 years. And most of the pos yandu is
under 4 years.


2. Performance cross tabulation with Adaptation
Cross Tabulation between Adaptation
and Number of Users
0
5
10
15
>100 100-200 200-300 300-400
Adaptation No Adaptation

Source: Watsan Survey, 2008

From the 21 facilities that are adaptive, 11 facilities have
user below 100 users a day, 4 have 100 to 200 user per
day and 3 have 200 to 300 users per day and another 3
have 300 to 400 users per day. The facilities that are not
adaptive, 7 have users below 100 and the facilities with
user more than 100 are adaptive.

3. Performance cross tabulation with Organization
No of User VS Management
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
<100 100-200 200-300 300-400
User/day
N
o

o
f

F
a
c
i
l
i
t
i
e
sRT
RW
Best
Private
Community

Source: Watsan Survey, 2008

From the 28 facilities,
7 facilities that are managed by the RT community and
5 facilities that are managed by the RW community and
a private management and other community have users
below 100 users a day.
2 facilities that are managed by the RT Community and
3 facilities that are managed by RW Community have
users between 100 to 200.
6 facilities that are managed by the RW community and
2 facilities that are managed by the NGO Best have
users between 200-300 a day.
1 facilities that are managed by the RT community have
users above 300 users a day.


Correlation Management VS Cost Recovery
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
R
T
R
W
B
E
S
T
P
r
i
v
a
t
e
c
o
m
m
u
n
i
t
y
Management
N
o

o
f

F
a
c
i
l
i
t
i
e
s
Cost Recovery
Non Cost Recovery


From the 5 management organizations shows that:

6 out of 10 of the RT management are cost recoverable
3 out of 14 of the RT management are cost recoverable
All of the facilities managed by the NGO and managed by
private entities are cost recoverable
Facilities managed by community other than RT and RW is
not cost recoverable.

F. Summarized and Conclusion

The average user of the Community Base facilities is below 150
users per day, with the exception of MCK Biogas in Kelurahan
Alam Jaya Tangerang with user more than 300 users per day.

There 6 project of Hand Washing Station which are all operated,
that means, the water are available from the taps.

Source of Water for Hands Washing
0
1
2
3
4
5
Ground water 4 unit Piped Water 2 unit

From the 6 Hands washing facilities 4 are using ground water
and 2 are using piped water from PAM JAYA since the existing
ground water are not usable due to the high salinity content .

There are 11 project of MCK and MCK ceria (MCK with children
suitability), 3 of these MCK are without electricity (using hand
pumps and without no lamp), and 4 of these MCK are profitable.
There are 3 MCK biogas which are all profitable and equipped
with other facilities such as Posyandu. There are 3 Posyandu and
4 Posyandu + + (equipped with MCK and Health/Hygienic
Facilities) and 1 Public Hydrant.

Most of the facilities are using water of 1,000 to 1,500 liter per
day (8 facilities). 7 facilities are using 500 to 1,000 liter a day.

Most of the facilities are using good quality water (no color, no
odor and no taste); some of these facilities are using Air Rahmat
(Sodium Hypochlorite) to treat the water. 1 facility is using PAM
Jaya water with a quality of Clean Water (Air Bersih)
2
. And 4
facilities are using the brackish water (not suitable for bathing or
drinking).

Most of facilities are using well of 20 meter deep or less /
shallow well (26 projects) and 2 facilities are using the deep well
of about 50 meters deep.

Only 9 facilities that are using the sewer system, the other are 6
facilities flooded, 3 facilities are using pond as the waste water

2
Clean Water is based on Permenkes (Regulation of Health Minister) No 416 year 1990. Suitable for
washing and bathing, but the water have to boiled (100
o
C) to be able match the Drinking water standard.
disposal and 9 facilities are using river as waste water disposal.
Therefore, the facilities that are not using the sewer system, the
levels of contamination are high. And the other 9 facilities with
the sewer system have a low level of contamination.

Twelve of this facilities are cost recovery (income exceeds cost)
and 16 of this facilities are not cost recovery (cost exceeds
income). In this case, some of this facilities are turning to hand
pump, instead of electricity pump, and low maintenance (the
latrine are dirty, no lighting and no repair).

Twenty One facilities are adaptive to the innovation and 7 are
not adaptive. The facilities that are not adaptive, mostly which
are not well managed.

Twenty facilities are in full operation and 2 are partly operated
(not well managed), 4 are not yet operated (used occasionally)
and 1 are no longer operated (Public Hydrant in Rawa Terate RW
06).

Thirteen of these facilities are managed by the RW, 8 facilities
are managed by the RT, 2 facilities are managed by a Local
NGO) and 1 facilities are managed by private entities.

Nine of these facilities have a IMB, 19 of these facilities does not
have an IMB (Illegal status).

Fifteen of these facilities have 8 staffs, 3 facilities have 7 staffs,
another 3 facilities have 6 staffs, 1 facilities has 5 staffs, 2
facilities have 4 staffs, and there are 1 facilities have 3 staffs,
another 1 facilities have 2 staffs and also 1 facilities that have 1
staffs.

Seventeen of these facilities land belong to the community, 5
land belong to PEMDA , 2 land belong to a Local NGO, 1 land
belong to KSDA and 1 land belong to private ownership.

Most of the facilities that is Cost Recover perspective are the
Public Latrine (MCK) and MCK biogas, followed by Posyandu and
Posyandu ++ (with MCK). The hand washing station is Not Cost
Recovery, but that is understandable, because it is a free facility.
The Public Latrine is not being used anymore, the reason is
describe in the FGD report.

Most of the facilities that are not adaptive have users below 100.
And the facilities that have more than 300 user are 100%
adaptive.

Most of the facilities that have user below 300 are managed by
the RT and RW Community, and the facilities that have more
than 300 users are managed by a Local NGO or a Private Entity.

Management which has 100 % in cost recover are NGO and
private. Management run by RT RW and other community has 13
out of 25 successes in cost recovery.