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r u+

DIGTIONAW
OF
LS
O. LTUNOMAN._A--
The Thi rd Branch may be cal l ed semei oti ke, or the Doctri ne of si gns,
the most usual whereof bei ns Words, . . .
t hc busi ness wher cof , i s t o consi d*, i h" Nut r . e of Si gns,
t he Mi nd makes use of f or t he under st andi ng of Thi ngs,
or conveyi ng i t s Knowl edge t o ot her s.
Di cti onary
of
Syinbols
Carl G. Li ungl!a4
John
I -ocke
Essay on Human Ll nderst andi ng
W Nort on & Company
Ncw York
.
London
\ry
Contents
Preface, uii
Part I: Introduction.
3
Part II: Ideographic Dictionary,
g.r
Part III: Word Index, sg7
O l 99l hy Car l G. Li ungman
Part IV: Graphic Index, 555 Engl i sh transf ati on of Symhol er-vri sterki ndsko i deogram @ 1974 by Carl G. Li ungman
()ri gi nal ty
publ i shed by Merkur Internati onal KB, Mal md, Sweden.
First pubrished as a Norton paperhack 1994
/eden
Part v Graphic search Index, sg}
Publishcd by arrangcment with ABC-CLIO
Al l ri ghts rcsewe(l
l ,.i brary of Congress Catal ogi ng-i n-Puhl i cati on Data
Li ungman, Car l G. . 1938-
[Symbol er.
Engl i shl
Di cti onary of Synrbol s /.Carl G. I-i ungman.
p. cm.
Transl ati on of: Symbol er
Incl udes hi bl i ographi cal references and i ndexes.
l . Si gns and symbol s. 2. Pi ct ur c- wr i t i ng. l . Ti t l e
BL603. L. 54f 3 l 99l 302. 2' 22- dc2l 9l - 36657
r sBN 0- 393- 3 I 236- 4
W. W Norton & Company, Inc.
500 Fi fth Avenue, New York, N.Y l 0l l 0
www. wwnor t on. com
W. W. Norton & Company Ltd.
Castl e l l ouse,75176 Wel l s Street, London WIT 3QT
14567890
Preface
The i nt ent i on of t hi s work i s t hat i t
shoul d functi on both as a reference
work i n Western cul tural hi story and
as a tool for those worki ng wi th i deo-
grarns, e.g., l ogotype and trademark
desi gners, those engaged i n adverti s-
i ng, i nteri or desi gners, researchers i n
comr nuni cat i on, ar t hi st or i ans, ar t
and hi story teachers, etc.
Di cti onary of Synfuol s i s al so a voy-
age of di scover y i nt o t he r eal m of
Western thought. Ideograms such as
Q
, 9,
K,
and
*ouc
i l l ustrate the ways
i n whi ch we percei ve rel ati onshi ps,
f unct i ons, and cont i nui t y i n t he
worl d. The hi stori cal devel opment of
these different forms reflects the ways
i n whi ch our understandi ng and per-
cepti on of the worl d have changed.
Basi c graphi c gest al t s such as
Q,
+,
@\q, and
fi
were created thou-
sands of years ago
(or
di scovered, see
@)
i n speci f i c hi st ori cal si t uat i crus.
They l ater became i ntegrated parts of
Western culture. For example, there is
a cl i st i nct rel at i onshi p bet ween t he
way that the si gn
f
i s used on rni l i -
t ary uni f orms, t anks, and ai rpl anes
and t he di scovery made i n t he Er-r-
phr at es- Ti gr i s ar ea, appr oxi mat el y
4000 s.c., of the way in which the planet
Venus rnoves around the earth.
A st rong paral l el can be f ound
bet ween t he anci ent , i deographi c
basic forms and the collective arche-
types that exi st i n our subconsci ous.
One cannot di scount thei r i nfl uence
and correl ati on wi th basi c psychol og-
ical fur-rctions. The Nazi movement in
Germarry bet ween 1930 and 1945
woul d not have had the same success
over such a short period of time if its
ral l yi ng si gn had been
Q
i nstead of
.tt.
Apart frorn its function as a cultural
historical reference book, Dictionary of
Syntbol s i s al so i ntended to provi de
gui dance i n the desi gn of new i deo-
grams on si gnposts and i nstrument
panel s. For t hi s reasol ' l t he graphi c
i ndex l i sts both modern i deograms,
sucl r as
t
,A,
and
rto,
and ol der i deo-
grams that are no l onger i n use, such
as
+
and
9.
