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2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

HYDRAULICS
Hydraulics are not optimized,
they are maximized
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 2
Hydraulics
Hydraulics can be maximized
using the horsepower method or
the impact force method
1714
PQ
Hp =
1932
Q V
IF
n m

=
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 3
Hydraulics
In the Pressure Loss chapter, we
learned that

Setting all the pressure losses
except the bit to P
c
yields
dca dpa bit dc dp surf s
P P P P P P P + + + + + =
bit c s
P P P + =
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 4
Hydraulics
Pressure losses in the
circulating system (everything
except the bit) can also be
expressed as:

Where K is a constant and s is
the slope of a line on log-log
paper
s
c
KQ P =
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 5
Hydraulics
You can also say that:

Substituting Equation 7-1 into
Equation 7-5 yields:
bit c s
Hp Hp Hp + =
714 , 1 714 , 1 714 , 1
Q P Q P Q P
bit c s
+ =
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 6
Hydraulics
Rearranging and canceling the
1,714:

Substituting Equation 7-4 into
Equation 7-7:
Q P Q P Q P
c s bit
=
1 +
=
s
s bit
KQ Q P Q P
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 7
Hydraulics
Differentiating and setting equal
to zero:
Minimum

Maximum
0 =
bit
P
0 ) 1 ( = +
s
s
KQ s P
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 8
Hydraulics
Substituting Equation 7-4 into
Equation 7-10:
0 ) 1 ( = +
c s
P s P
c s
P s P ) 1 ( + =
s c
P
s
P
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
1
1
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 9
Hydraulics
The horsepower at the bit will be
maximized when
s c
P
s
P
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
1
1
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 10
Hydraulics
If the slope s is assumed to be
1.86 (the industry usually
assumes between 1.80 and 1.86),
the equations become:
s c
P P 35 . 0 =
s bit
P P 65 . 0 =
s c
P P
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
1 86 . 1
1
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 11
Hydraulics
Hydraulic horsepower will be
maximized when the pressure
losses in the circulating system
are 35% of the maximum
allowable standpipe pressure
and the pressure losses at the
bit are 65% of the maximum
allowable standpipe pressure
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 12
Hydraulics
Example 7-2 derives the equation
for the maximum impact force
Equation 7-17 can be used to
calculate the pressure drop
across the bit nozzles
120 , 1
2
n m
bit
V
P

=
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 13
Hydraulics
Substituting Equation 7-3 and 7-
4 into Equation 7-17 yields:


Rearranging Equation 7-18:
s
s
n m
KQ P
V
=
120 , 1
2

( )
2
1
120 , 1
(
(
(
(

=
m
s
s
n
KQ P
V

2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 14


Hydraulics
Substituting Equation 7-16 into
Equation 7-19



Simplifying:
( )
2 / 1
120 , 1
932 , 1
(
(
(
(

=
m
s
s m
KQ P Q
IF

| |
2 / 1
2 2 +
=
s
s
AKQ Q AP IF
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 15
Hydraulics
where A is a constant equal to

Differentiating and setting equal
to zero
333 , 3
m
A

=
| |
dQ
AKQ Q AP d
dQ
IF d
s
s
2 / 1
2 2
) (
+

=
| | | |
1
2 / 1
2 2
) 2 ( 2
2
1
0
+

+
+ =
s
s
s
s
AKQ s Q AP AKQ Q AP
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 16
Hydraulics



Equation 7-22 is the equation for
maximizing impact force at the
bit
1
) 2 ( 2 0
+
+ =
s
s
KQ s A Q AP
Q P s A Q AP
c s
) 2 ( 2 0 + =
c s
P s P ) 2 ( 2 0 + =
s c
P
s
P
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
2
2
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 17
Hydraulics
Again, assuming the slope is
1.86, the impact force will be
maximized when
s c
P P 52 . 0 =
s bit
P P 48 . 0 =
s c
P P
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
2 86 . 1
2
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 18
Hydraulics
Impact force will be maximized
when the pressure losses in the
circulating system are 52% of the
maximum allowable standpipe
pressure and the pressure
losses at the bit are 48% of the
maximum allowable standpipe
pressure
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 19
Hydraulics
Keeping the
same surface
pressure P
s
, the
flow rate can be
varied and HP
and IF can be
calculated
The maximum
values can be
found
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Flow Rate, Q
H
p

o
r

I
F
IMPACT FORCE
HORSEPOWER
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 20
Hydraulics
The flow rate cannot be calculated
directly from the friction loss in the
circulating system
) ( 300 3
1 2 4 . 2
p h
n
p h
D D
kl
n
n
D D
v
P

