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ffi
PETRONAs
COURSE
:
DATE
TIME
PCB1O12
INTRODUGTION
TO
OIL
& GAS
INDUSTRY
AND
SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT
6th MAY
2A12
(SUNDAY)
2.30
PM
-
4.30
PM
(2 HOURS)
Answer
ALL
questions
from
the Questions
Booldet'
Begin
EACH
answer
on
a new
page in the
OMR
sheet
given'
lndicate
clearly
answers
that
are
cancelled'
if any'
you
are
NoT
ALL'*ED
to bring
this
question
booklet
out
from
the
Exam
Hall'
Do not
open
this Question
Booklet
until
instructed'
ThereareTWENwTWo(22)pagesinthisQuestionBookletincludingthe
cover
page-
Universiti
Teknologi
PETRONAS
PCB IOI2
Select ONE (1) best answer for each question. Answer ALL questions.
The source rocks that generate oil and gas are rich in organic matter. This
organic matter comes from:
A. The decomposition of dinosaurs in lake, swamp and river sediments\
x
@
fne accumulation and deeomposition of marine plankton at the bottom of
deep oceans
\/
The accumulation of bird droppings on uninhabited offshore islands6x
The accumulation, over millions of years, of extraterrestrial d,ust andkx
meteorites. :
and gas fields belong to
The oilcompany that produces the field
The country where the fields are located
U/
The owner of the land
The town where the oil fields are located
How many liters are contained in a barrel of oil?
A. 129 liters
B. 139 liters
C.
D.
oit
A.
@
C-
D.
?,
4.
-{i
ivt
i/
E
S
tso liters
/
D. 169 liters
Hydrocarbons contain atoms of:
A. Carbon and Oxygen
B. Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
$
Carbon and Hydrogen
\/
D. Carbon only
The curent Malaysian oil production is around:
A. 200,000 barrels/day
q! oOO,OO0 barrets/day
C. 900,000 barrels/day
D. 1.5 million barrels/day
PCB IOI2
6. A petroleum
system is made up of:
A. A source rock
U/
B. A reservoir Rock capped by a seal
C. A hydrocarbon trap
./
@
nn of the above
,/
L)
@
7. Most oil is produced
between temperatures of 60 and 120 degrees c, at a
depth range known as the:
O
oilwindow
h
B. Oil depth
C. Oil range
D. Oil bracket
ln the subsurface, oil and gas
accumulate:
A. ln large holes, like caves and caverns
B. ln pockets,
a few hundred meters below the seafloor
C. ln dune sand in Middle eastern deserts
O
ln the pores
of host rocks
9. G & G disciplines is comprised of.
A. Geology & Chemistry
B. Geology & Mathematics
C. Geology & Engineering
6
Geotogy & Geophysics
Q?F-
io :
A. Through a process
called GTL (Gas to liquid), in which hydrocarbon
fractions in then gas are modified to become liquid.
d
B. Through compression and cooling of dry gas to produce "Liquified
Natural
Gas'or LNG.
Through compression of associated gas,
to produce "Liquified petroleum
Gas'or LPG.
All of the above D.
PCB IO12
Seismic records are measured in:
A. Distance
B. Depth
C. Time
,Ib
)eu
of the above
What type of source create a seismic wave:
A. A vibrator (Vibroseis)
l=\
B. An Airgun
/'
)
C. DYnamite
i fl"'
\_t/
@
nu of the above
i Q
At the
present
time, renewable energy sources provide:
\(.\
C
t-ess than 10o/o of the totalworld energy supply
l iljlffiJH:::,T:',1"J""::J,'ffi
()
,t:,
D. More thanT5o/o of the world energy supply
12.
13. Currently,
q) oir
B. Gas
C. Coal
the most important source of energy is:
D. Renewables
0i\
5e1
rnrlpl
lgq\
15. Biofuels are now produced:
A. From plants that produce
sugar and starch.
&rmt
-.*uJ1 [4
,@
@
from biologicalcompounds extracted from dead animals.