Those who advocat e
i deal s of standardi zati on and uni for-
mity will perhaps be annoyed when
t hey di scover i deograms l i ke
(,
C,
and
$
on the same page, but thi s i s un-
avoi dabl e. Versati l i ty and useful ness
Diction ary of Symbols
Part I: Introduction
Signs, symbols, and ideograms
Any object c;rn be called a symbol as
lorrg as a group of people agrees that
it rnearrs more than
just
itself. A rose
can be a symbol for love; twcl crosscd
swt l rds, a symbol f or war. Craphi c
symbol s ar e si gns or
Lr i ct r l r es
t hat
have beerr drawn, written, paintecl, or
engraved- They carr arl so be cal l erl
graphs. Drawings found on toilet stall
doors or aloni; the walls in the under-
grorrnd are called graJliti.
In this book I have chosen tn refcr
to graphs likc'
25
as signs rather thau
symbol s. Tl -ri s i s because. t he worcl
synfuol is sometimes used in ;' r spccial
way. For example, the sign
^
rlepicts
or represents a pair of scales, which is
a symbol f or t he part of t he zodi ac
called Liltra.
The word srTrrDol is derived fron-r
the Greek worci syrnbolrril. Lt ancient
Creece it was a custom to break a slate
of bumed
clay into several pieces antl
gi ve
each i ndi vi dual i n a group one
pi ece
as a mar k oi i t l ent i f i cat i on.
When,
at a later date, they met ancl fit-
tecl the pieces together
(Greek
srTlr-
bollein)
it confinr.red that the. persons
were
t he
sane ones, or represent t r-
tives of those, n,ho had received the
pieces of clay in the first placc.
The use of the worti .srTlrlrol rvas
wi dened t o i ncl ucl e t he engr avecl
shel l s t hat were empl oyerl by t hose
i ni t i . rt ecl i n t he nryst eri es, bot h as
marks of ie-lentification and as essen-
ti.rl components in ritual gathcrings.
It w.rs only a short step away kr the
worl l ' s event ual nrearri ng, i n whi ch
an object, either throtrgh ;r visu;rl sim-
i l ari t y or a comnl on agrecment be-
t wt ' en t hose usi ng i t , represe. nt ed
somet hi ng ot her t han i t sel f .
An i deogram i s a speci al t ype of
syrnbol, a graphic sign that ilh-rstrates
an iciea or a concept. The graph
$
rep-
resents the G-c/t' f in rnusical notation,
the treble,dle. ol1 sound reproducing
appl i ances, ancl i s, i n a var i et y of
ways, always relatecl to music.
$
is an
ideogram.
The corrcept or itlea of rairi ancl the
physi cal phenomenon of rai ncl rops
thlling from clouds is syr.nbolized by
the graph y. This graph is therefore,
an ideogranr. There also exists a large
group of non-iconic graphs that repre-
sent cl i f f ererrt sounds rert her t han
t hi ngs or rel at i onshi p. rs - i . e. , l et t ers
Si gns, symbol s, and i deograms
ancl syllabic signs. K, G, and Q are not
considered as ideogrants in this book
and there.fore are not listed in the dic-
tionary sectiol-r or the grapl' ric inclex.
The letter A, however; not only is a
sign for a specific souncl but is also a
true ideograr.r' r. A is the first letter of
the alphabet anrl because of this has
been lrsecl to denote the idea of some-
t hi ng t l ' rat cornes
f rsf ,
whi ch i ndi -
rectly suggests the idea of something
good, the best, of the highest qualittl, etc.
Cursider expressions like "A-child,"
the "A-team," or the "A grade."
Iconic and non-iconic signs
To say that a gral-:hic sign, a grtrph, is
iconic means that it is an icon
(Creek
eikon
=
image) of son' rething or sonle-
one.
)
is an iconic graph representing
t he crescent of t he moon. Twi ce a
month, for a few clays only, the moon
is visible ars a cresce' l1t against the t' ve-
ning or morning sky.
I have deci ded t o r ef er t o al l
graphi c symbol s aud si grrs t hat are
not pictures of easily recognizc' d ob-
j ect s as t rot t -i cort i c. These t rou-i cot t i c
symbol s and si gns ar e t he subi ect
matter of this book.
Icclnic signs such as pictures, pht>
tographs, and stylized reprodttctiotrs
of the type used for certain road signs
only mean sometl' rirrg if thc observer
i s abl e t o associ at e t hem wi t h what
t hey port ray or wi t h somet hi ng
closely related to it. The signs dealt
wi t h i n t hi s book, however, are gi ven
t hei r rneat ' ri ng i t t auot her way. They
might be s;ricl to be similar kr the iclt' tr
representecl, not in the sanle wily as il
picture of a cow is similar to a living
cow, but nrore like + is "similar" ttr
t wo wi t nesses, one who speaks t he
t rut h and one who l i es. + i s an i t i ct >
grarn in which the' icle;r of trtrth is rep-
resrtttecl by the straight line' and the
iclttr of dishonesty is representecl by
the wavy line, the two lir-res woven to-
gct her syr nbol i zi ng t wo st at enr er l t s
about the same reality.