(
(

|
.
|

\
| +

=
83 . 4
19 . 0 81 . 1 81 . 0 5
) 10 ( 68 . 7
D
l PV Q
P
m

=
( )
2 2
5 . 24
p h
D D
Q
v

=
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 21
Hydraulics
Usually calculate the pressure
losses in the circulating system
at two rates and plot P
c
versus Q
on log-log paper (straight line) to
determine the flow rate or
calculate the flow rate from the
slope of the line
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 22
Hydraulics
In order to design the hydraulics,
you must determine
The maximum allowable standpipe
pressure
The maximum pump rate
The minimum pump rate
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 23
Hydraulics
Example 7-3 shows how to design
hydraulics for a drilling plan
First, establish the limits
Case 1: The maximum standpipe
pressure is set at 2500 psi (17,240
kPa) (drilling contractor)
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 24
Hydraulics
First, establish the limits
Since the maximum allowable
standpipe pressure is 2500 psi, choose
the 6 liners with 3.30 gallons per
stroke
Use one pump in the 8 1/2 hole
The maximum flow rate for one pump
gpm spm gps Q 363 ) 110 )( 30 . 3 (
max
= =
1.37 m
3
/min
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 25
Hydraulics
Calculate pressure losses in the
circulating system at two flow
rates
Any two flow rates will do
We will do this at 9000, 12,000
and 15,000 feet
In this case we will assume 200
gpm (0.757 m
3
/min) and 500 gpm
(1.892 m
3
/min)
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 26
Hydraulics
Ignore the surface connections
Calculate pressure loss in the
drill pipe (Equation 6-6)
( )
83 . 4
19 . 0 81 . 1 81 . 0 5
10 68 . 7
D
l PV Q
P
m
dp

=
( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
kPa P
psi P
dp
dp
1740
252
826 . 3
8400 25 200 16 10 68 . 7
83 . 4
19 . 0 81 . 1 81 . 0 5
=
=

=

2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 27
Hydraulics
Calculate the pressure loss in
the drill collars (Equation 6-6)
( )
83 . 4
19 . 0 81 . 1 81 . 0 5
10 68 . 7
D
l PV Q
P
m
dc

=
( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
kPa P
psi P
dc
dc
1610
233
25 . 2
600 25 200 16 10 68 . 7
83 . 4
19 . 0 81 . 1 81 . 0 5
=
=

=

2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 28
Hydraulics
Calculate the pressure drop in
the drill collar annulus
First calculate n and k
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
Yp PV
Yp PV
n
2
log 32 . 3
7743 . 0
12 25
12 ) 25 )( 2 (
log 32 . 3 =
(

+
+
= n
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 29
Hydraulics



Calculate annular velocity
(Equation 4-18)
n
Yp PV
k
511
+
=
) 1709 . 0 ( 3567 . 0
511
12 25
7743 . 0
Units SI in k =
+
=
( )
2 2
5 . 24
p h
D D
Q
v

=
( )
) mpm 7 . 49 ( fpm 163
5 . 6 5 . 8
) 200 )( 5 . 24 (
2 2
=

= v
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 30
Hydraulics
Pressure loss in drill collar
annulus (Equation 6-22)
) ( 300 3
1 2 4 . 2
p h
n
p h
dca
D D
kl
n
n
D D
v
P

(
(

|
.
|

\
| +
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
( )
kPa 138
psi 20
5 . 6 5 . 8 300
) 600 )( 3567 . 0 (
) 7743 . 0 )( 3 (
1 ) 7743 . 0 )( 2 (
5 . 6 5 . 8
) 163 )( 4 . 2 (
7743 . 0
=
=
(

)
`

+
(

=
dca
dca
P
P
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 31
Hydraulics
Calculate pressure losses in the
drill pipe annulus (Equation 6-22)
( )
) mpm 7 . 28 ( fpm 94
5 . 4 5 . 8
) 200 )( 5 . 24 (
2 2
=

