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QATAR GENERAL PETROLEUM CORPORATION TECHNICAL DIRECTORATE Technical Services Department Engineering Standard ES.2.06.0001

QATAR GENERAL PETROLEUM CORPORATION

TECHNICAL DIRECTORATE Technical Services Department

Engineering Standard ES.2.06.0001 Electrical Installation Recommended Practices

-

Revision A -

Status

Indicator

Date

Signature

Prepared

ENE/732

AUG 99

Original signed by ENE/732

Checked

ENE/73

AUG 99

Original signed by ENE/73

Approved

EE

AUG 99

Original signed by EE

AC7SC0AB0

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0

Introduction

2.0

Custodian

3.0

Purpose

4.0

Application

5.0

Preface to ES.2.06.0001

5.1

Extracts from the preface to ES.2.03.0001

6.0

Project Documentation

6.1 Sources of documents

6.2 Application of documents

6.3 Standards, codes and regulations

Revision A

Page 2

7.0

Service and Environmental Conditions

7.1

Ambient temperature for design purposes

7.2

Meteorological information for general use

7.3

Special requirements for equipment installed in hazardous areas

7.3.1

Area classification

7.3.2

Selection and installation of equipment

7.4

Contractors responsibility for safety on site

7.5

Test records

7.6

Visual inspection

7.7

Scope of testing at site

7.7.1

Installation contractor

7.7.2

Manufacturer of new equipment

7.7.3

Requirements of a particular project

7.8

General requirements for testing cables

8.0

Switchboards and Motor Control Centres

8.1

Preliminary checks

8.2

Installation

8.3

Post-installation un-energised testing

8.4

Post-in energised testing

8.5

Commissioning energised testing

8.5.1

Protection relays

8.5.2

Electrical functional testing

8.5.3

High voltage testing

8.6

Testing when cabling is complete

8.6.1

Consumers

8.6.2

Incomer circuit breakers

8.6.3

Bus-section and bus-coupler circuit breakers

9.0

Transformers

9.1 Preliminary checks

9.2 Installation

9.3 Post-installation un-energised testing

9.5

Commissioning energised testing

9.5.1

High voltage testing

9.5.2

Switching into normal service

10.0

Turbine Driven Generators

10.1

Division of discipline responsibilities

10.2

Preliminary checks

10.3

Installation

10.4

Post-installation un-energised testing

10.4.1

Generators without unit transformers

10.4.2

Generators with unit transformers

10.4.3

Auxiliary equipment

10.5

Post-installation energised testing

10.6

Commissioning energised testing

10.6.1

High voltage testing

10.6.2

Testing control systems

10.6.2.1

AVR controller

10.6.2.2

Governor controller

10.6.3

Running on open-circuit

10.7

Synchronused with other sources

11.0

Engine Driven Generators

11.1

Division of discipline responsibilities

11.2

Preliminary checks

11.3

Installation

11.4

Post-installation un-energised testing

11.4.1

Generators without unit transformers

11.4.2

Generators with unit transformers

11.4.3

Auxiliary equipment

11.5

Post-installation energised testing

11.6

Commissioning energised testing

11.6.1

High voltage testing

11.6.2

Testing control systems

11.6.3

Running on open-circuit

11.7

Synchronised with other sources

12.0

HV Motors

12.1

Division of discipline responsibilities

12.2

Preliminary checks

12.3

Installation

12.4

Post-installation un-energised testing

12.5

Post-installation energised testing

12.5.1

Shaft coupling

12.6

Commissioning energised testing

12.6.1

High voltage testing

12.6.2

Testing control systems of synchronous motors

12.6.3

Starting time and starting current

13.0

LV Motors

13.1 Preliminary checks

13.2 Installation

Revision A

Page 3

Revision A

Page 4

13.4

Post-installation energised testing

13.5

Commissioning energised testing

13.5.1

Shaft coupling

13.5.2

Running lightly loaded

14.0

Drying Out Generator and Motor Windings

15.0

Packaged and Skid Mounted Equipment

15.1 Preliminary checks

15.2 Installation

15.3 Post-installation testing and commissioning

16.0

Cables and the Installation of Cables

16.1

Laying of cables in all installations

16.1.1

Qualified cable jointers and supervision

16.1.2

Site modifications to the design

16.1.3

Cable drums and drum schedules

16.1.4

Basic installation practices

16.1.4.1

Cables supported on racks or trays above or below ground

16.1.4.2

Cleating and securing cables

16.1.4.3

Cable transits

16.1.4.4

Cables protected at ground level

16.1.4.5

Conduit installations

16.2

Laying of cables in land-based installations

16.2.1

Cables laid directly in the ground

16.2.2

Cables laid in pipes or ducts

16.2.3

Derating cables for environmental conditions

16.3

Laying of cables in platform-based installations

16.3.1

The use of conduit systems

16.4

Glanding and termination of cables

16.5

Special considerations for installing 33Kv (and above) cables

16.5.1

Site considerations

16.5.2

Additional requirements for cables laid direct in ground

16.5.3

Additional requirements for cables drawn into ducts

16.5.4

Cables at road-crossings and in areas accessible to vehicles

16.5.5

Cables supported on poles and in buildings

16.5.6

Terminations for 33kV (and above) cables

16.5.6.1

Power cables

16.5.6.2

Terminating and jointing conductors

16.5.6.3

Cable identification

16.5.6.4

Stand off insulators

16.5.6.5

Cable route markers above ground

16.5.6.6

Concrete cable tiles

17.0

Batteries, D.C. and A.C. Uninterruptable Power Supply Systems

17.1

Safety

17.2

Terminology

17.3

Vented lead acid batteries

17.4

Vented nickel-cadmium batteries

17.5

Sealed lead acid batteries

17.5.1

Operational restrictions

Revision A

Page 5

17.6

Battery rooms and their equipment

17.6.1

Electrical equipment

17.6.2

Maximum charger rating in a battery room

17.6.3

Non-electrical equipment

17.7

Preliminary checks for batteries

17.7.1

Delivery of batteries to site

17.7.2

Unpacking and assembling the cells

17.8

Charger units

17.8.1

Preliminary checks

17.8.2

Installation

17.8.3

Post-installation testing and commissioning

17.9

Inverter units

17.9.1

Preliminary checks

17.9.2

Installation

17.9.3

Post-installation, testing and commissioning

17.10

Distribution Board

18.0

Lighting and Small Power

18.1

Normal Lighting

18.2

Emergency lighting

18.3

Escape lighting

18.4

Additional requirements for platform-based installations

18.5

Location of lighting and distribution switchboards and circuit switches

18.5.1

Zone 1 and Zone 2 Hazardous areas

18.5.2

Unclassified areas

18.5.3

Ligthing and distribution isolation and control

18.5.4

Lighting and small power switches in all areas

18.6

Lighting installation considerations

18.7

Types of lighting fittings

18.8

Illumination levels

18.9

Road lighting

18.10

Choice of lamps, luminaires and holders

18.10.1

Lamp holders for tungsten filament lamps

18.10.2

Lamp holders for tubular fluorescent lamps

18.10.3

Lamp holders for high pressure mercury discharge and metal halide lamps

18.10.4

Lamp holders for sodium lamps

18.10.5

Portable luminaires

18.10.6

Low voltage discharge and fluorescent lighting

18.10.7

High voltage discharge lighting and signs

18.11

Small power outlets

18.12

Navigation aids for platform-based installations

18.13

Inspection and testing lighting and socket outlet systems

19.0

Earthing Systems

19.1

Basis of design

19.1.1

Extracts from QES-E-10

19.1.1.1

Faults on electrical equipment and systems

19.1.1.2

Lightning strikes

19.1.1.3

Build-up of static electric charge

19.2

Practical requirements

19.2.1

Earthing and bonding connections

19.2.2

Plant and equipment earthing and bonding

 

Revision A

Page 6

19.2.4

Cable armour termination

19.2.5

Cable dielectric screens

19.2.6

Instrument system earthing for platform-based installations

19.2.6.1

Instrument room power and instrumentation earthing

19.2.6.2

Earthing to provide a reference potential for computing, telecommunications and instrument equipment.

19.2.6.3

Intrinsically safe barrier earthing

19.2.6.4

Instrument screen earthing

19.2.7

Pipe flanges

20.0

Overhead Lines

20.1

Soil tests

20.2

Pole and insulator erection

20.2.1

Poles and steelworks

20.2.2

Line sections

20.2.3

Plans, profiles and pole schedules

20.2.4

Pole numbering

20.2.5

Danger plates

20.2.6

Pole earthing

20.2.7

Insulators, switches, surge arrestors and fuse isolators

20.2.8

Stays

20.2.9

Anti-climbing guards

20.3

Conductor erection

20.3.1

Planning and schedules

20.3.2

Damage

20.3.3

Running-out blocks

20.3.4

Back staying of poles

20.3.5

Conductor lengths and joints

20.3.6

Conductor hauling devices

20.3.7

Jointing

20.4

Conductor sagging and tensioning

20.4.1

Method

20.4.2

Anchoring and damping

20.4.3

Removal of suspension snatch blocks

20.4.4

Jumper-loops

20.5

Sag and tension charts and templates

20.5.1

Sag and tension erection charts

21.0

Approval to Deviate

22.0

Revision History Log

23.0

Bibliography

APPENDICES

A

Abbreviations

B Technical definitions

Revision A

Page 7

C List of standards used for electrical engineering and equipment

C.1

International Electrotechnical Commission (Europe)

C.2

Institute of Petroleum (UK)

C.3

International Standards Organisation (Worldwide)

C.4

British Standards Institution (UK)

C.5

American Petroleum Institute (USA)

C.6

CIGRE (France)

C.7

Engineering Equipment and Materials Users Association (UK)

C.8

Electricity Council (UK)

C.9

Verband Deutscher Electrechniker (W.Germany)

C.10

Institute of Electronic and Electrical Engineers Inc. (USA)

C.11

Miscellaneous References from the UK

C.12

QGPC electrical equipment and systems standards (Qatar)

C.13

Periodic Revision of Reference Documents

D

Recommended Limits for Test Results

D.1

Cautionary note

D.2

Insulation resistance tests

D.2.1

Cables

D.2.2

New switchgear and motor control centres

D.2.3

Generators and motors

D.2.4

Liquid filled power transformers

D.3

High voltage tests

D.3.1

New switchboards and motor control centres

D.3.1.1

Reference standards

D.3.1.2

Power frequency tests

D.3.1.3

D.C. tests

D.3.2

Power transformers

D.3.3

Generators and motors

D.4

Polarisation index tests for HV generators and power transformers

D.5

Measurement of earth electrode resistance

D.5.1

Resistance of the general mass of earth

D.5.2

Single vertical rod earth resistance

D.5.3

Multiple vertical rod earth resistance

D.5.4

Methods of measurement

D.5.5

Results to be achieved

E.

Technical Particulars of 33 kV Overhead Line and Cable

E.1

Introduction

E.2

Schedule-overhead line-general characteristics

E.3

Schedule-overhead line-design conditions

E.4

Schedule - 33kV cables - technical particulars

E.5

Schedule-clearances-internal to line

E.6

Schedule-clearances-external to line

E.7

Schedule-phase conductor-technical particulars

E.7.1

Phase conductor characteristics

E.7.2

Tensioning details

E.8

Schedule-earthwire conductor-technical particulars

E.8.1

Earthwire conductor characteristics

E.8.2

Tensioning details

F. Temporary Electrical Installations

Revision A

Page 8

ENGINEERING STANDARDS

- ELECTRICAL -

ES.2.06.0001

AMENDMENT RECORD

Revision A

Page 9

Rev. No. Date Amendment Section Page A.1
Rev. No.
Date
Amendment
Section
Page
A.1
 

Revision A

Page 10

1.0

Introduction

This is an engineering standard that gives details about the recommended practices to be used in new and existing electrical installations.

Note that any changes to this document from its last revision are highlighted by a bold vertical bar to the left of each area of change. Should there be a need to consult this document’s change history log, refer in the first instance to its custodian (EE). References made throughout this standard are numbered inside square brackets [ ] and may be found in the Bibliography of Appendix C.

2.0

Custodian

The Custodian of this standard is EE, who is responsible for the accuracy and quality of its contents and for its future revisions, where these are required to reflect industry trends or changes to QGPC business practices.

3.0

Purpose

This document shall be used in the engineering and design of land-based plants and platforms and floating facilities in the sea around Qatar.

4.0

Application

The electrical engineering recommended practices described in this document shall be applied to the engineering and design of QGPC power systems and their components. These practices shall be applied to obtain the most suitable technical application and the economical installation, testing and commissioning of the equipment required for these power systems.

5.0

Preface to [ES.2.06.0001]

This document describes the practices required for the installation and commissioning of systems and equipment at QGPC sites, in accordance with the philosophy of engineering described in [ES.2.03.0001] and its references. All parties involved in the design and installation of a plant for QGPC shall use this document to achieve the installation standards required by QGPC.

This document shall be used in the design and installation of land-based plants, and platforms located in the sea around Qatar.

To avoid confusion in the use of the terms “on-shore” and “off-shore” in general, and in connection with “Halul Island” in particular, the following terms will be used instead :-

Land-based installations (LBI’s). All plants installed on the mainland of Qatar. All plants installed on Halul Island.

Platform-based installations (PBI’s). All plants installed on elevated platforms or moored vessels located in the sea or waters around Qatar.

Revision A

Page 11

All installations (AI’s). Means that the equipment described applies to both land-based and platform-based installations.

The primary purpose of this document is to describe the approach needed to be adopted by the QGPC Engineer and the CONTRACTOR when a new plant, or modifications to an existing plant, reaches the stage when its equipment is to be installed and made ready for operation. In some sub-sections cross-references are made to other documents for further reading or for sources of data. Hence the practices for all future installations should be similar.

The companion document [ES.2.03.0001] is a necessary reference for background information. These two documents, [ES.2.03.0001 and ES.2.06.0001], address the same subjects but for different objectives. Consequently, duplication of material has been reduced to a minimum, and cross-referencing has been adopted so that the reader can obtain a complete understanding of a particular subject.