Al t hot rg, h t rt t n-i cot t i c si gl rs cat t be
consi dered as pi ct ures resembl i ng
somet hi l rg, t hey ref l ect t he way i rr
which we think, our knowleclge of the
world, and the way wc create visual
i nt erpret at i ons of t he worl cl ' s rel a-
t i ons rat her t l -ran t he t hi ngs and
rel at i onshi ps t hemsel ves.
Si gns and meani ngs
Signs and
Thc r-ueani ng of a si gn i s somet hi ng
col l ect i ve. Each person, duri ng hi s or
he' r childhoocl, trctluircs.r whole series
of convent i ons ( i nr pl i ci t
. r nd of t en
subconsci ous, t aci t agr eer - nent s) .
Graphi c st ruct ures rel y upon t hese
ct l nvent i ons f or t hei r vari oLrs nt earn-
i ngs.
There are, fbr c.xample, analogical
cor r vent i ons - some. t hi ng t hat i s
placerl above something, as x in
f11,
is
. rl so evi dent i n t he rel at i onshi p be-
tween heaven antl earth, father .rnd
s()n, cat Ll se and ei f ect , et c. ; conven-
t i ons t l rat deci de t he way i n rvhi ch
time. is to be represented graphically -
t he f ut ure t o t he ri ght or under, t he
past to the left or abovc. (in
the Wcst-
ern worlcl); trnd conventions that de-
termine the way in which we exfreri-
ence what i s out si de ancl what i s i n-
side - on the one. hand
Q ,
ancl
Q
on
the other, etc.
The n-reaning of a sign carr, in this
way, be' either reltrtec' l to a specific cul-
tr.traI spherc' or accepteti unive.rstrlly.
The f ormer can be exernpl i f i ecl by
comparing the meaning of a vertical
I i ne, l , i n t he west wi t h t he meani ng
of a hori zont al l i r-re, -, i n t he East .
meanlngs
Bot h have ar ppr oxi nr at cl y t hc st r nt e
spect runt of rneani ng.
The cent r al l t er v( ) Ll s syst eur s of
Itur.nan botlies ;rre organizecl irr it sim-
i l ar way. Most peopl c, l i ve t he great er
p. i rt of t he i r l i ves i n a vert i cal posi t i on
art' rtl r-rll people cxperience the horizon
as somet hi ng hori zcl nt arl , et c. More-
over, there r.rnttrubtedly exist certain
genet i cal l y i nl t eri t ecl nrcch; rrri sms i u
t he humarn uervous syst em t hat are
simil.rr to those tiruncl, for ex.rnrple, in
an oct opus. An ani mal oi t hi s t ype car. r
percei ve cert t ri n vi sual st ruct urcs but
not ot hers. I t i s probabl y t hi s l ast el c-
me. nt t hat acc()ul t t s f or t he f act t hat
Q
i mpl i es t he sanre t hi ng krci ay as i t
di d i n Babyl on, Chi rr. r, pre-Col unr-
biarr America, and nrauy other areas
over t housant l s of years.
The r-rre;lning oi a sign
(as
lrcarrirrg
is used in this book) carr be intt,rpre-
ted as consistirrg oi the irleas sharecl
by the majority oi the people fanriliar
wi t h t he si gn - t hat whi ch r emai ns
when t he associ . . rt i ons uni t l ue t o each
i ndi vi dual ' s expt ' r i ences ar e l l e-
glectecl.
At any gi verr moment , t he nt ean-
i ng of a si gn wi l l cl epend upon i t s
hi st orrcal backgrr-rurrcl . For erat npl e,
g and what i t st ood f or ch. r t r gecl
t l rarnat i ci rl l y af t r' r 1935. I t s hi st ori cal
backgrountl anel, ;rs .r result, its tne.rti-
ing as a siglr lverc alterecl
A si gn anr l t he i . vav i t i s expgl i -
encecl arc a f f ect ed by t he si gn' s
i n' rmet l i t rt e surrouncl i ugs. Tt rke, f or
exar-rrpl e, $
ot ' r t t bt rt rkuot e . rncl t he
s. rnre si gt r i n t he eyes of ; l Dont rkl
Duck orr . r pol i t i cal post er, t l r ot her-
wi st , c0t t l l r . t r t ' J
i r r t l t e t ' r I r r t ' ssi t r r t
l +l wi t h t he
f
on one et t cl of . r t orch
brrttery.