= v
( )
kPa 379
psi 55
5 . 4 5 . 8 300
) 8400 )( 3567 . 0 (
) 7743 . 0 )( 3 (
1 ) 7743 . 0 )( 2 (
5 . 4 5 . 8
) 94 )( 4 . 2 (
7743 . 0
=
=
(

)
`

+
(

=
dpa
dpa
P
P
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 32
Hydraulics
Calculate the total losses in the
circulating system P
c
, which is
everything but the bit




The pressure losses at 500 gpm
are calculated the same way
dpa dca dc dp c
P P P P P + + + =
) kPa 3860 ( psi 560 55 20 233 252 = + + + =
c
P
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 33
Hydraulics
Q P
c
= P
dp
+ P
dc
+ P
dca
+ P
dpa
200 560 252 233 20 55
500 2734 1341 1225 57 130
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 34
Hydraulics
The same steps are repeated at
two additional depths
In this case we assumed 12,000
(3658m) and 15,000 feet (4572m)
The pressure losses in the
circulating system are plotted on
a piece of log log paper versus
flow rate
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 35
Hydraulics
9,000'
12,000'
15,000'
100
1000
10000
100 1000
Flow Rate, Q
C
i
r
c
u
l
a
t
i
n
g

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

L
o
s
s
,

p
s
i
Q Max = 363
P Max IF = 1300
P Max Hp = 875
c
c
214
234
259
270
294
325
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 36
Hydraulics
If using the horsepower method,
the pressure losses in the
circulating system P
c
needs to
be
s c
P P 35 . 0 =
kPa) (6030 psi 875 ) 2500 )( 35 . 0 ( = =
c
P
s bit
P P 65 . 0 =
kPa) (11,200 psi 1625 ) 2500 )( 65 . 0 ( = =
bit
P
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 37
Hydraulics
If using the impact force method,
the pressure losses in the
circulating system P
c
needs to
be
s c
P P 52 . 0 =
kPa) (8960 psi 1300 ) 2500 )( 52 . 0 ( = =
c
P
s bit
P P 48 . 0 =
kPa) (8270 psi 1200 ) 2500 )( 48 . 0 ( = =
bit
P
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 38
Hydraulics
9,000'
12,000'
15,000'
100
1000
10000
100 1000
Flow Rate, Q
C
i
r
c
u
l
a
t
i
n
g

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

L
o
s
s
,

p
s
i
Q Max = 363
P Max IF = 1300
P Max Hp = 875
c
c
214
234
259
270
294
325
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 39
Hydraulics
Horsepower
method
From the graph,
find the flow rate
that will yield a
P
c
of 875 psi
(6030 kPa)
The flow rate is
259 gpm (0.98
m
3
/min)
9,000'
12,000'
15,000'
100
1000
10000
100 1000
Flow Rate, Q
C
i
r
c
u
l
a
t
i
n
g

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

L
o
s
s
,

p
s
i
Q Max = 363
P Max IF = 1300
P Max Hp = 875
c
c
214
234
259
270
294
325
875
259
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 40
Hydraulics
The flow rate can also be
calculated based on the slope
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 2
1 2
Q Log Q Log
P Log P Log
s

=
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
7304 . 1
200 500
560 2734
=

=
Log Log
Log Log
s
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 200
560 875
7304 . 1
2
Log Q Log
Log Log

=


/min) m (0.98 gpm 259
3
2
= Q
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 41
Hydraulics
Note that there is an error in the
book on page 7-10
The equation reads


But it should be
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 200
560 875
7304 . 1
2
Log Q Log
Log Log

=


( ) ( )
( )) 200 (
560 875
7304 . 1
2
Log Q Log
Log Log

=
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 42
Hydraulics
The pressure drop across the bit
needs to be
P
bit
= 0.65 P
s
= (0.65)(2500) = 1625 psi
(11,200 kPa)
Calculate nozzle sizes based on
the pressure loss of 1625 psi
(11,200 kPa) and the flow rate of
259 gpm (0.98 m
3
/min)
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 43
Hydraulics
Bit pressure drop equation