The QGPC document [ES-E-040, to be re-numbered] covers commissioning of electrical and non-electrical equipment. Volume 2 covers the electrical equipment and gives descriptions of various special tests e.g. injection testing of relays, dielectric and polarization index testing.

This document is divided into sections which concentrate on particular types of equipment, and in approximately the order in which these main individual items of equipment would be required to be on the site, e.g. switchgear, transformers, generators. Cables and their systems follow because they are common to all electrical equipment on a site. Overhead lines are described as the last main item because they are involved only with land-based plants, and they are a specialized subject. Overhead lines are normally projects in their own context, and invariably interface with a major plant at the boundary or battery limits, see [ES.2.03.0001].

For the purposes of this document the following definitions of terms and interpretations shall apply regardless of any meaning the words may have in other respects.

Shall:

The word ‘shall’ is to be understood as mandatory.

Should:

The word ‘should’ is to be understood as being strongly recommended.

QGPC : Is the party which initiates the project and ultimately pays for its design and construction. QGPC will generally specify technical requirements. QGPC may also include and agent or consultant to act for QGPC.

CONTRACTOR : Is the party which carries out all aspects or part of the design, engineering, procurement, construction and commissioning of the plant. QGPC may sometimes undertake all or part of the duties of the CONTRACTOR.

Manufacturer/ Is the party which manufactures or supplies equipment. Supplier Document : As used in [ES.2.06.0001], this refers to standards, recommended practices, guidelines, data sheets, drawings, schedules etc. issued by QGPC that are required to enable the engineering and design work to be completed by the CONTRACTOR.

Revision A

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Note 5.a: -

See Appendix B for definitions of particular technical words and expressions.

5.1 Extracts from the Preface to [ES.2.03.0001]

This document sets out to establish the QGPC philosophy required for the design and selection

of electrical systems and equipment, in accordance with the latest international standards and

industrial installation practice. All parties involved in the engineering and design of a plant for QGPC shall use this document to achieve the standards required by QGPC.

The primary purpose of this document is to describe the approach or philosophy needed to be adopted by the QGPC engineer and the CONTRACTOR when a new plant is being considered, or when modifications are proposed to an existing plant. In many sub-sections the reasoning behind a QGPC requirement is outlined or explained, or a reference to further reading is given. Hence a similar design for all plants should be achieved.

The companion document is [ES.2.06.0001] which concentrates on how equipment is installed after it has been designed, manufactured and delivered to site. These two documents, [ES.2.06.0001] and [ES.2.03.0001], address the same subjects but for different objectives. Consequently, duplication of material has been reduced to a minimum, and cross-referencing has been adopted so that the reader can obtain a complete understanding of a particular subject.

In addition the specifications listed in Appendix C, sub-section C.11, describe the essential technical features that QGPC require from the manufacturers of particular items of equipment e.g. generators, switchgear, motors, power transformers. These documents develop the basic principles set out in [ES.2.03.0001] into more detail, and are intended to be the Project Specifications. In this regard the CONTRACTOR should not need to prepare his version of [ES.2.03.0001], but he may need to prepare a version of [ES.2.06.0001] for the installation of a particular project.

6.0 Project Documentation

6.1 Sources of Documents

A project that requires the installation of equipment will provide two basic types of documents

for the erection, testing and commissioning of the equipment. These are :-

a) Detail design documents created by the CONTRACTOR who has been responsible for the engineering and design of the equipment and associated systems.

b) Equipment documents created by the manufacturer for his particular item of equipment.

In general the documents in b) will be included with the deliverable documents in a). The CONTRACTOR shall check the suitability and completeness of the b) documents before they are delivered to site.

The documents in a) will contain installation detail drawings, supporting descriptive material and procedures particular to the installation.

Note 6.1a :-

Revision A

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This document, [ES.2.06.0001], shall be a major reference document during the detail design phase of the project, see paragraph one of 5).

The CONTRACTOR should maintain a written record of any significant deviations from the practices described in this document. The record should include for example, minutes of meetings, letters, facsimiles, telexes and the like that have been communicated with QGPC.

6.2 Application of Documents

The documents that shall take precedence over any others shall be those created and delivered by the CONTRACTOR for the particular project, and which should have been reviewed by QGPC during the detail design phase of the project.

In the absence of suitable documents at site when the installation work is due to commence, [ES.2.06.0001] shall be referred to for guidance where appropriate. The CONTRACTOR should then create suitable documents for immediate use and recording purposes to the satisfaction of QGPC.

6.3 Standards, Codes and Regulations

Many of the principles of this document are based on the [IEC 364] and [IEC 79] publications or the CENELEC equivalents, e.g. [HD 384] and [EN 50.014] up to and including [EN 50.020]. The entire electrical installation shall be suitable for the environmental influences and climatic conditions as specified by QGPC, See [Appendix E of ES.2.03.0001]. Furthermore, the contents of this document and of the standards and publications referred to herein shall be adhered to, except where amended by specific requirements given by QGPC to a particular installation and as far as is permitted under the statutory requirements of the State of Qatar. Electrical equipment and materials shall comply with the relevant specifications and data sheets or M.E.S.C (Group Materials and Equipment Standards and Code) specifications, which in turn shall be generally considered as supplementary to IEC equipment standards. CENELEC or national standards of Qatar may be used in lieu of IEC standards for the design and engineering of the electrical installation provided they are no less stringent in their total requirements.

Where BSI standards are quoted, their IEC equivalent documents may also be used.

Appendix C herein gives a list of IEC and other standards that are generally encountered in electrical system design and equipment manufacturing.

In the event of contradiction between the requirements of QGPC specifications and IEC, CENELEC, BS, or national standards the former shall prevail, subject to satisfying statutory obligations. The SI unit system shall be used throughout design work. Electrical symbols shall conform to IEC except where specified by QGPC. Electrical equipment numbering shall conform to QGPC standards. All documentation shall be prepared, copied and delivered in the English language.

7.0 Service and Environmental Conditions

See Appendix E of [ES.2.03.0001] for full details.

7.3 Special Requirements for Equipment Installed in Hazardous Areas

Revision A

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All installations should be classified into hazardous and non hazardous areas as fully described in [ES.2.03.0001, Appendices F and H].

An Area Classification Drawing(s) should be prepared showing these areas, using the procedure referenced in [ES.2.03.0001, Appendix H, sub-section H.4]. These drawings should also indicate the gas group and temperature classification of the gases likely to be present in the area.

Note 7.3.1a:- Area classification should be a joint exercise involving operations, mechanical, electrical, instrument, safety and loss prevention disciplines as appropriate.

7.3.2

Selection and installation of equipment

The selection and installation of equipment in hazardous areas should be in accordance with [ES.2.03.0001, sub-section 7.2, Appendices F and H].

7.4

Contractor Responsibility for Safety on Site

The CONTRACTOR will be responsible for inspection and testing the equipment and cables that he has installed.

The CONTRACTOR will be responsible for taking all necessary safety precautions, the supply of all necessary labour and testing equipment, the replacement of all equipment and sundries, e.g. fuses damaged during testing and the maintenance of the installation until such time as it is taken over by the QGPC.

Wherever possible no piece of equipment e.g. power switchboard, shall be energised until all work on it has been completed. Where this is not possible the CONTRACTOR must take all the precautions necessary to ensure the safety of personnel who continue to work on the equipment. No equipment shall be energised without prior permission of Electrical Department of QGPC and the obtaining of any necessary permits. All outgoing circuits shall be isolated and padlocked in the ‘off’ position and suitably worded caution boards shall be prominently displayed.

Wherever possible final inspection and testing should be carried out immediately prior to commissioning equipment and leaving it in its normal operating condition. Equipment that is left in a de-energised condition should be subjected to such tests as are deemed to be necessary by QGPC. This shall be carried out immediately prior to energising to prove that it is in a satisfactory condition.

The CONTRACTOR is recommended to maintain close liaison with the QGPC inspector so that inspection and testing may be carried out as the installation and making-off of cable ends proceeds. This will eliminate the need to re-open terminal boxes and enclosures and disconnect cables after the installation has been completed. Failure to comply with this will render the CONTRACTOR carrying out the tests liable for all costs involved in subsequent disconnection and reconnection required for testing purposes.

Under no circumstances shall a circuit be energised or commissioned prior to its being inspected and tested.

Revision A

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Primary injection shall be prefered for all tests where this is normally possible. Where this is impractical secondary injection may be used, but this must be agreed in writing with QGPC in advance of the testing being commenced. The CONTRACTOR shall provide all the testing equipment in either situation.

7.5 Test Records

Accurate records shall be kept of all tests made and their records shall include : -

Details of the equipment or circuit tested.

The test(s) made.

The results of the test(s).

Where appropriate, the commissioning checks made and the results of them.

The signatures of the representatives of the CONTRACTOR and QGPC who witnessed and approved the tests.

All tests shall be recorded on test sheets provided by the CONTRACTOR. Where special tests are required and no suitable test sheet is available, a suitable test procedure and sheet shall be produced by the CONTRACTOR and submitted to QGPC for approval prior to being implemented.

The test sheets shall be completed by the CONTRACTOR and approved by QGPC. The CONTRACTOR shall submit the test report to QGPC in quintuplicate within one month of the tests being carried out.

The QGPC document [ES-E-040, to be re-numbered] contains detailed procedures for special tests e.g. phase testing of windings, injection testing of protective relays, high voltage testing. It also contains standard test sheets that can be used if the CONTRACTOR has not prepared similar sheets.

7.6 Visual Inspection

The installation shall be subjected to a thorough visual inspection to check every part of it complies with the specifications, standards and drawings; and that a high and acceptable standard of workmanship has been achieved. In particular:-

Equipment shall be checked for correct identification, rigidity of fixture, freedom from

physical defects, completeness of assembly and installation. Cables and conductors shall be checked for correct sizing, termination identification, security of fixtures, defects, termination and freedom from kinks and general damage.

The installation shall be checked for its suitability with respect to the area classification.

Check of internal and external cleanliness and the sealing or greasing of flanges.

Following the completion of commissioning the proper fixing of cover plates shall be rechecked.

7.7 Scope of Testing at Site

Tests on site shall include, but not limited to, the tests specified hereunder and shown on the test sheets.

Additional tests shall be carried out as necessary to ensure that every item of equipment and part of the installation is capable of satisfactorily performing its function.

Revision A

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No testing shall be undertaken until the appropriate visual inspection has been satisfactorily completed.

Part of the practice of installation is the testing of equipment. As far as electrical equipment is concerned the testing can be broadly divided into the following categories :-

Preliminary checking.

Post-installation un-energised testing.

Post-installation energised testing.

Commissioning energised testing.

Testing when cabling is complete.

The party, or parties, responsible for carrying out the testing depends to some extent on the nature of the project e.g. completely new plant, extension to an existing plant, replacement of equipment, old equipment involved, new equipment, major or minor technology involved. These parties can be divided as follows :-

Installation contractor.

Manufacturer of equipment.

Independent testing contractor.

QGPC maintenance department.

This document mainly concerns the activities of the first two parties, i.e. the installation contractor, the manufacturer of the installed equipment.

Testing shall include calibration.

Tests that are necessary to retain the manufacturer’s guarantee will be conducted in accordance with instructions from the electrical equipment manufacturer. In the absence of specific manufacturer’s instruction (MI), electrical site tests will be limited to those hereinafter specified for the various materials and equipment. An inspection shall generally be required and it should consist of the combined physical and material defects prior to, during and after the energizing of an electrical installation.

7.7.1 Installation contractor

The equipment listed below may be regarded as being less sophisticated than those listed in 7.7.2 and consequently it should normally be handled by the Installation Contractor in cooperation with QGPC.

The following tests should be performed by the Installation Contractor : -

Generators rated below 750kW.

Motors rated below 750kW .

Cables rated 600V and less.

Batteries and chargers.

Lighting and small power systems.

Earthing and bonding systems.

Distribution boards.

Overhead lines.

Power transformers rated below 500kVA .

Hazardous area equipment.

Revision A

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Trace heating.

Cathodic protection.

Operational and functional testing of all systems prior to energising equipment.

7.7.2

Manufacturer of new equipment

The

equipment listed below may be regarded as being more sophisticated than those listed in

7.7.1 and consequently it should normally be handled by the manufacturer in cooperation with the Installation Contractor and QGPC.

The

following tests (and calibrations) should be performed by or under the supervision of the

manufacturer or authorized manufacturers representative : -

High voltage generators.

Low voltage generators rated 750kW and above.

Switchboards and motor control centres, including protection relays.

High voltage neutral earthing resistors.

Power transformers rated 500kva and above.

High voltage busducting and busbars.

Cables rated for voltages above 600v.

Supervisory, control, scada, dcs equipment.

Motors rated 750kw and above.

Power management systems.

Variable speed controllers for motors.

Ups equipment rated 100kva and above.

Special purpose equipment.

7.7.3

Requirements of a particular project.

The division of responsibilities listed in (7.7.1) and (7.7.2) should be reviewed for the requirements of a particular project, and should be approved by QGPC before the equipment is purchased.

7.8

General requirements for testing cables

Cables are common to all installations. It is prefered that no cable should be tested until it has been fixed in position and particular attention should be paid to cable rigidity at terminal points. See also 16.1.3 for testing cables that are still on their drums as delivered to site.

LV cables should be individually tested after they have been terminated but, wherever

possible, before they are finally connected.

HV cables shall be tested only when they have been terminated and connected.

If disconnecting links are provided in terminal equipment, they should be removed before the cable tests are carried out and be replaced immediately following completion of the cable tests.

In the case of HV cables where disconnecting links are not provided in the terminal equipment prior assurance must be obtained in writing from the supplier to ensure that the full cable test voltages specified below can be applied to the connected equipment, e.g. motor windings, switchgear cable spouts and C.T. chambers etc.