Nor ctrr-t tlrt- observer of the sign be
i gnor ecl , t he i nt l i vi t l ual whost ' ex-
peri ences, et l ucat i orr, ; rt t t -l get rcral
frame oi Inintl r,vill affect the w.iy ir-t
which a givcn sigrt is uttclerstoorl.
To sumnr.rrizc the t-uait-t t' lemcuts
that constitute;rnrl aficct the me.rttitrg
of a sign, tltc mcaning is ar iutrctiou ttf:
l . t he sl r uct ur c ol ' a si gn,
2. t hc i rnrnedi at e background ol '
the sign ancl whcthel there
ar c ol hcr si gr r s i r t t hc vi ci ni t l .
3. t he i ndi vi dual obscrvcr' s
background,
4. t he soci al at t t l hi st or i cur
backgl ount l 1vl 1l 1g si gt t .
I t i s easy t o see t hat t l i e nrcat ri ng of
a si gu i s const at r t l y changi ng. Onl y
such si gns . rs t host ' f or t l t c sut t , t t t oot t ,
anel pl . rrret s c(rn l rc sai el t o l rc rel a-
t i vel y st abl e.
' l ' hci r
i mnrecl i i rt c b, l ck-
grourrcl s arc si r. t ri l ar - t rat al chart s, as-
t rol ogi t ' . rl t , ri rl t , s - . rrrt l t l t t ' y . l l c
(ri t (' n
observeri by i nel i vi cl t ral s rvi t h . r si t t t -
iLr r brrckgrounrl - .) str()n()llters, its trol-
ogers, nrrrl psych()l ()gi st s.
I n t hc cai se of t hi s t ypre of si gns, i t i s
t hei r soci . r l . r nci hi st or i cal back-
grounrl, the firtrrth ferctor, that, ovcr .t
span oi t housat rt l s of ycars, l t . rs ut t -
el er gone t hc gr eat est changc. St r ch
ch. rnges, of t en skrrv anrl hart l l y t l i s-
cenri bl e, . rrc rei l ect cc' l i rt t l re wav a
sigrr ch.rnges in mt' ;rnitrg.
Tht' sign
d,
2(XX) yt:(rrs (rll()/ rcprr' -
scntecl Mars, thc god of rvar .iIrtl arg-
gr essi on. Tor l ay i t st anr l s f or t he
pl . rnet Mars. The earl i cr (rss()ci . t t i ol rs
lvith wtrr ;rnrl .rggressiou halvc rvetrk-
encd consi derabl y. l n some cases t hey
htrve dis;rppt' arcr' l .iltogetltcr or beerr
replaced ivith othcr me.lnings suclt tts
st ' l f t sscrt i t t rt , t l rc yl nrt t ' t nrry st l st t t t t , i rot t ,
frtr-s,
(]tc.
The polarity of meanings of elementary graphs
Dr. Liz. Creerre, .r psychoi' lnalyst lvho
has done consiclerable research on thc
subject of synrbols, writes in her book
llal&titt,r:
A syr"nbol is rrot the samc thing
as a si gn - sonet hi ng whi ch
nrcrel y represent s somet hi ng
el se. I l oacl si gns, f or exarnpl c,
are si grrs wi t h a speci f i c mean-
ing,' . ttttt' -tttut1 trtt' fic, rtmLl utorks,
uuiting is prtfiibited. A syr.rrbol, on
the otht' r hand, suggersts or gen-
er.ltes all trspect of lit' e wherc the
number of possi bl e i nt erpret a-
t i ons i s i nf i ni t e ancl el ucl es al l
at t empt s on t he part oi t he i nt el -
l ect t o f i x or est abl i sh a si ngl e
meaning,.
C)ne can never f t rl l y accourl t
for the n-ranifold nrt' arrings th.rt
. -rrry gi verr syrnbol has, nor i s i t
possible to categorizc tl-ren' r in in-
tellcctual ternts becaruse thcre rs
oiten an antithe' sis - trn oppositc
- whi ch t he consci ous mi nt l i s
unarble to grasp simult.rneously.
Liz Creenc writes .rbout sontethin g
t hat t wi l l ci rl l f l rr yt ol ari t y of nut ri rt gs
t t i cl t t t t r: rrt ory grnpt l t s. ' l -he si rnpl est or
lr-rost elenrentary signs havc rli;rr-netri-
cally o1-rposcrl metrnings.