Solving for area of the nozzles
( )
2
2 5
10 14 . 9
n
m
bit
A
Q
P

=
( )
2
2 5
) 259 )( 16 ( 10 14 . 9
1625
n
A

=
) 5 . 158 ( 2457 . 0
2 2
mm in A
n
=
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 44
Hydraulics
Calculate the average nozzle size
based on the number of nozzles
used
n
n
n
N
A
S
1304
=
( )( )
) 12 . 8 ( 33 . 10
3
2457 . 0 1304
mm S
n
= =
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 45
Hydraulics
The nozzles would be 10, 10, 11
based on an average nozzle size
of 10.33/32nds (7.9, 7.9, 8.7 in
mm)
Can do the same for impact force
and the nozzle sizes calculate
out to be 12, 12, 13 (9.5, 9.5, 10.3
in mm) at a flow rate of 325 gpm
(1.23 m
3
/min)
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 46
Hydraulics
DEPTH P
c
P
bit
Q NOZ's HP/in
2
I F/in
2

9000 875 1625 259 10,10,11 4.32 12.74
12000 875 1625 234 10,10,9 3.91 11.51
15000 875 1625 214 10,9,9 3.58 10.56
DEPTH P
c
P
bit
Q NOZ's HP/in
2
I F/in
2

9000 1300 1200 325 12,12,13 4.02 13.76
12000 1300 1200 294 12,12,12 3.63 12.44
15000 1300 1200 270 12,11,11 3.33 11.40
CASE I SAVE THE PUMP
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 47
Hydraulics
9,000'
12,000'
15,000'
100
1000
10000
100 1000
Flow Rate, Q
C
i
r
c
u
l
a
t
i
n
g

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

L
o
s
s
,

p
s
i
Q Max = 343
P Max IF = 1867
P Max Hp = 1256
c
c
264
288
319
333
362
401
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 48
Hydraulics
DEPTH P
c
P
bit
Q NOZ's HP/in
2
I F/in
2

9000 1256 2334 319 11,11,10 7.65 18.82
12000 1256 2334 288 10,10,10 6.91 17.01
15000 1256 2334 264 10,10,9 6.34 15.60
DEPTH P
c
P
bit
Q NOZ's HP/in
2
I F/in
2

9000 1378 2212 343 11,11,11 7.79 19.72
12000 1637 1953 343 11,11,12 6.87 18.52
15000 1867 1723 333 11,12,12 5.89 16.71
CASE II USE THE PUMP
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 49
Class Problem
D
h
= 12 (311 mm)
Depth = 6300 (1920m)
Drill Pipe 5 (127mm), 19.5#/ft ID = 4.276 (108.6 mm)
Collars 8 (203mm) OD by 3 (76mm) ID, Length 800
(244m)
Mud Weight = 10.2 ppg (1220 kg/m
3
)
PV = 15 YP = 10 (5)
Pumps two National 9-P-100 with 6 (152mm) liners
Maximum surface pressure = 2500 psi (17,240 kPa)
Output per stroke = 3.4 gallons per stroke (0.0129 m
3
)
Maximum pump speed = 120 spm
Assume a pump rate of 400 and 700 gpm (1.51 & 2.65)
Calculate the jet nozzles sizes for the HP and IF
methods
Hydraulics
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 50
Hydraulics
Answers
Q
max
= 2 pumps x 3.4 gal/stk x 120 stk/min = 816 gpm (3.09
m
3
/min)
n = 0.6777
k = 0.3652 (0.1749)
At 400 gpm (1.51 m
3
/min)
P
dp
= 213 psi (1470 kPa)
P
dc
= 171 psi (1180 kPa)
DC annular velocity v = 114 ft/min (34.7 mpm)
DP annular velocity v = 78 ft/min (23.8 mpm)
P
dca
= 4 psi (28 kPa) P
dpa
= 9 psi (62 kPa)
At 700 gpm (2.65 m
3
/min)
P
dp
= 586 psi (4040 kPa)
P
dc
= 472 psi (3254 kPa)
DC annular velocity v = 199 fpm (60.7 mpm)
DP annular velocity v = 137 fpm (41.8 mpm)
P
dca
= 6 psi (41 kPa) P
dpa
= 14 psi (97 kPa)

2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 51
Hydraulics
Answers
P
c
= P
dp
+ P
dc
+ P
dca
+P
dpa
P
c
at 400 gpm = 213+171+4+9=397 psi (2740
kPa)
P
c
at 700 gpm = 586+472+6+14=1078 psi
(7430 kPa)
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 52
Hydraulics
10
100
1000
10000
100 1000
Flow Rate, gpm
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

p
s
i
623 778
875
1300
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 53
Hydraulics
Answers
P
bit
for horsepower method = 1625 psi
(11,200 kPa)
P
bit
for impact force method = 1200 psi
(8270 kPa)
Area of nozzle for horsepower = 0.4719 in
2

