Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 7

Electromagnetism

(keelektromagnetan)
The magnetic field due to a
current in a straight wire
Kesan medan magnet dalam
konduktor berarus.

The direction of the magnetic field
can be determined using amperes
right-hand rule
Arah medan megnat mengikut petua
gengaman tangan kanan atau skru
mexwell.

Thumb direction of the current
other four fingers direction of the
magnetic field

Right-hand grip rule






To determine the polarity at the
ends of solenoid
Petua menentukan kekutuban medan
magnet pada solenoid

1. -Anti clockwise (lawan arah
putaran jarum jam) north
-clockwise (mengikut arah
putaran jarum jam) south

2. The right-hand grip rule
(peraturan genggaman tangan
kanan).
The thumb pointing to the north
pole, four fingers direction of
the current
(ibu jari menunjukan arah utara ,
4 jari lain menunjukkan arah
arus).










Current in coil

Applications of electromagnets
Prinsip penggunaan elektromagnet
Electromagnetic consists of a
solenoid and iron core inside
(Elektromagnet terdiri drp. satu
solenoid dan satu teras besi lembut
di dlmnya).

When the current is switch on, iron
soft core will be act as a magnet,
and when current is switched off, it
stop as a magnet (Apabila arus
mengalir dlm solenoid, teras besi
lembut akan menjadi magnet dan
apabila arus dimatikan,
kemagnetannya hilang)

Factors affecting the strength of
the magnetic field of an
electromagnetic .
(Faktor yg. mempengaruhi kekuatan
medan magnet)
1. Numbers of turn (Bilangan
lilitan(n)),
2. Magnitude of the current (Arus )
3. Soft iron core (Teras besi lembut)


>When the switch is switch on,
current flow in the circuit and in
solenoid. The iron core is
magnetised. Soft iron armature is
attracted to the iron core. Hammer
moves with the soft iron armature to
strike the gong and ringing the bell.
Contact adjuting will open and
current is off. soft iron loses it
electromagnetism . spring pull back
the iron armature to its original
position to close the circuit and the
proses of producing the ringing of
the bell continues.

Bila suis disambung, arus mengalir
dalam litar dan solenoid, Teras besi
lembut dimagnetkan. Angker besi
lembut tertarik ke teras besi lembut.
tukul bergerak memukul loceng.
Sesentuh terlepas dan arus tidak
mengalir. , teras besi lembut hilang
magnet. Spring menarik angker besi
lembut ke kedudukan asal, sesentuh
bercantum dan proses yang sama
berulang.

1. Electric bell (Loceng elektrik).
Soft iron core
(Teras besi
lembut)
Gong
Hammer ( pemukul)
Springs
suis
Contact adjusting (sesentuh)
Soft iron armature
(Angker besi lembut)
solenoid
Teras besi lembut
Jarum peniti

When switch is on, a small current
flows through the electromagnet.
The iron core is magnetised. End of
the soft iron armature is pulled to
electromagnet. The other end of the
soft iron armature to push and closes
the contact. The output circuit is
closed and a larger current flows
through the motor. Thus, the electric
motor is turned on.

bila suiz di hidupkan, arus kecil
mengalir melalui electromagnet.
Teras besi lembut di magnetkan.
Hujung angker(X) tertarik ke
electromagnet. Hujung angker satu
lagi menolak dan mencantumkan
sesentuh. Litar output disambung
dan arus yang lebih besar
menghidupkan motor.

----------------------------------






















The force on a current-carrying
conductor in a magnetic field
Daya saling tindakan di antara
konduktor berarus dengan medan
magnet (medan lastik).





The direction of the magnetic force
can be determine using Flemings
left rule. (Arah tindakan daya boleh
ditentukan mengikut petua tgn. Kiri
Fleming)
Thumb direction the magnetic
force(F).
First finger direction of the
magnetic field. (B)
Second finger direction of the
current (I)
Electromagnet relay (Geganti magnet)
Soft iron armature
Angker besi lembut
Input
circuit
elektromagnet
Power
supply
Cantact (sesentuh
Spring metal strip Kepingan
loyang
Insulating block (Blok penebat)
Motor
elektrik
u s
+
u
s =
Magnetic
field due
to current
(Medan
magnet
External
magnetic field
(Medan
magnet)
F
Resultant
magnetic field
(Daya tindakan

--------------------------------------------
Electric motor (Motor elektrik)
The Direct Current Motor (D.C)
(motor arus terus)


Factor affecting the speed of
rotation of an electric motor.
- Size of the current ( i i )
- Strength of the magnetic field
( i i )
- Number of turns of the coil.
( i i )

Electromagnetic induction
When a wire moves and cuts the
magnetic flux, an e.m.f is induced
across the wire.
(Apabila satu konduktor digerakkan
memotong fluks magnet, arus akan
teraruh dlm. konduktor tersebut

Electromagnetic induction occurs
when conductor is moved
perpendicular to the magnetic lines
of force. (aruhan electromagnet
berlaku bila konduktor bergerak
serenjang dengan medan magnet)

The direction of the current can
determined using fleming right
hand rule.