The i ni t i al or pri nrary rneani ng of a
vert i cal st rai ght l i l e, l , i n t he West , i s
ot rc t | t i t rc, sol rct l rrrr! ' rrrri rJrrc, arrcl i t s opr-
posi t c, sor t t t t hi r r { t l t st i s cont i nuous,
crt rl / t ' ss. Thc l i ne i n a vcrt i cal posi t i orr
wi l l more of t en, al t hough not al ways,
be.rr the fclrmer mcaning, lvhile irr a
hori zont al
1-xrsi t i orr
i t wi l l havc t he l at -
ter nreaning.
TIte. cross,
f , stands for dt,rrtft ancl
.sorr()?, i' rnLl their opposites: t,ttrnd lilt
anrl srtlartlitrti.
The ci rcl e,
Q,
rneans pri mari l y a/ /
tlnt ctists, all titrc, all ytssibi/iii(,s. But it
al srr means t t ot l t i rrgness, zero, no ent rt l ,
rro yttrssih i lit it' s, tl i st' on n et. t.
' l' he
triangle,
[,
rne.rns uot only llrr
sLtpr(' tilr poucr, yrosP(rify,
/irc
but also
Llanuer, euil plut(r, u)ater.
The sc1u"rre,
[ ,
i s synonyrnous
rvith llre
gr-dur
d , tlu' enrtlt and also with
t ht t ust ' , u l t ui l di t t g - i . e. , somet hi ng
t hat rerl oves a pers()n f rorn t he
ground.
Finally, the five' -pointec' l star,
1j!,
is
t he si gn f or bot h arcr
"rnd
; rrri r
aucl
t l rei r opposi t es:
/ esf ri rrf l t s, l t t t t t t rabl c
oppo r t u n i t it:s, t'n
j
tttl n rcn t.
Fr om t hi s w ccl l l i ni er t he f ol l ow-
i ng r ul e: t l n' nt t t st t ' l t ' t t t t ' t t t nr q si gr t s r t l -
ut Lr r ys si gt r i f t l i t l ( nst t t l o ol t l t ost t L' 0r nl -
rri trsl trl tptrsi l t' tttL' tttl i ttgs.
l - hi s r ul e, ht l r vevct seems t l nl y t o
appl v t o t he r l osi cl el l l r ' l 1t . r r v st r t t c-
tures. As s(x)l r .l s .l si gu stntctttre be-
cour es sl i ght l y r nor e ccl mpl ex i t s
meani ngs I r r l l ouger
Pr esent
t hel l l -
sel ves as o;rposi tcs.
Q
stantl s for l l c
The pol anty ol meanrngs of el ementary graphs
sl / r i cr r l r l t t ; / r / bt t t not hi ng el se.
I
onl y nrei rrrs ri ri t t , qt ' r.
Thert ' . rre . rl so ot her t l ct l cnt . rry
si grrs t h. rt rl t l not c. rrry ol rP()si t e
metrnirrgs. I
eloes lt()t n1c.ln /ot' t' .trtd
lrrilt' .
f
tloes uot me.ttt boih llt' al ancl
1r0ilt' t'
.rurl tt' t' rtL-tt,' ss .rtrcl ,' 0[i. The sir-
poi nt et l st ar,
S,
i s t ht ' si gn f or
Jt rt l a-
i snr, but not i t s opposi t e, hei rt het ri sm.
Nor r' loes it sttrtrtl for othtr belieis or
rcligion irr gctter;rl.
The basi c i deographi c st rt rct ures
The development
of sign structures
through the ages
' l-lrerr.
irre four tlr fivc lrrrslt rlt' trtt' ttts in
Wcst ern i cl eography, ci epeni l l l g . 111
hol onc chooses t r) courl t . l ' ht ' y i n-
cl ucl e t hc s/ rrl i rl t t l i t t t , -; t he t i r. r' / t , st , q-
t t t t ' t t t , A; t he . s; ri -al ct r ct l t t t t t t , t t t i t l
crtt' r' e,
@
antl
6) (or
ilt onr fornt rorvr);
.rtrrl
,
tlier r/trl t>r srtttll,
iillrtl
circlr,. With
tltesc basic c()mp()llcnts it is pr115,5ibl('
t o cl r. rw al l t he i deograurs i n West errr
irleography.