(304 mm
2
)
Size of nozzle for horsepower = 14.33 or
14-14-15 (11.1-11.1-11.9 mm)
Area of nozzle for impact force = 0.6857 in
2

(442 mm
2
)
Size of nozzle for impact force = 17.27 or
16-18-18 (12.7-14.3-14.3 mm)

2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 54
Hydraulics
Errors in book
Equation 6-28 on page 6-20 should
be changed from


To
83 . 4
19 . 0 81 . 1 81 . 0
000 , 31 , 5
D
l PV Q
P
m

=
83 . 4
19 . 0 81 . 1 81 . 0
000 , 310 , 5
D
l PV Q
P
m

=
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 55
Hydraulics
Errors in book
Equation 6-33 on page 6-20 should
be changed from


To
2
2
000 , 184
n
m
bit
A
Q
P

=
2
2
000 , 153
n
m
bit
A
Q
P

=
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 56
Hydraulics
Q
max
= 2 x 3.4 x 120 = 816 gpm
(3.09 m
3
/min)
First calculate n and k
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
Yp PV
Yp PV
n
2
log 32 . 3
6777 . 0
10 15
10 ) 15 )( 2 (
log 32 . 3 =
(

+
+
= n
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 57
Hydraulics



Calculate drill pipe pressure
losses at 400 gpm (1.51 m
3
/min)
n
Yp PV
k
511
+
=
) 1749 . 0 ( 3652 . 0
511
10 15
6777 . 0
=
+
= k
( )
83 . 4
19 . 0 81 . 1 81 . 0 5
10 68 . 7
D
l PV Q
P
m
dp

=
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 58
Hydraulics

Calculate at 700 gpm (2.65 m
3
/min)
( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )( ) kPa) (1470 psi 213 400 00415 . 0
276 . 4
5500 15 400 2 . 10 10 68 . 7
81 . 1
83 . 4
19 . 0 81 . 1 81 . 0 5
= =

=

dp
dp
P
P
( )( ) kPa) (4040 psi 586 700 00415 . 0
81 . 1
= =
dp
P
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 59
Hydraulics
Calculate the pressure loss in the
drill collars at 400 gpm (1.51 m
3
/min)
and 700 gpm (2.65 m
3
/min)
( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )( ) kPa) (1180 psi 171 400 00334 . 0
3
800 15 400 2 . 10 10 68 . 7
81 . 1
83 . 4
19 . 0 81 . 1 81 . 0 5
= =

=

dc
dc
P
P
( )( ) kPa) (3280 psi 472 700 00334 . 0
81 . 1
= =
dc
P
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 60
Hydraulics
Calculate annular velocity at 400



( )
2 2
5 . 24
p h
D D
Q
v

=
( )
mpm) (34.7 fpm 114
8 25 . 12
) 400 )( 5 . 24 (
2 2
=

= v
( )
( ) mpm 23.8 fpm 78
5 25 . 12
) 400 )( 5 . 24 (
2 2
=

= v
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 61
Hydraulics
Calculate annular velocity at 700



( )
2 2
5 . 24
p h
D D
Q
v

=
( )
( ) mpm 60.7 fpm 199
8 25 . 12
) 700 )( 5 . 24 (
2 2
=

= v
( )
( ) mpm 41.8 fpm 137
5 25 . 12
) 700 )( 5 . 24 (
2 2
=

= v
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 62
Hydraulics
Calculate annular pressure losses at
400 and 700 gpm



) ( 300 3
1 2 4 . 2
p h
n
p h
dca
D D
kl
n
n
D D
v
P

(
(

|
.
|

\
| +
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( )
kPa 28
psi 4
8 25 . 12 300
) 800 )( 3652 . 0 (
1585 . 1
8 25 . 12
114 4 . 2
8 25 . 12 300
) 800 )( 3652 . 0 (
) 6777 . 0 )( 3 (
1 ) 6777 . 0 )( 2 (
8 25 . 12
) 114 )( 4 . 2 (
6777 . 0
6777 . 0
=
=
(

)
`

=
(

)
`

+
(

=
dca
dca
dca
P
P
P
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 63
Hydraulics
Calculate annular pressure losses at
400 and 700 gpm