C. From garbage and unused parts of agricultural pr-oducts.
D. From genetically engineered plants and trees.
4
PCB IOI2
16. The interfacial tension between oir and water can be reduced by:
@
Surfactant
,8.
Nz
c. co2
D. All of the above
17 -
..-..---ls
used to improve oil recovery by reducing the viscosity of the crude oil.
A. Surfactant flooding
B. Polymer flooding
(CJ Steam flooding
D. All of the above
oilrecovery from sk3l nooglng
A. 40 to 50% OOIP
qL*Iu
\,r.30
B. 50 to 60% OOIP
C. 60 toTOo/oOOlP
19. The objectives of chemical EOR is/are
\
A. lncrease the Capillary Number A/" to mobilize residual oil
A1zo
to 8o% ootp
lJ-
(B) Decrease the Mobility Ratio M for better sweep
C. Emulsification of oil to facilitate production
D. All of the above
20. Which one of the following is NOT a drive mechanism for the natural flow?
A. Water drive
^
n r,l
B. Gascapdrive
n?f, ffi"-,eWpfu
C. Solution gas drive
\--l
' !
\*.l'
)(/'\b
\C-
ro,-I
b
@
secondary recovery
Oilflow rate is measured in the unit of
A. MMCFD
Q
anroay
C. Cubic ftlday
D. Gallon/day
J(}
)a
j
{
I
I
lz
-\-
\
.I\
\1
\I
\
nnTr
,/1
I
\,.}/
\J
1(}
It)
q0
lr\
*5U
0ll
(tL
rye
t
l, q^ \
(
r,-
lV
w
23.
22.
26.
PCB IOI2
Christmas tree an assembly of vatves and fittings attached on top of well head
to:
A. Transport oil from one place
to another.
B. Separate produced
fluid into different phases.
(Q
Reoulate flow of fluid.
CA
D. Boost up the flow of oil and gas.
,:,
,:
The smallest casing run inside a well is-----
@
eroduction casing
C. Surface casing
D. lntermediate casing
One method of transporting crude oil from
by using a
_.
A. Rotary meter
B Positive displacement meter
C. Pump
D. Elbow
A is used for transporting gas to long
pressure.
A. Gas engine
@
compressor
C. Diesel engine
D. Electric motor
Oilflow rate is measured by using
A. Thermometer
B. Pressure gauge
C. Separator
24.
o
one place
to another can be done
distance in case of
[9r
25.
-'-'*\'
($
@
ftow meter
PCB IOI2
27. Gas is discharged
from
^\-
(d rop
B. Bottom
C. Middle
D. Base
of
,the
separator.
28. Metering system is a system which is used,for measuring
A. Pressure in the ftow line
@
Votrretric flow rate of oilor gas
C. Temperature
of flow line
D. Specific gravity
of the fluid
29. Compliant
structure is included in
@
fixeO facilities
B. Floating facilities
C. Storage facilities
D. Sub-sea facilities
30. Wellhead area consists of all the below except:
A. Casing head
B. Tubing head
C. Christmas
tree
@
Piperine
\_9
31. which of the following is not the function of cementing
operation?
A. Supports casing
B. Minimizes blow out chances
C. Seals lost circulation
zones
32.
(D) Cormunicate
reservoir to the surface
What is the main function of shale shaker?
A. Removes
entrained gas
bubbles
4
&f,
B. Removes fine particles
ol
C. Removes granular
wastes
(}
@.
Removes
drilt cuttings
lr;t
PCB 1OI2
.Semi-submersible
rigs are used in drilling where water depth is less than
----
n) _-
tX zoo meter
B. 500 meter
C. 600 meter
't$
zoo meter
34. DrawworkS,and hook are components,of a ----------
A. Circulation System
@.
tloisting System
C. Rotary System
D. Transportation system
/^\
{vt
35. Rotary system is used for the purpose of ---------
A. Running and pulling equipment into and out of the well.
36. Which of the following is
gEg[antage of the reciprocating positive
displaceinent pumps?