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The test voltages which may be applied to existing cables must be arranged by discussion between all interested parties.

No instrument cable may be tested without the prior approval of the QGPC Instrument Inspector. To test an instrument cable it may be necessary to disconnect the instrument prior to carrying out insulation resistance tests on the cable.

Under no circumstances shall any insulation test, bell testing set or other high or low voltage test be applied to semi-conductor equipment; and all such equipment must be disconnected prior to carrying out insulation resistance tests on the associated cables.

The CONTRACTOR carrying out the tests will be held responsible for any damaged caused by the test voltages.

See also 16.1.3.

8.0 Switchboards and Motor Control Centres

8.1 Preliminary Checks

Large switchboards are often delivered in units of three or four cubicles. Check the largest unit for dimensions and ensure that it can be transported from its storage location to its permanent location.

Check the permanent location for : -

Dimensions against those of the switchboard manufacturer.

Main cable access ways and channels.

Auxiliary cable access ways and channels.

Fixing points and base frame levelling.

Lifting facilities and access overhead.

Screeding and circuit breaker truck or trolley and access are correct.

Earthing connections are installed.

Supply connections for space heaters.

Check the switchboard nameplate details, tag numbers, cubicle names etc. are correct.

Check the manufacturer’s instructions (MI) for advice about moving the switchboard into its permanent location e.g. removal of circuit breakers, temporary fixing of items to prevent movement and damage within the structure.

8.2 Installation

Installation shall be in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions (MIs).

Special tools and equipment recommended by the manufacturer shall be supplied, and maintained in good condition for use when required.

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All bolted connections within the equipment shall be checked for tightness, particularly busbar connections including correct alignment and connections of interconnecting busbars, to the torque settings recommended.

Before any cables are connected to the equipment, or insulating compounds added, insulation checks shall be carried out on all main and control circuits. These shall include high voltage tests on main connections between phases and earth to ensure that a breakdown of insulation has not taken place during installation. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions carefully, and disconnect all devices, which could be harmed by the test voltages e.g. electronic measuring circuits.

Bond the switchboard to its earthing facility in the switchroom e.g. cables to switchroom busbar from the switchboards earth busbar.

Check the bonding details with those described in [ES.2.03.0001].

8.3 Post-Installation Un-Energised Testing

Functionally check all mechanical operations e.g. racking in and out circuit breakers, safety shutters move into their correct positions, earthing switches, mechanical interlocks of earthing devices, interlocks for truck positions, open-closing-rewinding mechanism springs.

Test the earth bonding continuity at the various joints using a DUCTOR or similar test instrument and record the results.

Test the continuity of the main busbars and risers at their main joints. Record the results.

8.4 Post-Installation Energised Testing

Most switchgear will require low voltage supplies for tripping, closing, spring winding, indication and protection relays. Arrange for suitable permanent or temporary supplies, D.C. and A.C. of the correct frequency, to be available so that pre-commissioning functional checks and the setting-up of relays and controls can be carried out.

Apply an insulation resistance (IR) test to the circuit incomers for the above mentioned auxiliary supplies, with their switching devices in their closed position. Refer to MI for the lowest IR test voltage to use. Disconnect any electronic devices that may be damaged by an IR test. Record the results.

Functionally check all electrical operations at each cubicle e.g. open, close, rewind spring, trip, relays and their tripping circuits (see also 8.5.1), electrical interlocks such as solenoid bolts in earth switch circuits.

Check all electrical indicating lamps, LEDs, and the like for each cubicle. Voltmeters, ammeters, wattmeters, power factor meters cannot be tested at this stage. Refer to MI for the scope of testing that can be carried out.

Record any malfunctions and arrange for their rectification or the replacement of the defective components.

The above may also be described as pre-commissioning tests.

8.5.1 Protection relays

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Arrange for suitable permanent supplies so that the protection relays can be energised.

Refer to MI for all testing to be carried out for commissioning each cubicle.

At this stage the consumer’s main and auxiliary cables need not be laid or connected to the switchboard for the purpose of initially setting up the protection relays. This is a matter of project planning and urgency, and can be recorded as partial-commissioning.

For each relay to be set-up check the following against the project design documents, the manufacturer’s documents and equipment as installed : -

Relay description, type number, feature option code numbers, features required. Current transformer secondary current. Current transformer ratio and burden va. Current transformer accuracy class. Voltage transformer secondary voltage. Voltage transformer ratio and burden va. Voltage transformer accuracy class. Similar details of any interposing current or voltage transformers. Similar details of any transducers used on the circuit, e.g. winding temperatures of generators, motor, transformers.

Auxiliary supplies.

A

Protection Relay Schedule and the switchgear data sheets should show the above details.

Carry out secondary current injection tests, with voltage circuits also energised as appropriate for the tests. Refer to the test equipment MI for details of how to select, inject and interpret the readings. Set up each relay in accordance with the relay MI and check the relay response against at least 5 current values well spread over the characteristic of the relay, assuming a time dependent form. For definite time and instantaneous relays set up the desired values and check their actual threshold responses using the injection equipment.

Record all results and malfunctions. Arrange for malfunctions to be corrected or replaced.

Where the project documentation calls for primary injection current testing then this shall be carried out in preference to secondary injection testing.

8.5.2 Electrical functional testing

If the functional testing in (8.4) has been carried out over one month before the tests in (8.5)

are to be carried out then a representative number of cubicles of each type e.g. generator, feeder, motor, shall be re-tested.

8.5.3 High voltage testing

Where high voltage A.C. or D.C. testing of the busbars, risers and switching device components is required the details of test voltages and durations shall be obtained from the MI

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in the first instance, or if not available from the documents of (6.1.a) . These tests shall be kept to a minimum to avoid unnecessary stressing of the system insulation.

The safety precautions given in (8.6.2) shall be used.

8.6

Testing when Cabling is Complete

8.6.1

Consumers

The word ‘consumer’ herein refers to the load connected at the far end of a cable, e.g. a motor,

a distribution board, another switchboard, a UPS.

At this stage it is assumed that the consumer has been installed and its pre-commissioning test have been completed. Similarly the main and auxiliary cables are assumed to be laid, terminated and tested.

The cable shall be tested at this stage for : -

Earth loop resistance.

Earth continuity of its armouring.

Earth continuity of its insulation screens where appropriate.

See Appendix D for typical values of the resistances that should be obtained. Refer to the cable MI or data for particular requirements. Refer to the consumer MI for particular requirements.

Carry out the following checks before energising the consumer : -

Visit the consumer and visually check that any moving parts are free to move, terminal

boxes are covered, earthing bonds are in place. Warning and safety signs are fixed and clearly visible.

Safety barriers are in place.

Couplings of rotating machines are coupled or uncoupled in accordance with the specific

requirements of the project or the manufacturer. This is necessary to check the direction of rotation. Couplings are covered with a proper metallic guard.

Locate a competent person at the site of the consumer to observe all activities during the

test. Carry out an insulation resistance test of the consumer and its cable(s) from the switchgear cubicle outgoing terminals, to verify that no faults are present prior to energising the cable(s).

Energise the consumer for the first time by manually (not by automatic control) closing its circuit breaker or contactor. Refer to the consumer’s MI for details of this part of the testing procedure, e.g. duration of first energisation, what needs to be checked and measured, how much load can be applied, with or without the coupling coupled.

Check the instruments and read-outs at the switchboard e.g. current per phase, relay response

if any.

Record all relevant details.

8.6.2 Incomer circuit breakers

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At this stage it is assumed that the source of supply has been commissioned and its main cables energised up to the incoming terminals of the switchboard. The incoming circuit breaker shall have been racked out, or if this is not possible pad-locked in its OFF position.

Carry out the following before energising the busbars of the switchboard : -

Withdraw or lock OFF all outgoing circuit breakers and contactors.

Place warning and safety signs on the incoming cubicle and other clearly seen areas

nearby e.g. entrance to the switchroom. Place a safety barrier around the access area to the cubicle.

Allow only authorised persons to be present.

Carry out an insulation resistance test of the busbars, to verify that no faults are present prior to energising them.

Energise the busbars for the first time by closing the incoming circuit breaker manually at the switchboard. Refer to the switchboard’s MI for details of this part of the testing procedure e.g. duration of first energisation, what needs to be checked and measured.

Check the instruments and read-outs at the switchboard e.g. current per phase which should be negligibly small, busbar line voltages, relay response if any.

Record all relevant details.

8.6.3 Bus-section and Bus-coupler circuit breakers

These circuit breakers and their adjacent busbars can be energised as part of the programme for the incomer circuit breakers.

When one section of the busbars is being energised for the first time the bus-section or bus- coupler adjacent to it can be kept un-locked but switched OFF.

After the procedure of (8.6.2) is completed the bus-section or bus-coupler circuit breaker can be closed to energise the adjacent busbar.

Check the voltages measured for both sections of busbars, i.e. either side of the circuit breaker.

Record all relevant details.

9.0

Transformers

9.1 Preliminary checks

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Check the dimensions of the largest part of the transformer and ensure that it can be transported from its storage location to its permanent location. Check whether or not it has wheels or needs rollers to move it.

Check the permanent location for : -

Dimensions against those of the transformer.

Main cable access ways and channels.

Auxiliary cable access ways and channels.

Busducting access ways, connections and method of support.

Fixing points and base frame levelling.

Access overhead.

Bunding arrangements, if appropriate.

Earthing connections are provided for the base frame and terminal boxes.

Fire water systems have been installed, if appropriate.

Erect a safety fence.

Check the nameplate details, connection notation, winding arrangements and phasing, tag numbers, ratings etc. are correct.

Check that all auxiliary devices are provided e.g. pressure relief valve, Buchholz surge device, conservator tank, temperature detectors, tap-changer, forced air fans, fan control system, breathers, earthing arrangements.

Check that there are connections to enable an external transformer oil filtering/vacuum unit to

be used.

Check that the gland plate is non-magnetic metal if single core cables are to be used.

Check the MI for advice regarding moving the transformer into its permanent location e.g. with or without insulting oil, with or without the radiators.

Check that a sufficient quantity of new ‘topping-up’ transformer oil of the correct type is available.

9.2 Installation

Transformers used on QGPC sites will frequently be of the liquid filled type, either as hermetically sealed or as conservator units. Dry types with epoxy resin encapsulated windings are suitable for special locations where the liquid could be a disadvantage.

Auto-transformers for power applications shall not be used, unless approved in writing by QGPC during the detail design phase of the project.

A bund shall be provided for all liquid filled transformers located in both land-based and

platform-based installations. The bund shall have a base and walls that are leak proof, and shall have been duly inspected for being leak proof. The bund volume shall equal the liquid volume plus a 25% safety margin. The bund shall be provided with a simple but effect means

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of draining the liquid to temporarily connected equipment designed for the purpose e.g. pump connection, pipe with a locked-off valve, pipe with a suitable plug.

For bunding of transformers, see also [ES.2.03.0001, section 11].

For transformers located indoors there shall be a system of fire and smoke detection. Before the transformer is energised the fire and smoke system shall be tested.

For transformers located outdoors they shall be surrounded by a purpose designed fence. The fence shall be bonded to the station earth and the earthing arrangements tested before the transformer is energised. For fencing design see [ES.2.03.0001 sub-section 7.1]. The fence shall be at least 2 metres high, and provided with an access door and pad-locking facilities.

The transformer base frame shall be bonded to the station earthing system from two steel bosses welded at diametrically opposite corners. All main and auxiliary terminal boxes attached to the transformer shall be bonded to the base frame or directly to the station earthing system. All other attachments which are bolted to the main structure of the transformer shall be bonded to the main structure or base frame if there is insufficient bolting to provide a reliable path for earth currents. [ES.2.03.0001] gives guidance on the design of earthing and bonding.

Liquid filled transformers of the sealed type will be delivered filled with liquid and no topping up or dielectric testing should be necessary, but refer to the MI follow as appropriate e.g. sampling the liquid. However, transporting the transformer to its permanent position should be carried out with extra care due to the large volume of liquid it contains, and damage that this may cause if the transformer receives sudden mechanical impacts or shocks, eg bumped down by a crane.

Liquid filled transformers of the conservator type will probably be delivered empty of liquid, unless they are small units. Upon arrival at site they should be filled with liquid as soon as possible. They shall be stored at all times away from direct sun-light whilst they are empty.

The handling and transfer of the oil shall be in strict accordance with the MI and QGPC safety practices.

The liquid shall be carefully checked before the transformer is filled that it is the correct liquid for the purpose. Several samples from the storage vessels shall be taken and tested in a laboratory for content of water and impurities, and tested for dielectric strength.

The dielectric and impurities checks shall be performed : -

When the liquid first arrives on site.

Two weeks prior to being filled into the transformer.

One day prior to being filled into the transformer.

If the transformer arrives on site filled with liquid then the above shall apply but be related to the day of energisation.

The minimum voltage stress for the dielectric tests on insulating oils and liquids, without breakdown, shall be 30000 Volts D.C. (for silicone liquid) with a 40 mil gap as per [ASTM- D-1816, BS 148 or IEC 296]. The associated procedure shall be as described in Note 9.2.a unless the transformer MI states otherwise.

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The liquid shall be filled into the transformer from a heated, vacuum, filter and pump unit; specially designed for the purpose. The heat and vacuum will degas the liquid during the filling process. The filler unit MI shall be used for the filling procedure.

Once the transformer is filled the liquid shall be allowed to settle and breath before the transformer is energised.

If the transformer is not energised within a period recommended in the MI then sampling and

testing shall be repeated just prior to energisation.

Bushings shall be vented and checked for leaks.

Completely assembled, factory-sealed-tank transformers shipped with an insulating liquid successfully passing the dielectric strength tests without filtering, may be put into service after inspection if the cold coil insulation resistance between windings and between windings and ground tests above the minimum values shown in the table below. In the event that the insulation resistance value falls below the minimum acceptable value, given in the Table D.2.4.A of Appendix D, the transformer coils must be dried.