( )( )
( )
( )
( )( )
( )( )
kPa 62
psi 9
5 25 . 12 300
5500 3652 . 0
1585 . 1
5 25 . 12
78 4 . 2
6777 . 0
=
=

)
`

=
dpa
dpa
P
P
( )( )
( )
( )
( )( )
( )( )
kPa 41
psi 6
8 25 . 12 300
800 3652 . 0
1585 . 1
8 25 . 12
199 4 . 2
6777 . 0
=
=
(

)
`

=
dca
dca
P
P
( )( )
( )
( )
( )( )
( )( )
kPa 97
psi 14
5 25 . 12 300
5500 3652 . 0
1585 . 1
5 25 . 12
137 4 . 2
6777 . 0
=
=

)
`

=
dpa
dpa
P
P
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 64
Hydraulics
P
c
at 400 gpm = 213+171+4+9=397 psi (2740
kPa)
P
c
at 700 gpm = 586+472+6+14=1078 psi
(7430 kPa)
P
bit
for HP Method P
bit
= 0.65 Ps
P
bit
= (0.65)(2500) = 1625 psi (11,200 kPa)
P
c
for HP = 2500 1625 = 875 psi (6030 kPa)
P
bit
for IF Method P
bit
= 0.48 Ps
P
bit
= (0.48)(2500) = 1200 psi (8270 kPa)
P
c
for IF = 2500 1200 = 1300 psi (8960 kPa)

2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 65
Hydraulics
10
100
1000
10000
100 1000
Flow Rate, gpm
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

p
s
i
623 778
875
1300
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 66
Hydraulics
Bit pressure drop equation

Solving for area of the nozzles
for the HP Method
( )
2
2 5
10 14 . 9
n
m
bit
A
Q
P

=
( )
2
2 5
) 623 )( 2 . 10 ( 10 14 . 9
1625
n
A

=
( )
2 2
mm 5 . 304 in 4719 . 0 =
n
A
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 67
Hydraulics
Solving for area of the nozzles
for the IF Method
( )
2
2 5
) 778 )( 2 . 10 ( 10 14 . 9
1200
n
A

=
( )
2 2
mm 4 . 442 in 6857 . 0 =
n
A
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 68
Hydraulics
Calculate the average nozzle size
for the HP Method




Nozzles would be 14-14-15 (11.1-
11.1-11.9)
n
n
n
N
A
S
1304
=
( )( )
( ) mm 37 . 11 33 . 14
3
4719 . 0 1304
= =
n
S
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 69
Hydraulics
Calculate the average nozzle size
for the IF Method




Nozzles would be 16-18-18 (12.7-
14.3-14.3)
n
n
n
N
A
S
1304
=
( )( )
( ) mm 71 . 13 27 . 17
3
6857 . 0 1304
= =
n
S
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 70
Field Hydraulics
The hydraulics can be
maximized in the field
Instead of calculating the friction
losses, they are measured
Instead of assuming the slope is
1.86, the slope is measured
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 71
Field Hydraulics
Get the standpipe pressure P
s
at
two flow rates (can be normal
circulation rate and reduced
pump rate)
Calculate P
c
at both flow rates
P
c
= P
s
P
bit
Calculate the value of the slope
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 72
Field Hydraulics
Determine the pressure losses in
the circulating system when HP
or IF is maximized based on the
actual slope
Determine the flow rate where
the pressure losses in the
circulating system are correct
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 73
Field Hydraulics
Determine the pressure loss
across the bit
P
bit
= P
s
- P
c
Determine the nozzles sizes for
the bit
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 74
Field Hydraulics
Example 7-4
Tripping for a bit at 8430 feet (2569m)
9 bit with jets 18,18,18 (14.3,14.3,14.3)
4 (114mm) drill pipe, 7 (197mm) collars
Mud weight = 12.0 ppg (1440 kg/m
3
)
PV = 20 YP = 18 (9)
500 gpm at 3000 psi (1.89 m
3
/min at 20,680
kPa)
300 gpm at 1345 psi (1.14 m
3
/min at 9270
kPa)
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 75
Field Hydraulics
Determine the bit pressure
losses
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
2
3
2
2
2
1
32 32 32 4
S S S
A
n
t
( )
2 2
2 2 2
mm 0 . 481 in 7455 . 0
32
18
32
18
32
18
4
=
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
| t
=
n
A
( )
2
2 5
10 14 . 9
n
m
bit
A
Q
P