Llc.slri/f.s in Westeru irleography are
t hose basi c si gns t hat h. rve l reen cre-
at ecl t rs conrpl et c ent i t i es, i . e. , t hose
thtrt have rrot been br.rilt trp by lnore
elemcrr t;r ry (' olr p( )llr,llts or .rre ntlt tlre
resul t of a rl i vi di ng of a l . t rger st ruc-
turr,. It is, howt' r,er, cliificult to tlrtrw .r
cl ct rr di vi cl i ng l i nc bc-t wcen basi c el c-
rnerrt s ; rnd gcst al t s. l s i t possi bl c f or
t hc hurn. rn t ni rrt i t o combi nc
!
rvi t h a
st rai ght l i ne arrrl prorl uce J, , or i s J . t
lrolistic
1' rsychologic;rl
gcst.llt? ls rr .l
gestirlt or tloes the hunran utint' l cretrte
a uui f orml y curverl l i ne n by ri i vi d-
i ng
O,
rvhi ch rvoul t l nrean t h. rt A i s
uot a
gest ; rl t ?
I l crc . i re sornc st nl ct rl res t hat ct l ul cl
be corrsi t l cred gest al t s:
+, L, t ,
n ,
*,
' V
, 9, 4' ,
ancl
e- r ' .
( ) ne
onl y h. r s t o
I ook i rt sorne of t he si gns l rorn prehi s-
t ori c i cl cog, raphy t o sec t hat al l basi c
cl crncnt s werc bci ng uset l bet wccn
l (), 0t )t ) ancl 20, 0(X) ye. rrs
t rgo, cl uri rrg
t he Neol i t hi c Agc:
f ,
-. .
, "y-, (J,
ancl
ri . I )ri mary gcst i , rl t s such ; rs
A,
Gj \ e,
d,
and
.,-{,
c.rnre. irrto use thousancls of
years l at er.
I t woul d be l ogi cal t o . r ssur nc t hat
si gns l i ke +, n, [ ,
ancl
)
wcr e
anroug
t he f i rst t o be usecl bv t hc
human r; rcc - i f we cl i sregarcl t he
iconic signs that represented irtrim' rls
in paintings and engr.rvings, etc - but
in rcality this is not the case
'
The ol t l est si gr l s consi st et l of
stranBe cunbinatitxrs
tlf the fivc basic
el ernent s: -, r-t , Q,
Q,
ancl
o.
Ex"t l t t -
ples include signs sttch .rs
$
trnLl
l:::
l rom t he. c; rves i n Ni aux,
f
anet 1\
from the El Castillo c;rve, aucl the re-
mark. l bl e graphi c st ruct ure l J[ l Ll I
frorn the' l,ar I' asiega cave. Sigus such
as
fi,
crosses cornbinetl
rvith arches'
seci l t o have. rppcared at . r l at er st age'
The ol dest engravi ngs
arrd p' ri nt -
ings ioturd iu the caves of Europe are
,oid t., be between 10,000 and 20,t)00
years oltl. Whether this estimation is
correct or uot, it is possible to d' rte the
si gl ' t s i 11 rcl at i on t o each ot her by
st ur . l yi ng t he st yl e of t he pai nt i ngs
and engravi rrgs ant l t he ut rl l rber of
layers ot-t ctrve walls.
More at l vanced si grr st ruct t t t cs
hrrve ;rlso becn found in ctrves atrd ou
rock f ; t ces, st t ch . rs . . ,
+1,
V,
(l ' ), i
,
and
Q.
()t her conrt uol l si gus . rt t hi s
tinre were those that r' lcpictecl lrrrrrrJs,
$
and p, . rnt l
/ bof pri rrl s' 8p
and
[ U'
Even t oday f oot pr i nt s. l r c t l set l i l l
Buci cl hi st syt nbol i st n, oi t en d r; rwt r
and combinetl rvith other symtrtlls, as
i n
Qp.
Duri rrg t he Al gcri an war of i n-
c-lcpendeucc,
.lt the encl of tlie 195()s,
the Jrrench ltla(' le use of thc sign i otr
thc sicles of buildings antl ot' r w' rlls'
These black fc' ct, pieds rrtrlrs, signiiier' l
t he sccr et ar mv or gani zecl
by t he
I i r ench i r r habi t ant s
of Al ger i a The
sign ior the soles oi feet is
' tlso
cotn-
111()11 in Nordic rock ellgravings tr()ll1
.1bout 1500 B CI
Curittusly entlugh, orre oi tlre oltlcst
st ruct ures
i s
! ,
t l i c het l rt . Furt her-
more,
I
an.t
i
,
the Nortlic rurles reP-
reseutitrg frtr// tlr girrtrf, have also beeu
fouurl in Sottth Europeatl caves allcl
everl orl rtlck faces in the interior of
t ht ' Sahar, r.