Faraday,s law the magnitude of
the induced e.m.f is directly
proportional to the rate change of
magnetic flux experienced by the
conductor
(Hukum Faraday D.g.e teraruh
adalah berkadar langsung dgn.
perubahan fluks magnet yg.
dihubung dgn. litar).



The magnitude of the e.m.f
increases when.
(nilai d.g.e bertambah bila)
a. The wire moved faster
(gerakan wayer lebih cepat)
b. A strong magnet is used
(menggunakan magnet kuasa tinggi
c.The length of the wire in the
magnetic field is incerased.
(panjang wayer bertambah)




Left
hand
Magnetic field
(medan magnet
Current (arus)
Thumb : force (daya)
N
S
Galvano
meter
N
S
Galvano
meter
Right
hand
Thumb : force
Magnetic
field
current
Induced e.m.f and Induced
current in a solenoid


The magnitude of the induced e.m.f.
increases when
1.the relative motion between the
magnet and coil is increase
2.The number of turns on the coil
increased
3.The cross-sectional area of the coil
is increased

D.C generator

Current flows in one direction in a
circuit.
The magnitude of a direct current
may be
a. constant
b. changes with time.




A.C generator

Current flows in two opposite
directions in a circuit (to and pro).
Arus mengalir dalam arah
bertentangan. Arah aliran sentiasa
berubah.
It changes its direction periodically

Transformer
-The Instrument to convert a small
AC voltage to a larger or vice-versa.
It work on the principle of
electromagnetic induction.
alat untuk menurunkan/menaikkan
voltan arus a.u berdasarkan prinsip
aruhan elektromagnet


Consist of two coils of wire (Terdiri
daripada 2 gegelung).
a primary coil . gegelung primer
(Np) connected to the a.c power
supply.
Disambung kepada bekalan kuasa
b.Secondary coil . gegelung kedua
(Ns)
connected to the output terminals
( disambung kpd. Output).



S U
Lenz,s law is used to determine the
polarity of the ends of the solenoid.
a.c supply
Primary
coil
Iron soft core
secondary
coil
Operating Principle of a
transformer.
- operating based on electromagnetic
induction (beroperasi secara
aruhan)
-the current from the electrical
supply that is alternating current.
The magnitude and direction varies
continuously at certain frequency.
(arus dari bekalan kkuasa adalah
arus ulang alik. Magnitude dan arah
arus sentiasa berubah pada
frekuensi tertentu.
-The alternating current produces a
flux or magnetic field lines which
link the primary coil and secondary
coil. The magnetic flux produced
varies in magnitude and direction.
Arus ulang alik ini menghasilkan
fluk atau medan magnet yang
menghubungkan gegelung pertama
dan kedua.medan magnet yang
dihasilkan sentiasa berubah
magnitude dan arah.

- the changing magnetic flux
produces an induced e.m.f across the
secondary coil.
Perubahan medan magnet in
mengaruhkan e.m.f dalam gegelung
kedua.
-The alternating current flows in
secondary circuit with same
frequency as the electrical supply.
Arus yang teraruh disalurkan
kepada alat electric pada frekuensi
yang sama


2 types of transformer (2 jenis
transformer)
-A step-down transformer (
Transformer
injak turun). (Np > Ns Vp >
Vs)


The numbers of turn in the
secondary coil is less than the
numbers of turn in the primary coil.
Bilangan lingkaran pada gegelung
kedua lebih rendah daripada
gegelung pertama
The voltage across the secondary
coil is less than the voltage across
the primary coil.
Arus pada gegelung kedua kurang
berbanding arus pada gegelung
pertama

A step-up transformer
(Transformer injak
naik (Np <Ns)

The number of turns in the
secondary coil is greater than the
number of turns in primary coil.
Bilangan lingkaran gegelung kedua
lebih banyak daripada lingkaran
gegelung pertama
The voltage across the secondary
coil is greater than the voltage across
the primary coil.
Arus dalam gegelung kedua lebih
besar berbanding arus dalam
gegelung pertama



a.c
supply
Np
Ns
Iron Laminated core
a.c
supply
Np Ns
Relationship between the number
of turns in coil and voltage in coil
(Hubungan beza keupayaan dengan
gegelung)
Np Vp
Ns Vs
Np = primary coil.
Vp = primary voltage
Ns = secundary coil.
Vs=secondary voltage

Efficiency of a transformer
(kecekapan transformer)

Power output
Efficiency = x 100
kecekapan Power input

V
s
I
s
E
f
= -------- X 100
V
p
I
p

An ideal transformer (Transformer
unggul) Transformer unggul adalah
100% cekap.
- Kuasa input sama dgn kuasa
input.
- Pada realitinya tidak ada
transformer yang 100% cekap.
- Sebahagian tenaga diterima
ditukar menjadi tenaga haba.
- Rumus kecekapan

Factors that affect the efficiency of
a transformer
(Faktor-faktor yg. mempengaruhi
kecekapan transformer)
-Heating effect in the coil
-Magnetisation and demagnetisation
of the
core (hystereis loss)
(Penyongsangan kemagnetan teras
besi)
-Eddy current in iron core (Arus
pusar dlm teras)
-Leakage of magnetic flux
(Kebocoran fluks magnet.