=
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 76
Field Hydraulics
Determine the bit pressure
losses
( ) ( )
( )
( ) kPa 3400 psi 493
7455 . 0
500 ) 12 ( 10 14 . 9
2
2 5
= =

bit
P
( ) ( )
( )
( ) kPa 1230 psi 178
7455 . 0
300 ) 12 ( 10 14 . 9
2
2 5
= =

bit
P
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 77
500
(1.89)
3000
(20,680)
493
(3400)
2507
(17,280)
300
(1.14)
1345
(9270)
178
(1230)
1167
(8040)
Field Hydraulics
Calculate the pressure losses in
the circulating system
Q
s
P
P
bit
= P
c
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 78
Field Hydraulics
Calculate the slope of the line
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 2
1 2
log log
log log
Q Q
P P
s

=
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
4969 . 1
300 log 500 log
1167 log 2507 log
=

= s
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 79
Field Hydraulics
Calculate the bit pressure loss
for the HP method
s c
P
s
P
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
1
1
( ) kPa 8280 psi 1201 ) 3000 (
1 4969 . 1
1
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
c
P
c s bit
P P P =
( ) kPa 12,400 psi 1799 1201 3000 = =
bit
P
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 80
Field Hydraulics
Calculate the bit pressure loss
for the IF method
s c
P
s
P
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
2
2
( ) kPa 11,830 psi 1716 ) 3000 (
2 4969 . 1
2
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
c
P
c s bit
P P P =
( ) kPa 8850 psi 1284 1716 3000 = =
bit
P
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 81
Field Hydraulics
1000
10000
100 1000
Flow Rate, Q
C
i
r
c
u
l
a
t
i
n
g

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

L
o
s
s
,

p
s
i
P Max IF = 1716
P Max Hp = 1201
c
c
306
388
1.16
1.47
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 82
Field Hydraulics
Calculate the area of the nozzles
for the HP method
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2 2
2
2 5
mm 1 . 154 in 2389 . 0
306 ) 12 ( 10 14 . 9
1799
=
=

n
n
A
A
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 83
Field Hydraulics
Calculate the nozzle sizes for the
HP method
( )( )
) 7 . 8 9 . 7 9 . 7 ( 11 10 10
) mm 01 . 8 ( 19 . 10
3
2389 . 0 1304

= =
or
S
n
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 84
Field Hydraulics
The same thing can be done for
the impact force and the nozzle
sizes will be 12-12-13 (9.5-9.5-
10.3)
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 85
Field Hydraulics
Q P
c
P
bit
P
s
V NOZ's HP/in
2
V
n
I F/in
2
HP
t
Before
Trip
500 2507 494 3000 175 18,18,18 2.03 215 9.42 875
Max HP 306 1201 1799 3000 107 10,10,11 4.53 410 10.99 536
Max IF 388 1716 1284 3000 136 12,12,13 4.11 346 11.78 679
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 86
Field Hydraulics
Class Problem
TD = 9000 (2743m)
Mud Wt. = 12.1 ppg (1450 kg/m
3
)
Jets = 14-14-14 (11.1-11.1-11.1)
Q
2
= 310 gpm (1.17 m
3
/min)
P
s2
= 1200 psi (8270 kPa)
Q
1
= 200 gpm (0.76 m
3
/min)
P
s1
= 500 psi (3450 kPa)
Max surface pressure = 2424 psi (16,710
kPa)
Max flow rate =390 gpm (1.48 m
3
/min)
Calculate jet sizes for next bit run using
impact force
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 87
Field Hydraulics
An = 0.4510 in
2
(291.0 mm
2
)

P
bit
@ 310 gpm = 523 psi (3610 kPa)
P
bit
@ 200 gpm = 218 psi (1500 kPa)
P
c
@ 310 gpm = 677 psi (4670 kPa)
P
c
@ 200 gpm = 282 psi (1940 kPa)
Slope = 2.00
For IF P
c
= 0.50 Ps
IF P
c
= (0.50)(2424) = 1212 psi (8360
kPa)
IF P
bit
= 2424-1212 = 1212 psi (8360
kPa)
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 88
Field Hydraulics
IF Q = 415 gpm (1.57 m
3
/min) but that
is greater than the maximum flow
rate of 390 gpm so use 390 gpm (1.48
m
3
/min)
Need P
c
at 390 gpm (1.48 m
3
/min)
From slope P
c
= 1072 psi (7390 kPa)
P
bit
= 2424 1072 = 1352 psi (9320
kPa)
A
n
= 0.3527 in
2
(227.5 mm
2
)