Coils for factory sealed-tank-transformers shipped with an insulating liquid failing the dielectric strength (before filtering) and coils for tank type transformers shipped separately without insulating liquid must undergo an out-of-liquid short-time “megger” test for insulation resistance to ground and to other windings at a temperature between 60-70 ºC. The out-of- liquid insulation resistance must measure above one megohm per thousand volts of rated line voltage. Coils with insulation resistance values failing this requirement must be dried.

In the event that drying is necessary the transformer coils will be heated to a temperature of 60-70ºC for a period of 24 hours by circulating current through the windings from a variable temporary supply. This may be accomplished by short circuiting either windings (HV or LV) and impressing between one and one-half percent of nameplate voltage, (at normal frequency)

across the other. Current should be limited to one-fifth of the rated normal full load current by

a rheostat in series with exciting winding, or by using a suitable auto-transformer. As the

maximum coil temperature is approached, the circulation current should be gradually reduced until a steady temperature condition is reached within the 60-70ºC range.

The transformer tank and all fittings shall be inspected and tested for adequate sealing to prevent leakage of insulating liquid, entrance of moisture and loss of inert gas protection before the transformer is energized. During a leakage test the transformer tank shall not be subjected to a pressure greater than the amount specified on the nameplate. If there is no nameplate pressure specified, a test pressure of 5 psi will be used. A vacuum shall be pulled on the tank and the dew point of the gas measured. A hot gas recirculation shall continue until manufacturer’s recommended values are reached. The liquid dielectric will be slowly pumped into the sealed transformer until the correct liquid level is reached. Additional nitrogen shall be added to the tank until the pressure reads 5 psi. Joints, connections, and gaskets will be checked with chalk dust to detect leaks. Any appreciable leakage will cause a pressure drop within a few hours.

A dielectric adsorption test shall be made winding-to-winding and winding-to-ground. A sixty-

second test shall be made, unless the transformer is larger than 1500 kVA or if the windings are rated above 15kV in which case a ten-minute test shall be run. The polarization index shall be computed as the ratio of the sixty-second to the thirty-second reading, or the ten-minute to

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the one-minute reading, as appropriate. Test voltages shall be in accordance with Appendix D. The absorption test polarization index should be above 1.5 or 2.5 respectively, unless an extremely high value is obtained at the end of the shorter time limit that when doubled will not yield a meaningful value with the available test equipment.

Pressure gauge readings for sealed tank transformers shall be taken for two different temperatures, differing over as wide a range as possible. Manufacturer’s design pressure requirements shall be checked.

Note 9.2.a: - New liquid dielectrics shall be tested for dielectric strength with a standard testing device consisting of a test cup, instrument, control and high voltage power supply. The test cup internals shall support two spherically capped electrodes, separated by a 40 MIL gap minimum. Sixteen ounces of liquid will be required for the test. After the electrode spacing has been checked with a standard round gauge, having a diameter of 0.04 inch., the electrodes will be locked in position. After a suitable rinsing procedure, the test cup will be immediately filled with the liquid sample to be tested. The liquid should be at a temperature between 20-30ºC. During the test the uniform rate of applied voltage increase should be about 2,000 volts per second. One breakdown should be made on each of 5 fillings, of the test cup. Any individual test which deviates the average by more than 25% will be test recorded and replaced by an additional test. The average of the first five tests within the allowable deviation will be taken as the dielectric strength of the liquid. PCB liquid shall not be used in any type of transformers.

The power cable terminations may be one of the following types, but standardised for the project : -

Elastimold, also called Euromold or Bi-mold, plug and socket types. These shall be

certified for the rated voltage and short-circuit duty at the terminal box. Heat shrink types manufactured by Raychem.

Busducting may be used for the higher current winding of the transformer, but it shall be fully fault rated for at least one second when a bolted three phase fault is applied across its terminals. It shall be rated at the highest ambient temperature and when exposed to direct sun light at the hottest period of the year. Busducting shall be designed and provided with expansion connections at both ends to allow for its casing to expand with ambient temperature and the conductors to expand with the heat produced by their current. See [ES.2.14.0019] for the specification of busducting systems.

9.3 Post-Installation Un-Energised Testing

Functionally check the mechanical operation of the off-load tap changer, if fitted, and the oil drainage and filling devices. Check that any venting devices are not blocked.

Test the earth bonding continuity at the various joints using a DUCTOR or similar test instrument and record the results.

The cables or busducting used on the lower voltage windings will normally have large cross- sectional areas and often several in parallel per phase. Check that all conductor connections to

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the transformer phase connections are tightly bolted. Refer to the MI for details of torque settings.

At this stage the higher voltage winding need not be terminated to its supply cables.

Test the continuity of the terminations. Record the results.

The above may also be described as pre-commissioning tests.

9.4 Post-installation energised testing

Arrange suitable temporary A.C. supplies for test equipment, and the fans if fitted.

The following checks and tests shall be carried out with the use of the low voltage supply.

Check the data for correct phase rotation and polarity.

If provided, check and test current transformers for ‘turns ratio’ (using primary current injection), polarity and winding connections.

Perform ratio tests on all tap positions. Turns ratio test results should not deviate more than one-half of one percent (0.5%) from calculated ratio.

When making primary-to-ground measurements, e.g. insulation resistance, high voltage A.C. or D.C., all secondary terminals and tanks must be connected to ground. Likewise, the primary terminals and case must be connected to ground when making secondary-to-ground measurements. Primary and secondary terminals and case shall be connected to ground when making neutral-to-ground measurements. Any deviation from this procedure shall be reported.

Perform polarity and phase relation tests on rated voltage connection.

If provided, check operation of cooling fan relay, circuit and fan rotation.

Inspect high and low voltage bushings and lightning arrestors for cracks, chips, etc. Remove all dust, dirt, or foreign matter and polish the porcelain.

Tap changers shall be manually operated and set at their proper setting in accordance with the load flow or voltage profile studies.

9.5 Commissioning Energised Testing

Arrange for suitable permanent high voltage and auxiliary voltage supplies to be available so that the windings may be energised in their normal state for a prolonged duration, i.e. longer than for only the testing period.

Refer to MI for all testing to be carried out for commissioning the transformer as a complete unit.

At this stage the primary cables and secondary cables, or busducting, shall have been tested and terminated and shall be ready for permanent service.

 

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Note 9.5.a: -

Their tests shall have included, earth loop resistance, earth continuity of cable armouring, earth continuity of cable insulation screens where appropriate.

Note 9.5.b: -

See Appendix A for typical values of the resistances that should be obtained. Refer to cable MI or data for particular cable requirements.

9.5.1 High voltage testing

Where high voltage A.C. or D.C. testing of the windings is required the details of the test voltages and durations shall be obtained from the transformer MI, in the first instance, or if not available from the documents of (6.1.a) ). These tests shall be kept to a minimum to avoid unnecessary stressing of the transformer and cable insulation.

The safety precautions given on (8.6.2) should be used at the switchboards and labels, barriers, pad-locking etc. used at the transformer enclosure. Allow only authorised persons to be present.

Record all test and inspection results.

9.5.2 Switching into normal service

Close the primary circuit feeder circuit breaker at the upstream switchboard to energise the transformer and its main power cables.

Check that the secondary circuit is energised in all phase conductors. This can be achieved by observing the voltmeters at the downstream switchboard, or by using insulated probes or ‘test- sticks’ at the circuit breaker cubicle. If ‘test-sticks’ are used then special safety precautions shall be used, and the test-sticks MI applied.

10.0 Turbine Driven Generators

Turbine driven generators are usually HV machines of a rating greater than 750kW . In most cases QGPC high voltage generators will be driven by gas-turbines. Steam turbines may occasionally be used.

In general the generator will be supplied as part of the gas-turbine manufacturer's contract purchase order. Some of the generator auxiliary functions will be interfaced with those of the gas-turbine auxiliary functions.

Before any checking or testing is carried out the CONTRACTOR shall carefully study all the manufacturer’s documents, especially those relating to pre-commissioning and testing.

The CONTRACTOR shall plan the work to be done and in so doing liaise closely with the gas-turbine manufacturer, the generator manufacturer, and the site representative of the principal. QGPC shall approve the plan and scope of work.

The following descriptions shall be regarded as the minimum work to be carried out by the CONTRACTOR.

The generator may arrive on site in one of two forms : -

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a) Integral part of a skid mounted package, i.e. for ratings below about 30 MW.

b) Separate unit for subsequently attaching to the gas turbine. In this case the civil foundation design would be more complex than that for a skid mounted package. The setting up and physical alignment of the generator would also be a more complicated task

Most of QGPC generators should be of the a) type. Consequently, this document will concentrate on this type, although much of the information will be applicable to the b) type.

10.1 Division of Discipline Responsibilities

The CONTRACTOR shall clearly separate the responsibilities of the electrical, instrument and mechanical personnel involved. As a guide the following basic tasks are separate : -

TABLE 10.1.A

Discipline responsibilities

Function

Electrical

Instrument

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Mechanical

Shaft alignment

2

1

Frame fixings

2

1

Bearings

2

1

Lubrication system

2, 3

1

Water cooling system

2, 3

1

Purging air system

2, 3

1

Cooling air system

2, 3

1

Fire and gas systems

1

Fuel system

3

1

Inlet and exhaust systems

1

On skid cabling, electrical

1

On skid cabling, instruments

1

Skid edge terminal boxes

1

2

Motor terminal boxes

1, 3

Generator main terminal boxes

1

Skid earthing and bonding

1

Generator earthing and bonding

1

Generator protection transducers

1

Generator instrument transducers

2

1

Shaft vibration monitoring

1

2

Bearing temperature monitoring

1

2

Excitation and AVR controls

1

Governor control panel

2

1

Winding temperature monitoring

1

2

1 = main discipline responsible for the function

2 = discipline with an interest in the function

3 = motors and their cables.

10.2 Preliminary Checks

The storage and transfer of the skid mounted generator should be the responsibility of the mechanical discipline. All dimensional checking should have been carried out at the factory testing and inspection of the generator when it was separate from the turbine, or later when it was coupled to the turbine.

Check all the name plate details of the generator for, voltage, current, frequency, winding connections, tag numbers, ratings etc, against the project documents.

Check the name plate details of the auxiliary motors for, voltage, current, rated power, power factor, efficiency, frequency etc against the project documents. Check that standby auxiliaries have been installed e.g. standby lube oil pump, and whether they need a D.C. supply.

Remove all inspection covers on the generator main frame and inspect the internals. Replace the covers if no defects are found.

Remove all terminal box covers on the generator, the auxiliary motors and the skid-edge terminal boxes. Store them in a clean place, and ensure the gaskets are not damaged.

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Before the generator is energised by its exciter and the shaft run at speed, the fire, gas and smoke systems shall be tested.

The generator frame shall be bonded to its base frame at two points which are spaced diagonally across the corners. The points on the base frame shall be large welded bosses, each capable of accepting a 12 mm dia bolt for the bonding cable.

All auxiliary motors, power terminal boxes and other electrical items which are bolted to the base frame or extensions to it shall be bonded to the same structure using green/yellow insulated stranded cable. [ES.2.03.0001] give guidance on the design of earthing and bonding.

The skid frame should normally be fixed to its foundation as follows : -

For land-based installations by bolts grouted into the concrete foundations.

For platform-based installations by welding to the main decking beams.

In either case the skid frame shall be provided with two large welded bosses, each capable of accepting a 12mm dia bolt for the bonding cable. The bosses shall be at diagonally opposite corners of the skid frame. The bonding cables shall bond these bosses to the main station earthing system. For an LBI this shall be the cable connected ring network and earthing electrodes. For a PBI this shall be a specially located earthing busbar, mounted on insulators and provided with link connectors for testing the earthing resistance. For both cases see [ES.2.03.0001] for details, earthing designs and sizing of components.

All on-skid cables shall be run on trays and shall be in accordance with the temperatures and environment within the skid e.g. high ambient temperature, adjacent to hot surfaces, fire retardance, fire resistance, see [ES.2.03.0001]. Check the fixing of these cables to their trays, and their tag numbering.

10.4

Post-Installation Un-Energised Testing

Test the earth continuity at the joints of the main bonding connections and record the results.

Generators having large ratings will require several cable cores connected to each phase terminal in the main terminal box. Alternatively, busducting shall be used. The generator may be provided with two main terminal boxes, one for the phase terminals and the second for the star point end of the phase terminals and the neutral connection terminal. The second box will usually contain current transformers for protection relays and AVR control signals. The first box may contain current transformers if a unit transformer accompanies the generator.

10.4.1

Generators without unit transformers

Most QGPC generators will not need unit transformers because they will feed their switchboards directly at the same voltage.

Because the generated current is usually relatively high the cable or busduct connection will be bulky and difficult to disconnect for testing. In some cases disconnecting links may have been provided in the terminal boxes to facilitate testing.

The cables or busducting shall be installed and appropriately tested before being connected to the generator or its circuit breaker. This shall have been planned in advance by the CONTRACTOR.

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Assuming therefore that the main connections should not be disconnected they should then be

checked for tightness and electrical continuity. Record the results, and refer to the generator

MI for a comparison of results.

10.4.2

Generators with unit transformers

When a unit transformer is required the rating of the generator will be high and consequently the stator current will be unusually high. The result will be a complicated and bulky termination system both at the generator and at the transformer primary winding. It will be undesirable to disturb these connections.

The cables or busducting shall therefore have been fully tested before being connected to the generator and transformer terminals.

This shall be carefully planned in advance by the CONTRACTOR.

Check all connections for tightness and electrical continuity. Record the results, and refer to

the

generator and transformer MIs for a comparison of results.

10.4.3

Auxiliary equipment

Check in test records that all the necessary cables have been laid, terminated and tested.

All pre-commissioning testing of auxiliary equipment shall be carried out in the manner described in the document under the appropriate sub-section e.g. motors.

Check that the current transformers are installed and have been connected, but not short circuited with links or temporary wires.

Check that the NER, if required, and the external star point to earth circuit has been installed and fully tested.