"i l re
next t l evel opmet -rt
of si gl r
st r uct ur es cau be exenl pl i f i ed
bv
Egypt i art hi erogl yphs
f rot t t arout t t l
4()00 u. (. Anrong t hese t here art r
The devel opmenl of srgn structures l hrough l he ages
The devel opmenl ol si gn structures l hrough the ages
at Jvanced f orms such n,
{, , f l ,
, -r, ancl
f t .
I t Lvas at abt xrt t hi s t i me t hat t hc,
pentagrant,
fr,
apPe,1re.1 firr thc first
t i rnc i n t l t c area t h; rt i s now t he st rrt e of
I srac. l . AI so t he si gn
l r,
and
@,
t hc, srrl
a' , l rt cl , nt at eri al i zecl ,
t l re l at t er i n t he
f orm of t he hi erogl yph q] ,
whi ch was
possi bl y arr i t l eogr. i nr
f or a t ot t t n or
ctty.
In apprlrlipately
the yetrr 3000 u c
the sign g
err.re.rgetl in the Inrjtrs arrtl
I {arappa cul t ures. Such srgns as
15,
f,
El
0,
and
qi
begrrn to be use.l 6y
the othr.r societies .tr()unLl the lrersian
Gul f .
At about t he same t i nt e, t he Assyro_
Babyl oni an
cul t ure. i nt roduce, cl
f f
ancl >, t he basi c L. unei f ()rm
si gri . ' f i
was the Crt' tian culturc,, hoil,ever, that
around the year 2000 B.(.. ir-rtroc1ucccl
what mi ght be consi c. l err. d
t hr, f i rst
modem al phabet r vi t h si gns l i ke
d,
JJ, f ,
g,
ancl
Q.
- . . , 11
*nr not unt i l apLr r oxi mat el y
1000 B-c t hat
$
appeared, coi nci cl i ng
with the ernergence
of the first Creek
cul t ures. Several cent uri es l at er ot her
5t l uct ur eb l i kc
^i .
Q; . ^ ! 1, 11
-. i r, arrcl
$
f r*1; . , , r t . ' , 0. , *, . U"'
"' "'
Lat er, t he Ce, l t s i nt rocl ucecl
vari a_
tions like
6fle
ancl
@,
as rvell as miuty
ot her be. rut i f ul
pat t erns bt rsed on t he
exponent i al
curve, rvhi ch t he Egyp_
t i ans hacl rnast ered
so rvel l (". g. ,
f
irnd (.;).
I t w; rs rrot urrt i l t he si xt c, cni h
. rncl
sevent ee. nt h
cent uri es t hat radi cal l y
l t t , w st rur' l urcs bt , Harr t o t , nrcrgc. l rr
t he i nt erval br' t ween,
ol t l ; i ncl - new
Pd
t t r' nt s WL, r(, (1)l )l bi
l t r, t l i rt rt t t l rt , t oDr_
plex antl sophisticaterl
ways, as in
f,,
re),
$,
anri
f
.
I n t rbout A. D. 1500 groups became
c( ) nunon
i deogr aphi c
st r uct ur es.
They hacl cxisted .rt an earlier stage
*
t he Egypt i an
hi er ogl ypl . r
$,
- i t , "
I(rnr;rn numer.rl
ll[,
ancl ntany of th.
May, rrr hi erogl yphs .
hut t l rt , st , werc
mor c of t eu except i ons t o t he r ul e.
There ;rlso appe;rrec.l nerv firrrns such
.rs
Q:, i;-r, ?, ancl
Q.
segnellts,"
\;,
arrrl systems of ctt-or-
di nat cs wr t h di f f t ' r er r t t yPes of cr t r ves
appeared i n di f f erent cont ext s. See,
for example' ,
]
and
I r
Duri rrg t he t n, ent i et h cent ury t he
synt hesi s of ol ci pat t er r r s became
rnore advancecl, as t' xcmplified by
' $;,
,
al rd t he l arger i l l ust rat i on bekrw.
New structures enrcrged that lookcc-l
like ( ancl *l The technical perfec-
t i on of t hi s age h. rs been responsi bl e
f or t he cr e; r t i on of t r ew var i at i r l ns
based t l r-r t he ol t l si ruct ures, such as
.f
anct
$..