@.
nnitity to move high solids content fluids laden with abrasives 7
B. Removes drill cuttings from the drilting fluid
q
C. Ability to operate in limited range of pressures and flow rates *
D. High operation and maintenance cost
d
37. Which of the following is not the application of Directional Drilling?
,
A, To sidetrack a well even if it was to go around a stuck BHA
6
fo drill a high pressure and high temperature well
C. To drill a well in inaccessible locations
v'
D. To drill multiple wells from a single structure or pad
\/
/(
{ru
1&
39.
PCB IO12
which of the foltowing is the diameter size range of conductor casing?
A. 30 - 36 inches
i B) 20 - 26 inches
C. 10 -
'13
inches
D. 7- 4.5 inches
Which of the following is the deflnition of
perforation?
()
fne casing and cement are perforated
to allow the hydrocarbons to enter
the wellstream, in order to achieve production.
B. The casing and cement are perforated
to coniror the flow of fluid
C. The casing and cement are perforated
to provide
a conduit for fluid to flow
to the surface
D. The casing and cement are
fluid flow into the wellbore
40. Which of the following
A. Drill Pipe
B. Drill Collar
(Ct
Stabilizer
V
D. Drilling line
Describe petroleum
refining.
A. lt is a process
for sorting the types of crude oil
@
lt is a process
of distributing the most valuable oil products
c. lt is a process
of separating different products
from the crude oil
42
&
,, is a process
for increasing the value of certain oil products
What is the main objective of petroleum
reflning?
A. To produce good products
as much as possible
@
fo maximize production
of transport fuels
C. To maximize the technology development for profits
D. To accelerate petroleum production
perforated
to control un-controlled formation
is not considered as a part of Drillstring components?
,'2
1,
1.,'
1
! i ?.
I r-.:'
PCB IO12
::::
Which of the:following is NOT a petroleum
refining
,process?
A. Distillation
B. Product blending
C. Catalytic cracking
@
srrnr'ur reforming
separatin$
r--:.
\,9
M. What propefiy plays,a
major role in
A. Pour point
B. API Gravity
C. Melting point
47.
@
Boitins point
45. The three basic steps in refining
@
Cracking
B. Conversion
C. Reforming :
D. Desulphurization
What is one of the major: raw materials for petrochemical
A. Ethylene glycol : ',
B. Ethanol
@
rtnyune
::
D. Methane
The set of information about crude oil quality is called:
A. An essay :
B. A TBP
@
An .stry
D. A product
slate
48. An example of the use of polyvinylchloride (pVC) is:
A. Car bumper
B. lnk
C. Car tyres
products from crude oil?
and ...,..
production?
@)
cnri,
t0
0
50.
PCB IOI2
Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) is a,petrochemical product for
synthetic:
A. Crude oil o(
B. Gasoline
o(
C. Rubber
I Q\
rYre
How much of the world oit and gas production is estimated to be used in
petrochemical production?
A.15o/o
8.50%
g
u,"
D. 25%
51. The range of wave period for ocean waves is typically
A. 1 second to 3 seconds
@
S seconds to 20 seconds
C. 20 seconds to 30 seconds
D. 30 seconds to 40 seconds
For the deepwater operations,
A.
>
1000 m
6'15oom
C.
>
2000 m
D.
>
2500 m
ultradeep water depth is specified for
53. which of these statements is FALSE about pipeline pigging operations?
A. A pig receiver and launcher are installed at the upstream and downstream
of the pipeline
section, respectively.
t/
The rakes of the pig make a characteristic loud squearing noise.
r/
e
A pig is used to remove wax in oil pipelines.
y'
A pig may have troubles to find its way back and lost in a pipeline
system.
52.
B.