S
n
= 12.4 or 12-12-13 (9.5-9.5-10.3)
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 89
Field Hydraulics
Calculate the area of the nozzles


Calculate the bit pressure drop
( )
2 2
2 2 2
mm 0 . 291 in 4510 . 0
32
14
32
14
32
14
4
=
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
| t
=
n
A
( ) ( )
( )
( ) kPa 3610 psi 523
4510 . 0
310 ) 1 . 12 ( 10 14 . 9
2
2 5
= =

bit
P
( ) ( )
( )
( ) kPa 1500 psi 218
4510 . 0
200 ) 1 . 12 ( 10 14 . 9
2
2 5
= =

bit
P
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 90
Field Hydraulics
Calculate Pc for each flow rate



Calculate the slope
( )
( ) kPa 1940 psi 282 218 500
kPa 4670 psi 677 523 1200
= =
= =
c
c
P
P
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
00 . 2
200 log 310 log
282 log 677 log
=

= s
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 91
Field Hydraulics
For IF method


P
bit
= 2424 1212 = 1212 psi

( ) kPa 8360 psi 1212 ) 2424 (
2 00 . 2
2
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
c
P
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 92
Field Hydraulics
Flow rate for IF method




But the maximum is 390 gpm so
must use 390 gpm (1.48 m
3
/min)
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) min / m 57 . 1 gpm 415
200 log log
282 log 1212 log
00 . 2
3
2
2
=

=
Q
Q
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 93
Field Hydraulics
P
c
at 390 gpm (1.48 m
3
/min)




( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) kPa 7390 psi 1072
200 log 390 log
282 log log
00 . 2
2
2
=

=
c
c
P
P
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 94
Field Hydraulics
Bit pressure drop for IF
( ) kPa 9320 psi 1352 1072 2424 = =
bit
P
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 95
Field Hydraulics
Area of nozzles for IF method


Size of nozzles for IF method


Need 12-12-13 (9.5-9.5-10.3)
( )( )
( ) mm 83 . 9 4 . 12
3
3527 . 0 1304
= =
n
S
( )
( )
2 2
2 5
mm 5 . 227 in 3527 . 0
1352
) 390 )( 1 . 12 ( 10 14 . 9
= =

n
A
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 96
Hydraulics
If the BHA includes a downhole
motor and MWD, the friction loss
through the motor and MWD
must be considered
MWD and LWD tools have a
restricted inside diameter and
the pressure losses through the
tools will be higher than a
normal drill collar
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 97
Hydraulics
The directional drilling
contractor can provide an
equivalent length for the MWD
and LWD tools for calculation
purposes
When drilling with a downhole
motor, the motor also has a
pressure drop
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 98
Hydraulics
The amount of work performed
by the motor is a function of the
pressure drop through the motor
As torque increases, the
pressure drop will increase
When designing hydraulics with
a downhole motor, there are
other considerations
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 99
Hydraulics
The motor will have a maximum
pressure drop when the motor
stalls, and the stall pressure
must be used for hydraulics
Depending upon the motor
manufacturer, there may be a
maximum and minimum
allowable bit pressure drop
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 100
Hydraulics
Most motors use
drilling fluid to
lubricate the bearings
Part of the flow will
bypass the bit
depending upon the
bit pressure drop
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 101
Hydraulics
The minimum flow rate may be
based on slip velocity equations
Can use the CCI to determine the
minimum flow rate or minimum
viscosity of the drilling fluid
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 102
Hydraulics
PV for a 10.2 ppg mud
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 103
Hydraulics

( )( )( )
000 , 400
v K
CCI
f

=
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 104
Lifting Capacity
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Yield Point, lb/100 sq ft
k

V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
,

e
q
u
i
v
a
l
e
n
t

c
p
10 cp
15 cp
20 cp
25 cp
30 cp
35 cp
40 cp
PV
2005 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved 105
Hydraulics
For directional wells, the
minimum flow rate may be based
on a minimum annular velocity
10 to 30 - 120 feet per minute
30 to 90 - 180 feet per minute