10.5

Post-Installation Energised Testing

Arrange A.C. supplies so that test equipment can be used.

Check that all auxiliary motors and control systems can be operated in normal service from their permanent switchgear.

Check the phase sequence connections of the generator complete with its stator cables and unit transformer, and that these correspond with those at the associated main circuit breaker and switchboard busbar system.

Check that the notation is correct i.e. L1, L2, L3. Table 10.5.A may be used in the absence of other design information.

Table 10.5.A

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Phase sequence notation

QGPC preference

L1

L2

L3

UK origin

Red

Yellow

Blue

European origin

U

V

W

R

S

T

USA origin

A

B

C

1

2

3

Use low voltage test equipment to test for the following functions: -

Polarity of current transformers.

Ratio of primary and secondary currents in cts.

Continuity of power connections.

Earth loop impedance, if not covered previously under cable or auxiliary equipment tests.

Indication from measuring circuits at all locations e.g. UCP, CCR, switchboard.

Calibrate if necessary to ensure all readings are the same. Loop test instrumentation and measurement circuits, if not covered by tests by non-

electrical disciplines. Insulation resistance of embedded temperature detectors in stator windings and bearings.

Run auxiliary motors and their systems for a long time, particularly the lubricating oil, jacking or barring gear, cooling water systems; so that leaks and malfunctions can be corrected and the cleaning and filtering can be completed. Replace filters prior to final commissioning. Record any malfunctions.

10.6 Commissioning Energised Testing

Arrange supplies to be available so that the windings may be energised in their normal state for a prolonged duration, i.e. longer than the testing period.

Refer to MI for all testing to be carried out for commissioning the generator as a complete unit with its turbine and control systems.

Check that all cables and auxiliary systems have been tested and put in to normal service.

Check that all high voltage cable armouring and insulation screens have been earthed at their correct locations, and have been tested for earth loop resistance. Refer to cable MI or data for particular requirements.

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Where high voltage A.C. or D.C. testing of the generator stator windings, stator circuits, unit transformer windings is required the details of the test voltages and durations shall be obtained from their respective MI. Since several manufacturers are involved with different types of equipment connected together, care shall be exercised to ensure that the selected test voltage magnitude is the lowest for the common circuit. The factory acceptance routine test records shall also be reviewed for comparison of test voltages and test results.

Check the various MIs for the methods and procedures to be used.

The safety precautions given in (8.6.2) should be used at the main switchboard, and labels, barriers, pad-locking etc. also used at the generator and unit transformer. Allow only authorised persons to be present. Do not close the main circuit breaker at this stage. Record all test and inspection results.

10.6.2

Testing control systems

The two main control systems of the generator will be the voltage control by the AVR and the speed control by the governor.

10.6.2.1

AVR controller

The AVR shall be tested and commissioned by the manufacturer or his designated representative, using methods and procedures specific to the AVR.

The QGPC shall ensure that the following functions are tested and demonstrated to his satisfaction : -

The full range, or span, of the AVR set-point shall be demonstrated by indicating the stator terminal voltage on open circuit, preferably by using the panel voltmeter at the main circuit breaker cubicle.

That the reactive power droop and gain settings give stable responses for a step change in the AVR set-point. Adjust if necessary. Record all AVR settings and results using a pen or photographic recorder.

Check that the AVR current compounding circuit is switched into circuit and functions correctly.

Set the AVR to function on droop control at between 4% and 5%, not on isochronous control.

Check that the auto-manual change-over functions operate smoothly, and that no large changes in the terminal voltage occurs.

10.6.2.2

Governor controller

The governor shall be tested and commissioned by the manufacturer or his designated representative, using methods and procedures specific to the governor.

QGPC shall ensure that the following functions are tested and demonstrated to satisfaction: -

The full range, or span, of the governor set-point shall be demonstrated by indicating the stator terminal frequency when the main circuit breaker is open. This shall be preferably

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be by using the panel frequency meters at the main switchboard or GCP, or by a shaft speed tachometer permanently fixed in the TCP.

That the active power droop and gain settings give stable responses for a step change in the governor set-point. Adjust if necessary. Record all governor settings and results using a pen or photographic recorder.

Finally set the governor to function on droop control at 4%, not on isochronous control.

10.6.3

Running on open-circuit

After the tests of (10.6.2) have been completed run the turbo-generator on no-load open- circuit for as long as possible or as recommended by the MI, noting that gas-turbines do not normally run in this mode. This will ensure that all the electrical circuits are stable, free of malfunctions and have been subjected to their rated voltages without faults nor breakdown in insulation.

10.7

Synchronised with the Other Sources

After the generator has run successfully on open circuit it shall be shut-down and prepared for synchronising to the supply i.e., the ¢running¢ busbars.

Before this can take place the power system shall be arranged to have a substantial load, so that the new generator can be controlled in such a manner as to deliver power into the system immediately after it has been synchronised. Hence, one or more existing or ¢running¢ generator shall already be loaded to load factors in the order of at least 40% each. This should ensure that the new or ¢incoming¢ generator will take up a reasonable level of load without reducing the load on the ¢running¢ generators to too low a level (which could lead to poor operation e.g. hunting, reverse power relay operation, low forward power relay operation).

The same reasoning can be applied if the ¢running¢ system is supplied by a grid source e.g. MEW 132kV network.

The contractor shall liaise with QGPC to carefully plan this procedure.

When the synchronisation procedure is ready to be carried out, the generator shall be started and run up under control of its automatic sequence controllers, but not under auto- synchronising control.

The first synchronisation process shall be MANUALLY controlled. For this the voltage and frequency shall be adjusted by the manual operator. When the synchronizing instruments indicate a suitable moment to synchronise, the operator shall close the circuit breaker and almost immediately raise the governor set-point and the AVR set-point by a small amount. These adjustments should ensure that the generator delivers active power and reactive power at a good power factor (0.7 to 0.9 p.u. lagging) and that the reverse power relay or low forward power relay operation does not respond and trip the generator.

At this stage the generator can be controlled to take up more load, refer to the MI for a recommendation for loading levels during commissioning.

If the MI does not restrict the initial level of loading, then the automatic load sharing capabilities of the governor and AVR should be demonstrated. In this situation the generator set-points can be adjusted so that the generator takes its equal portion of the load compared

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with the other generators. One of the other generators can then be manually adjusted to take more and less than its initial equal share. When these adjustments are made the other generators (including the new generator) are not adjusted. Readings of voltage, frequency, active power, reactive power and current are taken for each generator when the old generator is adjusted.

If the new generator has had its control systems properly set up, then its changes in active and reactive powers for a common change in busbar frequency and voltage should be the same, ideally, or at least very similar. If all the readings are taken simultaneously and with pre- calibrated instruments then it should be possible to calculate the actual droop of each generator and turbine that run in synchronism.

After these tests have been completed the new generator shall be un-loaded, its circuit breaker opened and then allowed to run idle. The auto-synchronisation shall then be tested. In order to achieve this it may be necessary to shut down the turbo-generator, because the auto- synchronisation may be part of the sequential start and run-up process.

The turbo-generator shall then be run up in its auto-synchronising mode, which should not require manual intervention. Whilst this process takes place the testing personnel shall carefully observe the UCP and CCR indications, in particular when the voltage and speed are almost correct for synchronisation, and just after the circuit breaker closes. Upon closure the generator controls should increase the load on the generator, and if provided switch in the automatic load sharing control loop so that all the running generators become equally loaded with active and reactive power.

Load the generator to approximately 10% to 15% of rating, and carry out a ‘load rejection’ test by tripping the main circuit breaker. Check that the generator responds correctly and smoothly, and settles at almost rated voltage and speed.

11.0 Engine Driven Generators

Engine driven generators are usually, but not always, LV machines of a rating equal or less than 750kW . In most cases QGPC low voltage generators will be driven by diesel engines, and will run in an “ island” mode i.e. not in parallel with others or the grid.

In general, the generator will be supplied as part of the engine manufacturer’s contract purchase order. Some of the generator auxiliary functions will be interfaced with those of the engine auxiliary functions.

Before any checking or testing is carried out the CONTRACTOR shall carefully study all the manufacturer’s documents, especially those relating to pre-commissioning and testing.

The CONTRACTOR shall plan the work to be done and in so doing liaise closely with the engine manufacturer, the generator manufacturer, and the site representative of QGPC. QGPC shall approve the plan and scope of work.

The generator should arrive on site as an integral part of a skid mounted package.

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11.1

Division of Discipline Responsibilities

The CONTRACTOR shall clearly separate the responsibilities of the electrical, instrument and mechanical personnel involved. As a guide the basic tasks are separated as shown in Table 10.1.A for turbo-generators, a similar approach is applicable.

11.2

Preliminary Checks

See (10.2).

11.3

Installation

See (10.3).

Note 11.3.a: -

The diameter of the earthing boss bolts shall be at least 12 mm.

11.4

Post-Installation un-Energised Testing

See (10.4).

11.4.1

Generators without unit transformers

See (10.4.1).

11.4.2

Generators with unit transformers

See (10.4.2). I t should be most unlikely that an engine driven generator would have a unit transformer, it would be a special package.

11.4.3

Auxiliary equipment

See (10.4.3).

11.5

Post-Installation Energised Testing

See (10.5).

11.6

Commissioning Energised Testing

See (10.6).

Note 11.6.a: -

Most engine driven generators will operate at LV, in special cases the voltage may be HV e.g. when rated 1000kW and above.

11.6.1

High voltage testing

See (10.6.1) and Note 11.6.a above.

Check the various MIs for the methods and procedures to be used.

The safety precautions given in (8.6.2) should be used at the main switchboard and labels, barriers, pad-locking etc. also used at the generator. Allow only authorised persons to be

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present. Do not close the main circuit breaker at this stage. Record all test and inspection results.

11.6.2

Testing control systems

See (10.6.2), (10.6.2.1) and (10.6.2.2).

11.6.3

Running on open-circuit

After the tests of (11.6.2) have been completed run the engine driven generator on no-load open-circuit for as long as possible or as recommended by the MI. This will ensure that all the electrical circuits are stable, free of malfunctions and have been subjected to their rated voltages without faults nor breakdown in insulation.

11.7

Synchronised with Other Sources

See (10.7), the basic principles apply, but in most situations there will not be other generators to synchronise with, only the normal incoming feeder from a transformer. Engine driven generators will normally be single units intended for island operation. They are normally installed for standby, emergency, essential or black-start duties.

However, at least the engines need to be started regularly so that they can be relied upon when needed. Consequently, they should be provided with synchronising facilities, which shall be manual or automatic depending upon the duty of the generator. The generator shall therefore be tested for manual and auto-synchronising to the supply.

12.0 HV Motors

Most of the HV motors installed in QGPC plants will be induction motors of the caged rotor type, designed for direct-on-line (DOL) starting. Occasionally, variable speed motors (VSDS) will be required and these will normally be the cage rotor type, synchronous motors may be used for very large drives e.g. 5000kW and above. For the purposes of installation, testing and commissioning the approach should be the same for both induction and synchronous motors. The synchronous motors will require some extra testing and commissioning of their rotors and rotor controllers. These would be special application motors and so they would normally be commissioned under the supervision of the motor or driven machine site representative, and the rotor equipment would be included.

The minimum rating of HV motors shall normally be for industrial and hazardous area applications. HV motors shall be the manufacturer’s standard design to duty type S1, in BS 4999 Part 112, Design D.

In general HV motors shall be installed, tested and commissioned using similar procedures that apply to HV generators of ratings up to approximately 10MW. In most cases the motor

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should be a part of a skid mounted package and supplied with the purchase order of the complete package.

Before any checking or testing is carried out the CONTRACTOR shall carefully study all the manufacturer’s documents, especially those relating to pre-commissioning and testing.

The CONTRACTOR shall plan the work to be done and in so doing liaise closely with the driven machine manufacturer, the motor manufacturer, and the site representative of QGPC. QGPC shall approve the plan and scope of work.

12.1

Division of Discipline Responsibilities

See (10.1), most of the functions will be the same, but less extensive.

12.2

Preliminary Checks

See (10.2), replace ¢generator¢ with ¢motor¢

12.3

Installation

See (10.3), replace ¢generator¢ with ¢motor¢.

Note 12.3.a: -

Many motor applications do not have dedicated fire, gas and smoke systems, but they may be located in areas which have overall systems.

12.4

Post-Installation un-Energised Testing

See (10.4), (10.4.1) and (10.4.3) replace ¢generator¢ with ¢motor¢.

Note 12.4.a: - Some applications may have HV motors fed from HV switchboards which have rated voltages above 11kV e.g. 33kV . In these situations the motor will be provided with a unit transformer of comparable kVA rating, therefore the approach described in (10.4.2) shall apply.

12.5

Post-Installation Energised Testing

See (10.5), replace ¢generator¢ with ¢motor¢.

12.5.1

Shaft coupling

Note 12.5.1.a: -

The last function to perform shall be to disconnect the shaft coupling without disturbing the motor on its footings, if this is possible. Refer to the driven machine MI to find out whether or not the machine’s shaft can be run in either direction, and if so for how long a period. Some driven machines must not be run in a reverse direction under any circumstances, because damage can be done to e.g. thrust bearings, dry-gas seals, gearboxes.

Note 12.5.1.b: - If Note 12.5.1.a confirms that reverse rotation is not permitted, then the motor shall be moved along its mountings to allow the coupling to be ‘split’. The feet of the motor shall be temporarily clamped to the base

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frame so that the motor frame does not move when its shaft is allowed to rotate.

Note 12.5.1.c: -

Where motors have insulated bearings it is recommended that their shaft induced voltage be measured at full speed.

12.6

Commissioning Energised Testing

See (10.6), replace ¢generator¢ with ¢motor¢.

12.6.1

High voltage testing

See (10.6.1), replace ¢generator¢ with ¢motor¢.