C.
o
ll
PCB IOI2
54. The type of mobite platforms used in shallow water for exploration purposes is
called
A. Floating Platform
rT-\
vFPSo
C. Jack up Platform
D. Jacket Platform
55. Malaysia's deepwater location Kikeh has
Q1
n spar onty
B. A Spar and a Semisubmersible
C, An FPSO only
D. ASparand an FPSO
56. Determine the list of data required in the design of offshore
pipelines
i. Geotechnicalsurvey \/
ii. Meteorological and oceanographic datq;
iii. Reservoir performance
u,
iv. Sand concentration
/
A. iand ii only
B. iand iii only
C. ii, iii and iv only
(D)
all of the above
57. Below are the typical pipeline hazards EXCEPT
A. tnternal and external corrosions
B. Poor operational systems
@
Free span
D. Extreme weather conditions
e
d;:TrsofarLParetensionedby fl
r#:,ilI[T:"w
'u
D. Deballasting
;s
A
12"
PCB IOI2
59. How do we control internal corrosions in an offshore pipetine?
i. Pioe blanket
(
ii. lntelligent pig
iii. Corrosion inhibitor
A. iand iionly
B. i and iii only
^\-
(
d\ il and iii onlv
\_,/
r
D. all of the above
Which one of these pipe installation methods is_TRUE?
A. The S-tay method drops the pipe down almost vertically until it reaches the
touchdown point in the water.
ct
@
fn" J-lay barge has a small tower on the stern to weld and slip pre-welded
pipe sections.
(g
C. Buoyancy modules are added to the pipelines in the bottom tow method.
ln the off-bottom fow method, the pipeline settles to the sea flow by
pressures exerting to it.
Sustainable development was defined by the United Nations World
commission on Environment and Development in the
'1987
Report as
"those
paths
of --------- that meet the needs of the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own needs."
A. Social, economic and educational progress
_.4*
@
Social, economic and political progress
W
C. Social, political
and educational progress
t
*
D. political, economic and edulcational progress
\
l"
I
is recognised as an important cause of environmental degradation
and therefore recognises that economic development has a crucial role to
play in contributing to poverty alleviation.
A. Prosperity
B. Stability
Q
Roverty
D. Consistency
ih
I
(t
60.
62.
t3
PCB IOI2
63. Development only takes place if the resource harvest rates are at levels
--
managed or natural regeneration rates permit, and the use of the
environment as a waste sink occurs only on the basis that waste disposal
rates should not exceed the managed or natural assimilation capacity of the
environment.
@
*o higher than
B. No lower than
C. Equalto
D. Of two timesl
64 The national ecological deficit measures the
------
by which the country's
footprint (plus the country's share of biodiversity responsibility) exceeds the
ecological capacity of that nation.
A. Wealth
B. Poverty
C. Policy
f}
Amount
65. Ecological footprint is a measure of how much land and water an
individual, a city, a country, or humanity requires to produce all the resources
it consumes and to absorb all the waste it generates, using prevailing
technology.
Q/
Amount
B. Quality
C. Productive
D. Quantity
66. Overshoot is the situation when
local, national or global scale.
!)
Consumption
B. Expenditures
C. Requirements
D. Hurnan demand
exceeds nature's supply at the
h
tv)
. . ..::
-_"-.
r\\
\\
)2. \
\.
r \
\rt
,\]
\
/
-/
t4
67. -----::---- alms
considerations
development.
to integrate environmental (biophysical,
into the earliest stages of policy,
PCB IOI2
social and economic)
plan and program
68.
Strategic Environmental Policy
Strategic Environmental Assessment
Strategic Environmental lmpact
Strategic Environmental Guideline
The United Nations Cornmission for Sustainable Development has prepared
of Sustainable Development as a holistic and consistent method for
monitoring progress towards sustainable development to assist decision-
makers and to increase focus on achieving sustainable development.
@
lnoicators
B. Policy
C. Rules
D. Guidelines
The uN commission on sustainable Development (UNCSD) at its Third
session in April 1995 developed a working list of indicators that were
subsequently tested and improved upon at national levels.
A. 104
B. 114
Ql
rza
D. 134
Almost half the world's population (47,2a/o\ is now urbanised and by
that proportion
willhave reached twothirds.
A. 2030
B. 2040
Qb zoso
D. 2060
s
70.
-.-/
Y*?
\ L\
\
l\
,
./_"._*.
tkY
w
l5
PCB IOI2
71. Sustainable development can be facilitated by policies
that---environmental,
economic" and socialvalues in decision making.
