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Book I.
\Vindsor was followed during his own and tlie succeeding reign. Tlie balls of Westminster
a-d Eltliam were rebuilt by Kichard II.
Kenil worth by John of (Jaunt
Darlington, in
I>e%o?j;lnre, by Holland Duke of Exeter. Crosby Hall, in London, was finished by the
Duke of Gloucester, afterwards Richard III. We here subjoin the dimensions of some
)f the principal halls in castles and palaces before the end of the fifteenth century, rangtd
in order' of their size, as partly revised :

I,pngth Breadth Height

in feet. vin feet. in feet.
Wtstminster (1.S97)
- 238-9
67 to 68 90
Durham Castle
^0, now 180 50 36
London, Guildhall - - -
153 0 60 (Wrens roofi
Conway (roof laid on stone ribs)
129 31 22
I'ristol (divided by upright beams of timber 108 50
Eltham Talace
. 101-3 35-3
.... -
99 45
Haby Castle
0 36
Kenil worth Castle
- 88-8
45 32-3
Swansea - . . . .
88 30
Leicester Castle Hall (oak pillars) -
78 51 24
7(5 36

Dartington (147G) -
70 40 44
Caerpliillv - - - -
70 SO 17 walls
Crosby Place (14^6-70)
69 17
Mayfield Hall (stone ribs) -
68 38

Goodrich Cas'le . . . -
65 28
Warwick Castle
62 35 25
Berkeley Castle
61 32
Second one at Swansea
58 S3

415. Generally, in respect of plan, tlie internal arrangement of these halls was very
similar. The high table, as we have observed, was elevated on a platform above the level
of the floor, and was reserved for the lord and his family, with the superior guests. Round
the walls separate tables and benches were distributed for the officers of the household and
dependents. The centre was occupied by the great open fire-place, directly over whiL-li
in the roof was placed a turret, denominated a louvre, for conveying away the smoke. At
I'olton Castle we find the chimneys in the walls
but, pcrh.nps, those at Conway and
Kenilworth are earlier proof of the alteration. Ilie roofs with which some of these halls
are spanned exhibit mechanical and artistic skill of the first order. The thrust, by the
simplest means, is thrown comparatively low down in the best examples, so as to lessen
the horizontal etfect against the walls, and thus dispense with considerable solidity in
the buttresses. Fig. 196. is a section of the celebrated Hall of Westminster, by which
(lur observation will be better understood. These roofs were framed of oak or ches-
iiut. Whether, when of the latter, it was imported from Portugal and Castile, is a
question that has been discussed, but not detennined, by antiquaries. Large stone corbels
and projecting consoles were attached to the side walls, and were disposed in bays called
severeys between each window. Upon their ends, demi-angels were generally carved,
a large escochion to their breasts. Near to the high table, a projecting or bay
window, termed an oriel, was introduced. It was fully glazed, fre(]uently containing
stained glass of the arms of the family and its alliances. Here was the standing cupboard
which contained the plain and parcel-gilt plate. The rere-dos was a sort of framed canopy
hung with tapestry, and fixed behind the sovereign or chieftain. The walls were gcnerallv
lined to about a third of their height with panelled oak or strained suits of tapestry. It
was during this aera that privy chambers, parlours, and bowers found their way into the
castle. Adjoining to, or nearly connected with the hall, a spacious room, generally with a
bay window, looking on to the quadrangle, was planned :is a receiving-room for the guests,
as well before dinner as after. This was decorated with the richest tapestry and cushions
embroidered by the ladies, and was distinguished by the name of the presence or privy-
chamber. Tlie females of the family had another similar apartment, in which their time
was passed in domestic occupations and amusements. This last room was called my ladifs
hoiccx or parlour, and here she received her visitors. Bay windows were' never used in
outer walls, and seldom others, excepting those of the narrowest shape.
416. The dawn of improvement in our domestic architecture opened in the latter part o/
theperiod, during which also brick camevery much into use inEngland as a building material.
Michael de la Pole," as we learn from Leland's Itinerary,
marchant of Hull, came into
such high favour with King Richard II. that he got many privileges for the towne. And
in hys tyme the toune was wonderfully augmented yn building, and was enclosyd with
ditches, and the waul begun
and in continuance endid, and made all of brike, as most
part of the houses at that time was. In the waul be four principal gates of brike." After