12.6.2

Testing control systems of synchronous motors

In the case of synchronous motors additional testing shall be required for their rotor excitation system. The excitation of the rotor will be regulated by a controller which will have a purpose specific to the motor and the nature of the driven machine. It may be designed to regulate : -

Supply power factor between limits.

Shaft torque to prevent pull-out from synchronism.

A function of the driven machine characteristics.

Check that any control settings e.g. gain, damping, upper limits, have been fixed in accordance with the motor MI.

During the final commissioning tests when the motor drives its machine the functions of the excitation controller shall be carefully checked.

Readings of instruments at the UCP, CCR and the switchboard shall be taken and recorded on test data sheets. Adjustments shall be made to obtain the best performance from the motor driven machine.

13.0 LV Motors

The maximum rating of LV motors shall normally be 250kW for industrial and hazardous area applications. For special cases the maximum rating may be increased subject to carefull calculation of volt-drop on starting and accelerating torque during the run-up period. LV motors shall be the manufacturer’s standard design to duty type S1, in [BS 4999 Part 112], Design D for ratings above 40 kW and Design N for ratings lower than 40 kW.

No modifications shall be made to hazardous area motors and their terminal boxes by the driven machine supplier or the site contractor. If upon inspection it is found that post-factory modifications have been made then the motor shall be rejected, replaced and the replacement delivered to site at no cost to QGPC.

Hazardous area motors shall have their cables terminated through Ex(d) glands. The entry dimensions and threads in the terminal boxes shall be made by the manufacturer in his factory, and should have been inspected during the factory acceptance tests, if such tests were required by QGPC. The terminal boxes should be of the type of protection Ex ‘e’ for motors that will be installed in a Zone 1 area. See [ES.2.14.0030 and 0035 for motors].

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Hazardous area certification, type test certificates and routine test reports shall be made available to QGPC by the manufacturer, as part of the purchase order documentation. These certificates shall be included in the documentation from the CONTRACTOR. The QGPC certification requirements are described in [ES.2.03.0001, section 7.5].

Electrical discipline engineers shall liaise with the mechanical discipline engineers on site who are responsible for the driven machine unit or package. Testing and commissioning of the complete unit or package shall be a planned and coordinated activity.

13.1 Preliminary Checks

The following guidance shall apply to minor motor-machine units of a few kilowatts through to packaged and skid mounted assemblies of several hundred kilowatts.

Check the name plate details of the motor for voltage, currents, frequency, winding connections, tag numbers, ratings, etc, against the project documents.

Check the name plate details of the hazardous area details, i.e. type of protection (‘n’, ‘e’, ‘d’), gas group (IIB, IIC), temperature class (T3, T4, etc).

Check that any auxiliaries have been installed e.g. winding temperature detectors, anti- condensation heaters, and that their cables have been terminated.

Remove all terminal box covers. Store them in a clean place, and ensure the gaskets if used are not damaged.

13.2 Installation

The motor frame shall be bonded to its base frame at one point which shall preferably be near the main terminal box. The point on the base frame shall be a welded boss, capable of accepting a suitable diameter bolt for the bonding cable.

All motors, power terminal boxes, and other electrical items which are bolted to the base frame or extensions to it shall be bonded to the same structure using green/yellow insulated stranded cable. [ES.2.03.0001] gives guidance on the design of earthing and bonding.

13.3 Post-Installation un-Energised Testing

Test the earth continuity at the joints of the main bonding connections and record the results.

Motors having large ratings or long route lengths of cables may require several cable cores connected to each phase terminal in the main terminal box. The motor may be provided with two main terminal boxes, one for the phase terminals and the second smaller one for the internal auxiliaries e.g. condensation heater, winding temperature detectors.

13.4 Post-Installation Energised Testing

Arrange for suitable supplies for test equipment.

Check the phase sequence connections of the motor complete with its stator cables, and that these correspond with those at the associated main circuit breaker and switchboard busbar

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system. Check that the sequence is correct i.e. L1, L2, L3 is preferred. Table 10.5.A may be used in the absence of other design information.

Use

low voltage test equipment to test for the following functions: -

 

Continuity of power connections of large motors.

 

Earth loop impedance, if not covered previously under cable or auxiliary Equipment

tests. Insulation resistance of the windings.

Insulation

resistance

of

embedded

temperature

detectors

in

stator

windings

and

condensation heaters.

13.5

Commissioning Energised Testing

Arrange for suitable permanent low voltage supplies to be available so that the windings may be energised in their normal state for a prolonged duration, i.e. longer than for only the testing period.

Refer to MI for all testing to be carried out for commissioning the motor as a complete unit with its driven machine.

Check that all cables and auxiliary systems have been terminated, tested and put into normal service.

Check that all cable armouring has been earthed , and have been tested for earth loop resistance.

13.5.1

Shaft coupling

Note 13.5.1.a: -

The last function to perform should be to disconnect the shaft coupling without disturbing the motor on its footings, if this is possible. Refer to the driven machine MI to find out whether or not the machine’s shaft can be run in either direction, and if so for how long a period. Some driven machines must not be run in a reverse direction under any circumstances, because damage can be done to e.g. thrust bearings, seals, gearboxes.

Note 13.5.1.b: - If Note 13.5.1.a confirms that reverse rotation is not permitted, then the motor shall be moved along its mountings to allow the coupling to be ¢split¢. The feet of the motor shall be temporarily clamped to the base frame so that the motor frame does not move when its shaft is allowed to rotate.

13.5.2

Running lightly loaded

LV

motors usually have rolling element bearings. In order to verify that these bearings have

not

been damaged in transit to site, or by ingress of water, the motor shall be run uncoupled or

unloaded for a minimum period of 2 hours. During which time the bearing caps shall be felt or

measured for surface temperature, and listened to for loud or irregular noise patterns. During or at the end of this test the starting time and current shall be checked against the motor data sheet.

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14.0 Drying out Generator and Motor windings

During the post-installation energised testing processes the insulation resistance tests may indicate that the windings are damp. Dampness may be due to a prolonged period of standing idle prior to commissioning, and the variations in daily temperature and humidity could have caused an accumulation of condensation inside the machine.

It is generally advisable, and is often recommended by manufacturers, that the anti- condensation heaters are energised during these long idle periods. This is not always a practical proposition where many motors are installed. However, HV and large LV motors and generators should be heated if possible, by using temporary low voltage supplies.

Machine windings shall be dried out by supplying heat from electric strip heaters, from heat pumps or by passing current through machine windings until a sufficiently high and steady insulation resistance is obtained. When current is applied through the windings, it shall not exceed the nameplate rating. The use of DC current is recommended where the natural inductive reactance of a winding is high, but care must be taken when applying and removing the DC current to avoid arcing and high induced voltages.

The temperature maintained during the drying out process should not exceed the following : -

a. Class B Insulation By a thermometer By resistance bridge or

 

90 C 110 C

a

thermal-sensitive resistor

b. Class F Insulation By a thermometer By a resistance bridge or

115 C

135 C

a thermal-sensitive resistor

The applied voltage to produce drying current for synchronous and induction machines should not exceed 10% of the nameplate voltage and should not cause more than 60% of nameplate full load current to pass through the windings. The voltage may be increased to 15% of nameplate, after a low insulation resistance increases to half of the minimum value.

The insulation resistance shall be periodically recorded during the drying out process. In large high voltage machines the initial cold coil resistance value will be high (20 megohms 20 C, see Note 14a). As the drying process continues and water vapor is boiled out from the internals of the machines, the insulation resistance will rapidly fall to a minimum (6 megohms

90 C, see Note 14a). As the drying process nears completion the insulation resistance will

reverse its downward trend and settle at a steady higher value (12 megohms 90 C, see Note 14a). As the coils cool, after the drying process has been completed, the insulation resistance will rapidly rise (150 megohms 20 C, see Note 14a).

Note 14a: -

Values are for comparative purposes only.

A period of 24 hours will usually be found sufficient for drying machines rated above about

250kW.

Less time will be required for drying smaller machines.

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15.0 Packaged and Skid Mounted Equipment

In this section the terms packaged and skid mounted equipment general means equipment which is not predominately electrical in function. It may only have a few low voltage small rating motors or heaters, e.g. chlorine gas generators, potable water purifiers, packages with cooling fans.

15.1 Preliminary Checks

See (13.1) and apply the procedures as appropriate.

15.2 Installation

See (13.1) and apply the procedures as appropriate. The skid frame, should normally fixed to its foundation as follows : -

For land-based installations by bolts grouted into the concrete foundations.

For platform-based installations by welding to the main decking beams.

In either case if the skid is large its frame shall be provided with two large welded bosses, each capable of accepting a 12mm dia bolt for the bonding cable. The bosses shall be at diagonally opposite corners of the skid frame foot print. The bonding cables shall bond these bosses to the main station earthing system.

All on-skid cables shall be run on trays and shall be in accordance with the temperatures and environment within the skid e.g. high ambient temperature, adjacent to hot surfaces, fire retardance, fire resistance, see [ES.2.03.0001, sub-section (9.7)]. Check the fixing of these cables to their trays, and their tag numbering.

15.3 Post-Installation Testing and Commissioning

Arrange for suitable for test equipment, and for operating the package in its normal state for a prolonged period.

Generally the necessary testing will be : -

Insulation resistance measurement of cables, heaters and motors.

Functional testing of switches and controls.

For devices and systems beyond the above scope, see the manufacturer's MI and follow the recommendations given therein.

16.0 Cables and the Installation of Cables

This section mainly covers power cables. Small control cables eg cross-section area of conductors 6mm 2 and less, in twin or mutli-core formation, and instrument cables of all formations are not covered in detail in this section. However their laying, glanding and terminating procedures will in general be very similar to power cables. Terminating and

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testing special cables such as, telecommunication cables, digital networking cables, fibre optical cables, shall be strictly in accordance with the cable manufacturer’s MI; and shall be supervised by the more appropriate engineering discipline.

16.1

Laying of cables in all installations

16.1.1

Qualified cable jointers and supervision

The CONTRACTOR shall provide qualified and experienced supervisors to oversee and manage the day-to-day laying and installation of cables, and their termination at the appropriate time in the project plan. The qualifications and experience of each level of supervision e.g. manager , supervisor, foreman, jointer shall be approved by QGPC before the work commences.

The termination and jointing of all HV cables should be carried out using Raychem equipment and heat shrink sleeving, See also (16.5) for 33kV cables which also applies to the termination and jointing of all HV cables except in special cases such as HV motors and HV generators which may have ‘Elastimold’ or ‘Bi-mold’ connectors.

All installation of cable racks and ladders and the digging of trenches, preparation of road crossings etc. shall be within the scope of work of the CONTRACTOR. The CONTRACTOR shall therefore manage and supervise the work.

16.1.2

Site modifications to the design

Before racks and trenches etc., are installed the CONTRACTOR shall carefully review the design and engineering documents and survey all aspects of the intended routes. Care shall be taken to identify obstructions which have not been accounted for in the design documents. The CONTRACTOR shall offer a solution to overcome an obstruction which shall be discussed with, and approved by, QGPC before the work is started.

The approved modification shall be recorded and the CONTRACTOR shall ‘mark-up’ all drawings accordingly.

If detailed drawings are not available from the project documentation then QGPC standard drawings shall be used as the basis of the work. The CONTRACTOR shall develop the necessary drawings from the QGPC standard drawings and submit them for approval by the site representative of QGPC.

16.1.3

Cable drums and drum schedules

The CONTRACTOR shall be responsible for the economical use of cables, and for the testing of cables wound on drums before the cable is taken and cut from the drums. Early detection of faulty cables shall be carried out regularly by the CONTRACTOR.

The CONTRACTOR shall create an accurate cable drum schedule in relation to the carefully planned ‘take-off’ of cables during the project. The random or unplanned ‘take-off’ of cables from new drums is strictly prohibited.

The CONTRACTOR shall keep accurate and carefully updated records of the status of cable drums, for example : -

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The details and quantities of all drums that are on the site on the first day of the project.

Drums that have not been delivered.

Drums that are due to be delivered, and an expected delivery schedule.

Drums and cables that have been badly damaged and need replacing.

Drums incorrectly delivered e.g. details do not match the purchase order.

Drum labels unreadable, damaged, incorrect or unusable.

Drums to be ordered in the short term and in the long terms, in particular large cross- section single core cables and specially constructed cables.

All drums shall be stored in a secure compound which shall be kept locked when not in use, and which the CONTRACTOR shall keep in a clean and tidy state. Empty drums shall be returned to the supplier if this is part of the supplier’s purchase order contract. If the drums are not refundable they shall be removed from the project site.

The CONTRACTOR shall ensure that the labels on each drum are kept readable at all times, and the details on the labels adjusted as the cable is ‘taken-off’.

16.1.4 Basic installation practices

Instrument and control cables shall not be grouped with power cables particularly where there is a possibility of induced pick-up affecting the signal. Power cables shall be laid in groups according to their operating voltage level and main incoming supply cables shall be laid in a segregated position. See the QGPC Standard Drawings.

All cables shall be run in continuous length from point of origin to destination. Tee joints in cables shall not be permitted. Straight joints shall be permitted only under exceptional circumstances and with the approval of QGPC.

Where three-phase power cables terminate in boxes fitted to switchgear, transformers etc. phase colours and the letters L1, L2 and L3 shall be identified on the outside of all boxes indicating physical arrangements of the internal connections. The cable boxes shall be marked such that no error can occur when replacing cable after removal for inspection or maintenance.

Single core high voltage cables shall be identified from other power cables by a red outer sheath. Where these cables run above ground they should be securely cleated to ladder-rack or tray using trefoil cleats with suitable insulating material to prevent the cable sheath or cover being in direct contact with the supporting clamp or steel work. The cables should, where possible, be transposed every 30 metres to prevent induced currents flowing in the armouring of adjacent cables. Where these cables pass through cable transits brass inserts shall break the paths of circulating currents in the transit frame. Similarly gland plates should be of non- magnetic material. Failure to observe these instructions will cause considerable heat build up in the frame or gland plate.