A. Elaborate
B. Concentrate
!/
lntegrate
D. Enhance
{r)
\}/
72. Which one iq an indicator to Biodiversity Loss:
@
fisneries fully exploited v
LA)
B. Forest extent expanding
$
C. Water Bird population
increases
d
D. Genetic diversity of agricultural crops increases
73. select the most probable factor contributing to Biodiversity Loss.
A. Tos many people sharing the same resources on the planet
d
B. lnefficient manufacturing rate versus consurpption rate d,
G)
Causes of biodiversity not significantly addressed during development
r\
consideration
(
C.,
D. Lack of common sense during development
{
\./
74. The following i.s true for issues in sustainabre development EXcEpr:
O
z bitlion
,"or*
,n poor countries consume more in.nth;mpopuration
Only 1.3 biilion peopte have access to ctean water
1/
t
3 billion people
have access to adequate sanitation
'\
i..
2 billion people have access to electricity
75. Which one is not an energy issue:
,\
@
Resource rich but economically poor countries are becoming richer. ,r\
B. lntense rivalry for energy among powerful
nations
\/
t.- \
'
C. The Western nation makes small percentage
of world population but
consumes far more resources \/
D- Energy demands by rapidly advancing developing countries /
B.
C.
D-
l6
PCB IOI2
76. The followings are one of the concerns and fears in energy security EXCEFT:
<\
(-AJ
Abundant energy supply versus demands
\-/
,
*"r
B. Oil and fossilfueldepletiorol
i, \
C. Reliance on foreign sources of energy d
'
il
,,!
D. Demands from advancing developing countries u
77. The statement below is true for water stress EXCEPT:
A. lnadequate access to water and clean water
B. Lack basic sanitation and increasing water prices in developing countries
@
tn"r.rsing sea-level due to North Pole melt-down
D. Declining extent of marshes and inland water system
78. Which one an indieator for Green Cities lndex?
q----
Q!
Transport
B. Thermal comfort
q
C. Urban design
J-
D, ElectricitY
d-
79. One of the key parts in globalization that is affected by oil prices is:
A. Financial institutions are linked at global scale
B. All goods can be easily found at all world class cities in the world
80. Give the correct definition of year of the Peak Oil Production (POP)
@
fne year a country produces the most oil before it needs to import oil
B. The year a country discover the most oil sources locally (I
\1 1
C. The year a country shares the most oilwith its neighbouring countries
\l
D. The year a country imports most oilfor local consumption
{r)
\
-/
Q
frade liberalization where goods are manufactured far away from where it
is consumed
.. \
D. Online retail as it becomes more popular
i'
(
'
t7
.
PCB l0l2
I
81. One of the following is
NOIkey
findings in Asian Green Cities lndex 2011:
Tokyo is the only city to rank well above average in the energy and CO2
L
L
t-
-
category
@nttJapan
cities are strong on policies
B. China is strong on policy, weak on energy and CO2V ,,-n\
tat
, 3 iiiffi;::::'werr
above averase on ALL index
v
\J'v
82. Which one is
Nof a reason for dry_gqc[!!g?
A. Servicing
B. Repairing
C. Cleaning
@scranins
83. Which one is the
main
qoncern
ElEilge
water?
0 rotrt amount"m
B. Quantity of oil from each ship
C. Quality of oil from each ship
D. Condition of receiving sea
U. Ship scarping is a local industry particularly in
@
Coast of lndia and South-east Asia
B. Atlantic coastline
C. The West Coast Region of New Zealand
D. The East Coast of Brazil
fresh cargo of oil.
A. Has to be added to
(9 Has to be removed from
C. Has to be partially
added to
D. Has to partially removed from
b
t
&
l8
86.
PCB IOI2
Poverty consumption inequality means:
A. a few hundred millionaires now own as much wealth as the world's poorest
2.5 billion people
o
20% of the world's richest population
account for 86% of total private
consumption expenditures and yet 200/o of the poorest consume a
.'*.\
minuscule 1.3%
bi
c. 1 billion people suffer from hunger and yet some 1.2 billion suffer from
..
"P''
obesity
D- People consume what they need, reuse and recycle whenever possible
and conserve water even though there is no shortage.