I
I t was i n t l i e t rvent i et h ccrrt ury t h. rt
the network first canrc into trsc .rs .rlr
i deographi c st ruct urc. An cxarnpl e ot
t l ri s i s
rl $, rvl t i t l t rt , Prq' ' 1' l l t s
l )(l rt
()l (l
ruet of benzene ri ngs i n chenri st ry. I t
shottlcl trot be forgottcn, however, tliat
i nt erl aci nl 3 pat t errrs wcre i n use . rt i r
nr uch car l i er st agc. The
( - el t s,
t he
Nor t i i c peopl es, aur i ot her s, at t he
i i nrc of Chri st ' s bi rt h, rverc al l e. rdy i rr
thc h.rbit oi usin13 complicatcd, rvoveu
pat t erl l s i n t hei r work, l ' he woverl
st r l l ct ur e ct r r r onl y be ex; r ar r det l
wi t hi n l i rni t s st t by i t s si ruct rl rc, but
l he nt ' t nt r r k h. r s t he at l vant . r gt ' t r f r r ot
being closetl - it can bc .rtlrlcrl to in-
c' l ef i ni t el y. The si rrne possi bi l i t y al so
chtrr.rcterizes co-orcl irrate strtrctures.
Arotrrrrl the nridrlle of the trvcntieth
ccl r t ur y t l i er c apr pcar er l nunr er ot r s
rrew i t l eograms. They f i rst appearet l
iu the rvorlc' l oi conric striprs ancl .itl-
ver t i si ug. Er ar t r pl e5 . 111'
, .
q i f
,
arrr"l :,,
]:
.
l f onr' coul cl rl i sceru t he ruks t ht rt
hi rve governet l t he . l e. vel opnrcr. t t of
itleogra;rhic stnlctrlres onc rvotrlti bc
. t l r l t ' t t r
I r r t ' el i t
t t ht ' t i r r t t t s ol l t r t t r r e
strue turc' s. No one hirs yei becn able to
isol.rte thcse rtrles, .rltl-rouglt tlrt nei-
rvrrrk coincitletl with the rliscovery of
el ect ri ci t y ancl i t s wi cl er use i n st i ci et y.
C' o-orclinate stnrctures artrl ex1-ronert-
t i . rl l y ort l ered gr()ups
(c. g. , rrrrrr )
bec; i ure rrrore c()mrnot r . rrouncl t he
mi cl t {l c of t he t wcrrt ret h cent t rry.
St rangel y euot rgh, t he peri od be-
twecn l(),t)0() ll.t . anr-l
.100()
tlt seems
t o bt ' krt al l y rl cvoi t l erf si gns. l t i s . rs i f
ar syr.rbolic voiel harl occurrt' rl in thc
peri ot l bet rveen t he bi rt h oi t he f i rst
knor vr r ci vi l i zi r t i or r s - i n EgyPt ,
ar()unLl Euphrat es ant l
' f i gri s,
i n t he
l ncl us V. rl l ey, aut l rn Cl ' ri na - ancl t he
The next si gni f i cant
change i t r
gr aphi c f or m occur r et l
dr r r i ng t he
nrnet eent h
cent ury. l l at her t han t he
srgn i t sel f bei ng col oret l , i t was t he
backgrotrncl
that was filled in:
St.
Al_
t hougl r t hi s t echni que
hat l al rc, ady
been p14(-1l cgd
cl uri ng t hc Neol i t hi c
pe.riocl (e.g.,
@),
it was harclly to be
scen i n ant i qr-ri t y. Wi t h t hi s new devel -
opmel t t
Sl gl t s were f ramet l or i n_
scri bet l so t hat t he graphs cl i d not
t ouch one. anot her, as i t r
l -' j ;
sorne-
tinres signs were placed one on top of
anot her, as i n
$.
Al so, a cog_l i ke f omr
cant e l l rt o use, as i n
$.
The groupi ngs
becanre gradual l y
ntore ariv..rnced, for exam;rle, ...:
anrl
:i.
Oltl, well-known
stnrcrure,s were
cont bi ner l
i n new and i nnovat i ve
l vays. A ci r cl c. wi t h
, , moveabl e
The devel opment of si gn structures through the ages
Neolithic and prehistoric rock paint-
ings and engravings.
It might be that the science of history
has made an error i n i t s cal cul at i ons
and that the Neolithic Age occurred,
not as is supposed, 10,000 years be-
f ore Chri st ' s bi rt h, but i nrmedi at el y
bef ore t he appearance of t he i i rst
known ci vi l i zat i ons.
Anot her
possi bi l i t v
i s t he occur-
rence of a natural catastrophc such as
t he shi f t i ng oi t he eart h' s pol ar axi s,
resul t i ng i n l arrge-scal e f l oorl s and
i ce ages somet i me bet ween 15, 000
u. c' . and 10, 000 B. c The kuown ex-
pansi on of t he i ce- cap of t he Nor t h
l ' ol e, whi ch pr i nci pal l y af f ect ed
t ht , Nor t her n Eur opr . t r t r egi ons,
c; r n har dl y account f or t hi s voi d i n
i t l eogr aphi c t l evel opment .