Single core cables when laid in trefoil formation shall be braced by non-magnetic clamps placed at no greater than 3 metre intervals along the cable routing, and shall be laid on separate racks or in separate trenches.

Where cables are not to be immediately terminated the cable shall be labeled and sealed with heat shrinkable cable end seals. Such single core cables shall be installed in trefoil cleats

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spaced at 0.9 metre on straight horizontal runs and on vertical runs the spacing shall be 1.1 metres for outside diameter 40mm - 50mm, see [IEC 364].

Where single core cables are used for AC circuits which are rated in excess of 20 amperes:

The armour, if any, shall be of nonmagnetic material.

If installed in steel conduits, or pipes, or steel casing the cables shall always be so bunched that the cables of all phases and the neutral (if any) are in the same conduit, pipe or casing.

Magnetic materials shall not be used between single core cables of a group. Where these cables need pass through steel plates, all the conductors of the same circuit should pass through a non-ferrous plate or gland so that there is no magnetic material between the cables, and the clearance between the cables and magnetic material shall not be less than 75mm, and

Such cables should be so arranged that the inductive effects of the group are substantially eliminated.

Single core cables of any AC circuits should, if possible, always be in contact with one another. Where this is not practical the distance between two adjacent cables shall not be greater than the diameter of one cable.

Where single core cables having a current rating greater than 250 A are installed adjacent to a steel deck, bulkhead or structure the distance between the cables and the deck or bulkhead should be at least 50mm.

Cables will be coiled and protected so that they are not liable to damage during the period between laying and eventual termination.

Where cables are coiled for any reason whatsoever the minimum bending radius shall be strictly observed.

Where abandoned or redundant cables are encountered these shall be removed and scrapped and deleted from records and drawings.

Cable route ‘cross sections’ drawings shall be produced as part of the ‘As-Built’ drawing exercise and shall include any existing cables which are identified and numbered.

16.1.4.1 Cables supported on racks or trays above or below ground

Cable racks, ladders and supports shall preferably be GALVANISED CORTEN ‘A’ grade steel. Galvanising shall be as required in [ES.2.03.0001, sub-section 10.1.1]. QGPC shall approve any other material including all grades of stainless steel and GRP.

Where stainless steel-racks, ladders and supports are to be used the grade of steel shall be

316.

For high corrosion areas UPVC covered stainless steel or GRP cable trays shall be used.

Racks and trays shall be supported by methods and at intervals given in the design documents of the project. These documents shall include calculation sheets for heavily loaded racks or trays. The calculations shall indicate: -

 

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The source of data for specific loading on the rack or tray in kilograms per metre run for the span concerned, i.e. manufacturer’s catalogue references.

Utilisation factor for the rack or tray, so that any spare capacity can be used.

The calculated deflection at a point mid-way between the most widely separated supports.

If the CONTRACTOR proposes to add a significant number of cables onto a rack or tray, then the weight loading calculations shall be revised or made from basic principles. These calculations shall be issued to QGPC for review. If the loading is significantly increased then the CONTRACTOR shall add extra supports under the racks or trays.

Cables trays which are subjected to sea water spray or any other corrosive material shall be of GRP or stainless steel

Cables run in pre-formed trenches or in floor void spaces such as switchgear rooms shall be run on cable trays.

All cables which are not buried, installed in ducts or drawn into conduit shall be installed on racks or trays unless otherwise specified. All cables shall be run and clipped with regard to neatness of appearance. Multiple runs are to be arranged so that cables entering or leaving the run do so in a logical manner.

All tray work shall be galvanized steel, light duty (2mm) on Halul Island and heavy duty (3.2mm) for platforms, adequately supported and of sufficient strength to eliminate sagging when carrying the maximum number of cables, even if only one cable is to be installed. Galvanising shall be as required in [ES.2.03.0001, sub-section 10.1.1].

For crude oil storage tanks stainless steel trays shall be used including stainless steel nuts and bolts.

All bends, tees, etc. shall be of the type made by the proprietary tray or rack manufacturer so that the ladder tray or rack shall form a rigid integrated system. The design and spacing of tray work support, the fastening and clipping shall be in accordance with the [IEC 364].

Notwithstanding any provision in the drawings or in any of the specified standards, single runs of cable shall be supported on tray work or in single channel uni-strut. The clipping of single cable runs to steelworks, walls etc. without tray work shall not be permitted.

Where it is necessary to cut or drill ladder rack the raw edges shall be ground smooth and treated with ‘galvafroid’, or close equivalent, protective paint.

Covers shall be fitted to cable tray installed outside or where cables are susceptible to mechanical damage. The cover shall also be used to protect the cables from direct sun light.

Earth cables shall be run separately from power, control and instrument cables on tray work and shall be securely clipped. Two or more earth cables on tray work may be clipped together.

No cables shall be laid direct in concrete or in plaster. Galvanized conduit or PVC pipes shall be used in concrete and galvanized steel conduit or PVC ducting with galvanized steel capping for plaster.

16.1.4.2 Cleating and securing cables

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Cables laid on tray work etc. shall be clipped so that crossovers in the cable route are kept to

a minimum and the spacing of the cable clips, saddles etc., ensures a neat and workmanlike appearance to the completed installation.

Cable cleats, saddles etc. shall be of non-corrodable materials, of sufficient width not to damage the cables (min. 15mm) and strong enough to hold the cables firmly in position.

All permanent cable tie wraps shall be PVC coated stainless steel.

Multi-core H.V. cables shall be installed in non-magnetic cleats, the cleats being spaced not more than 650mm. The cables shall be installed touching and the they shall form a single layer.

Multi-core L.V cables below 35mm overall diameter may be bunch strapped using PVC coated stainless steel straps suitable for a marine environment in groups not exceeding 200mm wide at 1500mm intervals on horizontal runs. L.V cables exceeding 35mm overall diameter shall cleated at intervals of 300mm. L.V cables may be tiered up to three layers.

Cable cleats for horizontal runs on multi-core cables shall be flame retardant glass filled nylon type with approved studs, nuts and back nuts. On vertical runs a nylon or nylon or epoxy coated aluminum cleat of approved make with approved fixing shall be used at 3000 mm intervals interspersed with glass filled nylon cleats.

For MICC cables recommended tools shall be used, all glands and terminations for MICC cable shall be of the Zone 1 ECHA type irrespective of location.

Care must be taken with seals to ensure that air or dirt is not trapped in the MICC pot seal by the sealing compound. A minimum period of 24 hours shall elapse between marking off a pot seal and the testing of the associated wiring. Where the PVC sheath is cut back to make the joint the cutting back must be kept to a minimum, particularly if the cable is installed on the outside of the platform. Open blade knives (Stanley knives) shall not be used to remove PVC sheath as damage to the copper sheath can occur. Vibration and aging will ultimately cause fracture and subsequent water ingress.

The plastic sealing compound for MICC pot seals shall be 135 degrees C grade. Ex’e’ ECHA equipment requires the use of Ex’e’ type of pot seal.

MICC cables are not recommended for offshore use where vibration can be a problem. Where vibration is likely cables shall be of low smoke and fume (LSF), flame retardant type.

16.1.4.3 Cable transits

Where cables pass through fire walls, blast walls, floors or ceilings from safe areas to hazardous areas or through walls floors or ceilings to open air the hole shall be formed by means of an approved transit frame and sealed by means of the approved filler block. For individual cables the certified seal type may be used.

It is essential that in order to maintain the integrity of the cable transit as a gas tight seal the

filler blocks used are the correct size for the particular cable, and that the cable is perpendicular to the frame for a minimum distance of 100mm either side of the frame.

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Where single core A.C. cables rated in excess of 20A, pass through transits the filler plates used should be brass and the magnetic path of the frame should be broken by brass insert.

16.1.4.4 Cable protection at ground level

In all instances when cables emerge from the ground out of trenches or through decks they shall be mechanically protected. This may take the form of galvanized steel pipes, heavy duty GRP or PVC pipes or cable tray with covers (where cables emerge on to trays). Protection should be provided to at least 300mm above the finished grade. The tubes should be secured to ensure they do not move when the final grade finish is being applied.

Provision should be taken at both ends, by a suitable bush to protect them so that no possibility of damage to cables can occur. The protective pipe shall then be sand filled to 25mm from the top of the tube and then weather sealed using an approved bitumastic compound unless a proprietary approved transit is being used. Cable bending radii limitations shall be observed such that contact with the ends of the kick tubes is kept to a minimum to avoid pressures that might deform or damage the cable sheath or conductors.

Kick plates are to project 650mm above the finished floor level. The edges of the plates are to be bushed such that they do not damage the outer sheath of the cables.

16.1.4.5 Conduit installations

No conduit of less than 20mm dia shall be used.

Generally all conduits shall be heavy duty PVC cast in situ or where surface mounted shall be heavy gauge seam welded galvanized steel conduit.

All conduit accessories shall be manufactured in accordance with [BS 31, BS 4568 or IEC 614] as applicable.

Surface mounted conduits shall be laid in straight lines with neat bends and sets which shall permit ease of drawing in cables.

No conduit shall have more than two right angle bends without a draw-in box. All conduits shall be installed with fish wires to permit easy wiring.

Conduits buried in concrete floors and walls shall be run neatly but advantage shall be taken of direct routes from point to point to avoid excessive bending of conduits. Where conduits are sunk in walls, care shall be taken to choose routes to follow runs which avoid excessive chasing of walls and which can be anticipated when the conduits are covered over.

Bends or sets in conduits shall be made cold without altering the section of the conduit using a proper bending machine designed for the purpose of bending electrical conduits, not water pipes or other types of pipes. Such bends or sets and any other portion of the conduit from which the finish has been removed shall be painted with ‘galvafroid’, or close equivalent, protective paint. This includes all metallic conduit couplings, joints and teeth marks from vices and hand tools.

Excessive use of running couplings shall not be permitted. Conduits shall be so arranged that running couplings are kept to a minimum.

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Conduits, except where buried in plaster or concrete, shall be fastened into position with heavy duty spacing (stand off) saddles fixed at intervals not exceeding 1200mm with additional saddles as necessary at bends.

Where condensation is likely to occur inside the conduit it shall be provided with drains at the lowest points in its run.

Conduits in plaster or concrete shall be secured by holdfasts or crampits spaced at intervals not exceeding 200mm and have not less than 12.5mm covering over the uppermost projection of any holdfast coupling etc.

Where conduits enter distribution boards, busbar chambers, boxes etc. of any kind not having threaded spout outlets hexagonal smooth bore male brass bushes and screwed sockets shall be used.

The conduit system, after erection shall be mechanically and electrically continuous throughout and each section shall be tested for continuity (unless installation is HGSD/PVS) before any cables are installed.

Conduits shall be arranged so that inspection or draw in points are not required where conduits are sunk in walls, concrete or plaster.

Surface mounted conduits shall have draw-in points every 6 to 7.5 metres of straight run or after not more than two right angle bends, or two offsets, or combination of any two such points when provided exclusively for draw-in purposes shall be inspection couplers.

The maximum number of cables run in one conduit or pipe should be such as to permit easy drawing-in. In no circumstances should the number and sizes of cables installed be such that a space factor of 40% is exceeded.

This space factor applies to installations where the cables are not to be drawn round more than two 90 degree bends conforming to [BS4568 Parts 1 and 2] or the IEC equivalent, as applicable; where there are more than two such bends, an appropriate reduction in the number of cables drawn in should be made.

Cables supplying currents to the motor operating an electric lift or hoist should not be run in the same conduit or pipes as the cable used in connection with the control and safety devices of the lift or hoist.

Each box at an outlet position for a clock, socket, switch etc., shall be fitted with an earth terminal.

16.2 Laying of Cables in Land-Based Installations

Cables shall be laid in pre-cast concrete cable ducts, laid direct in the ground complete with protective covers, drawn into pipes or ducts, laid in troughs or on racks, supported on trays, conduits or cleats as required in accordance with the following clauses.

Labels and markers used outdoors or buried in the ground shall be made from non-corrodable materials approved by QGPC. Their letters and numbers shall not fade or disappear due to their environment or the passing of time. This type of label and marker is called the ‘LABEL’ herein.

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16.2.1 Additional requirements for cables laid directly in the ground

These additional requirements shall apply in particular to areas outside the boundary limits of a processing plant e.g. distribution network between plants and power stations.

Cable trenches shall be excavated so as to comply with the relevant standards and the requirements of the QGPC Standard Drawings. [ES.2.03.0001, sub-section (10.2.5.3)] gives the recommended dimensions for trenches normally expected to be needed in QGPC installations. Excavated material shall be deposited a minimum of 1 metre away from the trench.

Where necessary any existing cables encountered in the trench shall be realigned to accommodate the new cables.

Cables shall be laid in parallel with no twists or crossovers. Under no circumstances shall any cable be subjected to a bending radius less than the minimum recommended by the manufacturer.

After any cable has been laid, and until the whole of the cables to be laid in the trench have been covered with cable tiles, see (16.5.6.6), no sharp edged tools shall be used in, or allowed to fall into, the trench. Rollers used during the pulling of cables shall have no sharp projecting parts liable to damage the cable sheaths.

Single core cable, when laid in trefoil formation, shall be braced by non-magnetic clamps placed at 3 metre intervals along the cable routing, and should be laid in separate trenches or racks.

The initial layer of cables shall be laid on a bed of fine sand 50-100mm deep. Upon the completion of each layer the cables will be labeled with lead tags with cable tag identification at 5m intervals before covering with an additional layer of sand which shall be compacted by hand over and around the cables to a level 100mm above the top of the upper most cable and across the full width of the trench. In each layer where cable tiles are required they shall be carefully centered over and 75mm above the cables forming the layer, each tile being fully interlocked with its adjacent tiles over the full width of the cable trench.

Cable tiles shall be impact resistant. Alternative materials may be used for tiles instead of concrete, provided the material has the same or higher impact strength and resistance to deterioration in the buriel environment.

Plastic yellow cable marker tape shall be laid directly above each layer of cable tiles or be incorporated as part of the cable tile before further back filling of the trench.