Much effort is devoted to measuring the level of contamination of sediments
and organisms by
-,
but to determine if the observed level of
contamination causes pollution generally requires a study of its
_
87
A. biological analysis and physical
effects
B. chemical analysis and physicaleffects
Q
chemical analysis and biologicaleffects
J. oiotogi"at anatysis
"^i
i",*icateffects
h"lh\
+ ?,
t"-*',tJ
-
"
A\
1.3-8,
Which statement defines antagonism?
A. One increases the mortality caused by the other.
B. One maintains the mortality caused by the other.
C. One creates the mortality caused by the other.
A
(P)
One reduces the mortality caused by the other
89- Nasal salt glands
which is due to the ingestion of crude oil
and some other seabirds is a (an)
@
sru-t"that effect.
B. Synergy effect.
C. Antagonism effect.
D. Lethal effect.
by herring gulls
"\
ir\
"
t'l
'.t
't--
l9
PCB IOI2
90. Community studies invotve taking samples of organisms from
\
@)
polluted and control sites
B. polluted sites
C. control sites
D. partially polluted sites
The presence
oriaUsence,: of these ihdicators
signal of the existencd of pollution
effects:
IIIgJPT
provide:a
@
fno"" with high toleration.
Species of commercial value and under cultivation.
Key species whose presence
or absence in certain environments has
major repercussions in the community.
lndicator species, known to be particularly resistant or particularly sensitive
to pollutants.
r"$t
',r)
API gravity refers to a measurement applied to
,'i.
,'
\--'l
A. oir
BGas
d
@w't"' W /
@
oit, gas and water
'
| (.F
-&rr
(
%
An oil reservoir has three zones, gas, oil and water. Pick the wrong statement.
aY,
Wthe
gas zone is a called a gas cap
@
,n" water zone is called an aquifer
I
AI
91.
B.
C.
D.
92. Fish eggs and larvae which are
commonly in
Q*
waters.
A. Less and deep
B. More and deep
C. Less and surface
@
nllor" and surface
sensitive to toxin than adults and are
A
ffi
B.
C.
the oil zone contains only oil
the water zone is below the oil zone
hff-
{neti6,'n
20
*
",
PCB 1012
A core plug
is drilled from a reservoir to:collect liquid that saturates,it. The
plug is a 3 cm
",g!e
lf the plug is cleaned to remove all fluids inside and its
porosity is 25o/o, the cm3 of fluids collected is:
/\
\g)
o.zs
B.'2.25
@ oru
D. 12
A. 0.175
B. 0.616
c. 0.1285
(D)
o rso
A reservoir has an initial oil saturation of 75% and oil formation volume factor
of 1.4. After production;
the saturation, dropped to 0.60% and the oil formation
volume factor is 1.2,, The recovery factor iC
3,x
o>la
s
1fh
)
Fv
F
.l'\
{,
J o'(,'/, )
fYl:
l'L
j.
)2,"t
=
V
>t
x
t=
(.rS
!-
lsYo l'q
l.r
t - trt%
Nf-
5
9B
Main reservoir engineering activity is
A. Porosity
"rl"rtrti#f--
B. Study the geology
of a reservoir
D. Reduction of environmental impact
Which is the wrong statement?
A. Malaysian crudes are mostly light oil
B. Average Malaysian reservoir recovery factor is 33%
Q
n4alaysian crude oil is often sour
D. Malaysian reservoirs may be on-shore
99 A core plug weighs 149.29 grams
grams/cm3.
The bulk volume is
A. 139,79 cm3
B. 25.00 cm3
@
ts.zz.r'
D. 32.4 cm3
is known to be 9.5
and the density
&
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21
PCB IOI2
lf the plug ,i:p QUESTION
gg
has a bulk Votume of 25 cm3 and when it is
saturated with water, it shows a weight increase of 5.6 grams. Assuming
water denqity of 0.95 gram/cm3 and rock density of 9.5 grams/cm3, estimate
1--
the porosity.
A. 22.4Yo
Q)zaov",
C. 2.360/o
D. 760/o
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22