Substitute material and any finished surface or paving shall be reinstated.

Sections of the cable trench which may be required to be left open for the duration of the work shall have its sides lined with timber shutters and necessary cross bracings to avoid trench- collapse and at road crossings or path crossings the trench top shall be covered by steel plates of sufficient strength to allow heavy mechanical equipment to cross. All trench spoil shall be removed from site to ensure a clean and tidy working area.

Pre-cast concrete cable markers incorporating white / black / white LABELS shall be installed along the route of direct buried cables, at duct and joint positions, at all places where the route changes direction and on straight routes at distances not exceeding 50 meters. The LABELS

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shall indicate the cable laid, by cable number, and their voltage and the route direction and change where necessary.

16.2.2

Cables laid in pipes or ducts

All pipes and ducts which are to be laid directly in the ground shall be non-metallic and shall not be deteriorated by the soils surrounding the ducts or pipes. Unless otherwise specified, ducts and pipes shall be provided by the CONTRACTOR.

Cables drawn into pipes or ducts shall be in good condition. Any loose matter from the ducts shall be removed by drawing through a mandrel of slightly less diameter than the duct immediately before pulling in the cables. Generally one cable may be installed in each cable duct. Any lubricant used shall have no deleterious effect on the cables. Any ducts or pipes not used shall be sealed with approved plugs as soon as the duct is installed. Ducts used shall be sealed with an approved sealant to prevent water, dirt, and vermin ingress, as soon as the cable is installed.

Where new ducts are to be constructed no less than six spare ducts shall be incorporated for future cables.

On poorly defined roads or roads without kerbs the cable duct crossings are to have their limits defined by the use of substantial painted kerbs with foundations. The position of cable ducts and details of sealing arrangements shall be shown in the installation drawings.

16.2.3

Derating cables for environmental conditions

During the course of a project the CONTRACTOR will probably need to select the size and type of cable for a permanent consumer e.g. due to ‘as-built’ changes, additional consumers. [ES.2.03.0001 sub-sections (9.7.8) and (10.2.4)] shall be used as the basis for calculating the correct size of cable to be used.

16.3

Laying of Cables in Platform-Based Installations

The laying of cables on PBIs is mostly by the use of cable trays or ladder racks. Generally trays shall be used indoors or in sheltered areas.

Heavy duty ladder racks shall be used indoors and outdoors for supporting a large number of cables, and outdoors only where the area is subject to seawater spray and corrosion.

Most of the requirements of (16.1.4.1) shall apply to platform installations.

Trays and racks shall be bonded for earthing as described in (19.2.2).

16.3.1

The use of conduit systems

The use of conduit in PBIs shall not be allowed for main distribution cables. The only situations that qualify for using conduit are: -

Skid mounted package units, where conduit is the preferred choice of the manufacturer, and no alternative has been given.

Accommodation and living quarters, but subject to the approval of the principal.

16.4 Glanding and Termination of Cables

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The ends of every conductor shall be securely anchored by means which contain all the strands of the conductor.

The ends of every conductor having a nominal cross-sectional area exceeding 2.5 sq.mm should be provided with soldering sockets or with compression-type sockets or with substantial mechanical clamps. Cable sockets and clamps should be of such dimensions and design that the maximum current likely to flow through them will not cause the temperature of the cable insulation to be exceeded.

The means of fixing conductors in terminals should be capable of withstanding the thermal and dynamic effects of short-circuit currents.

Soldering fluxes containing acid or otherwise corrosive substance shall not be used.

At ends of cables the insulation shall not be removed further than is necessary having regard to the type of termination used.

The braid, metallic sheath, or other covering over the insulation, including tape (if any) in contact therewith, should be cut back at least 13mm from the end of the insulation in cable up to 13mm diameter (measured over the insulation) and at least 25mm from the end of the insulation in cables of greater diameter. The covering over the insulation should not be cut back beyond the point of entry to the terminal box or fitting.

Where joints in cables are to be made the equivalent electrical and mechanical properties of the cable are to be maintained. In damp situations the joint is to be watertight.

Stress relieving cones or sleeving shall be used on all HV cable termination and the joint shall be made in the manufacturers recommended manner.

All cores shall be set straight. Care shall be taken to ensure that the sheath and armour are cut back the correct amount to suit the compression gland provided.

Glands shall be certified for use in hazardous and non-hazardous areas as appropriate, see [ES.2.03.0001, Appendix H, Table H.3.A].

The supporting of cables shall be such that no weight is taken on the termination and the cable armouring is to be properly finished within the compression gland.

Glands shall be complete with appropriate earth tag (clearance hole entry) and an outer PVC shroud. Red sealing washers shall be fitted to all glands except MICC glands.

Control and instrument conductors terminating at stud type terminals shall be fitted with approved type crimping lugs or claw washers.

Where multi-core cables are loomed within panels, the cores of each cable shall be loomed and laced individually. Each cable shall be strapped back to supports within the panel individually. All cores shall have sufficient lengths to reach the farthest terminal on the respective terminal block.

All cable cores including unused cores shall be terminated. Cable identification markers, LABELS, shall be fitted at each end of the cable run near the termination, where cables enter

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and leave pipes, enter and leave transits and at intervals of 3 metres on cables laid in racks, trays, under ground or in pre-casts concrete cable ducts. The cable markers,LABELS, shall be of plastic, ‘Critchley’ or similar, and shall be attached by nylon or plastic, self locking tie wraps.

Cable markers, LABELS, in underground trenches shall be of lead strip wrapped around the cable at every 5 metre interval. The cable number and size shall be punched on the lead strip.

Cable core identification will be achieved using an interlocking ferrule of the appropriate diameter. Ferrules shall be continuous rings, not split or clip-on type. Ferrules shall be capable of being slid-off the core without needing to remove the core crimping lug. This relates mainly to control and instrument cables. The ferrule will be engraved with a letter or number. Where the cable core is too large to accommodate a ferrule, then coloured PVC tape (red, yellow or blue) will be used to identify the phase colours. A PVC sleeve of the appropriate phase colour may also be used. The minimum length of the tape or sleeve will be

25mm.

Full insulation tests shall be made on the cable before final connection to the equipment, see Appendix A for testing data.

The correct phase rotation and connection of power cables as per colour code shall be adhered to. Particular care is to be taken in the case of large conductors where subsequent correction may be difficult. See (10.5) and its Table 10.5.A.

Every precaution will be taken to ensure that the enclosure of terminal boxes is watertight and all gaskets correctly fitted. Flameproof terminal boxes shall be sealed against water ingress using an approved compound (‘Chemodex’) or one-and-a-half layers of DENSO tape. Note the use of weatherproofing tape with ECHA equipment shall take account of its Gas Group rating as follows : -

Gas Group II A

One layer of tape is acceptable.

Gas Group II B

Seek advice.

Gas Group II C

Tape not to be used under any circumstances.

16.5 Special Considerations for Installing 33kV (and above) Cables

Cable having rated voltages of 33kV and above will normally be used for LBIs. These cables may also be used in conjunction with overhead lines in remote locations eg road crossings, substations, switching stations, where the environmental conditions are severe.

Aspect not covered in this sub-section should be found in (20.1) through (20.4), or in

[ES.2.03.0001].

In respect to 33kV (and above) cables, the CONTRACTOR shall supply a qualified cable jointer provided by a company having a valid Grade ‘A’ license issued by the Electricity Department of the Ministry of Electricity and Water of the State of Qatar, and shall have a minimum of 2 years active service to carry out all cable termination and jointing work.

The CONTRACTOR shall ensure that this cable jointer is familiar with the techniques of jointing and terminating XLPE insulated cables, and in particular shall confirm he has attended a Raychem training course and list his subsequent experience in the methods of terminating cables using heat shrink sleeving as in the Raychem system and other close fitting

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moulded elastomeric terminations such as the ‘Elastimold’ or ‘Bi-mold’ system of components. He shall be certified by Raychem for completing 33kV terminations and joints.

The termination and jointing of all 33kV cables should be carried out using Raychem equipment and heat shrink sleeving.

16.5.1 Site considerations

The CONTRACTOR shall include for all work associated with cabling irrespective of the installation method used and including termination work at terminal poles, 33kV switchgear and control panels and transformers.

The arrangement of cables and all methods of installation shall be in accordance with this standard and approved by QGPC.

Unless otherwise directed by QGPC all cables shall be laid in the manner described in [ES.2.03.0001, sub-sections of 10.2.5.3] under existing buried obstructions including cables and pipe work. This reference also recommends the minimum clearances to be used.

Each cable shall be run in one continuous length and straight-through joints will not be permitted unless specifically authorized QGPC. All cable lengths are to be measured and confirmed at site prior to cutting by the CONTRACTOR, see (16.1.3).

Where joints cannot be avoided they shall be adequately supported and each joint shall be clearly labeled in an approved manner to indicate the cable number and the joint number. LABELS shall be used.

Where the armour wires of plastic insulated cables constitute the earthed metallic shield, such wires shall be effectively bonded across the joint in an approved manner. The electrical resistance of such bonds shall not exceed that of an equal length of armour wires. Suitable care shall be taken to ensure that the bond contacts do not deteriorate in service.

The CONTRACTOR shall deal with and dispose of any accumulated water to prevent any risk of cables and other materials laid in the excavations or trenches.

He shall provide dewatering pumps and appliances required and shall carry out the necessary pumping and bailing. Any water that may be present in the trenches shall be disposed of by the CONTRACTOR before cables or other materials are laid.

16.5.2 Additional requirements for cables laid direct in ground

The exact location of each trench shall be to the approval of QGPC.

Trenches shall be kept as straight as possible and each trench shall be excavated to an approved formation and dimensions, and shall have vertical sides, see QGPC Standard Drawings, and [ES.2.03.0001 sub-section (10.2.5.3)].

The bottom of each trench shall be firm and of smooth contour. Where a change in level of the trenches is necessary the bottom of the trench shall rise or fall gradually. The rate of rise or fall shall be approved.

When the excavation of trenches has been accurately executed, notice shall be given by the CONTRACTOR to QGPC. Laying of cables and backfilling shall not be started until the

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CONTRACTOR has obtained sanction from QGPC to proceed with the work. Inspection by QGPC shall not be unreasonably delayed.

The CONTRACTOR shall perform all hand excavations, protection and other work as specified herein or as required to locate existing utilities or services within the limits of the Contract, or at off-site locations as designated by QGPC and in accordance with the requirements of all contract documents. The existing utilities and services referred to herein shall include, but shall not be limited to gas and oil pipelines electrical (both power and lighting), water and such others as may be encountered under the Contract for the work to be done.

The CONTRACTOR shall excavate trenches to a depth given in the QGPC Standard Drawings, and [ES.2.03.0001, sub-section (10.2.5.3)], and after completion of cable laying shall backfill and re-instate the surface. It is the responsibility of the CONTRACTOR to ensure that he is acquainted with the nature of the ground conditions prevailing in the area concerned and shall include for any and all types of excavation and backfill on an ‘as found’ basis. He shall also furnish an adequate supply of fine sand or approved fine sifted sabkha, graded and thoroughly washed. The CONTRACTOR shall lay cables direct in the ground in the following manner.

A thickness of no less than 250 mm of sand or finely ground sabkha shall be placed at the

bottom of the trench to form a bed for the cables. After the cables have been laid to the approval of QGPC they shall be covered with additional fine sand or finely ground sabkha well punned over and around the cables to a level of no less than 250 mm above the top of the uppermost cable. Mechanical punners shall not be used for this work. (Note that the thicknesses of the sand or finely ground sabkha is more than for lower voltage cables, as described in (16.2.1)).

The CONTRACTOR shall be responsible for ensuring that the net thermal resistivity of the material surrounding cables shall not rise above 2.5 deg. K.m/W, under all site conditions. Account shall be taken of any fall in moisture content of soil arising from seasonal variations, and of local heating due to cable dissipation. The CONTRACTOR shall include any special backfill materials, including stabilizing additives such as cement, in order to ensure compliance with this clause.

Before the commencement of backfilling, the CONTRACTOR shall test the material for backfilling the area surrounding the cables, i.e. item 6 on QGPC document QA-40-414. The CONTRACTOR shall measure the grain size distribution, Proctor density, thermal properties and moisture content of this material before placing it in the trench. The CONTRACTOR shall not start to backfill the trench before the selected material has been approved by the QGPC. ‘Scalping’ can be used as a backfilling material provided that it has a proven thermal resistivity of less than 2.5 deg. K.m/W.

Concrete cable tiles, shall be supplied by the CONTRACTOR, and shall be carefully centred over the cable.

The remaining part of the trench shall then be backfilled allowing for settlement. No excavated foundation material or heavy rocks shall be used for this purpose. Backfill shall be imported

as necessary.

After any cable has been laid and until the whole of the cables to be laid in the trench have been covered with their protective covers, no sharp metal tools, such as spades or fencing

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stakes, shall be used in the trench or placed in such a position that they may fall into the trench.

Rollers used during the laying of the cables shall have no sharp projecting parts liable to damage the cables. The procedure for unwinding and pulling the cables shall be approved by QGPC.

16.5.3 Additional requirement for cables drawn into ducts

Any ducts or pipes not used shall be sealed by plugs supplied by the CONTRACTOR before backfilling, or at the end of the Works.

The ducts shall be water and vermin proof sealed in accordance with the requirements of QGPC.

16.5.4 Cables at road-crossing and in areas accessible to vehicles

At all road crossing and designated areas, the cables shall be installed in underground conduit ducts embedded in concrete as directed by QGPC.

The conduit for the underground cable road crossings shall be made up from 6 inch diameter nominal bore galvanized screwed and coupled pipe to be laid with a minimum of 1 metre cover and to extend 1 metre beyond the kerb at each side of the road. The conduit ends shall be free of sharp edges and be plugged and made water-tight, using a suitable mastic type substance before the conduit end trenches as backfilled.

All tarmac road surfaces are to be re-instated to the satisfaction of QGPC.