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City of Redwood City Stormwater Pollution Prevention Program Design Guidelines for Permeable Pavements GENERAL A.
City of Redwood City Stormwater Pollution Prevention Program Design Guidelines for Permeable Pavements GENERAL A.

City of Redwood City Stormwater Pollution Prevention Program

Design Guidelines for Permeable Pavements

GENERAL

A. The attached chart is a guideline for general permeability of pavement materials. Permeability depends on various site-specific factors, including soil type, sediment deposition potential, rainfall intensity, and site slope. These estimates are only approximate and should not be used for flood control sizing. The percentages assume that the materials have been properly installed and will be properly maintained according to recommended practices .

B. Design and maintenance specifications (i.e., subgrade and base composition) are detailed in various sources such as “Start at the Source”. Final permeability ratios allocated to each material will be determined by the City Engineering Department based on the variable factors, site circumstances, and manufactures specifications.

C. Permeable paving systems may only be used in private streets and parking areas, subject to City Engineer’s approval.

Permeable Pavements

A. Permeable Pavements include the following:

1. Poured-in-place materials (pervious concrete, porous asphalt)

2. Unit pavers-on-sand (turf block, brick, natural stone)

3. Granular materials (crushed aggregate/gravel and cobbles)

B. Permeable pavements reduce impervious land coverage while simultaneously providing a stable load-bearing surface. While forming a surface suitable for walking and driving, permeable pavements also contain sufficient void space to infiltrate runoff into soil. By making pavements permeable, impervious surface coverage can be reduced without sacrificing intensity of use.

C. A typical component of permeable pavements is a reservoir base course. This base course provides a stable load-bearing surface as well as an underground reservoir for water storage. The base course must meet two requirements:

1. It must be open graded, crushed stone (not pea gravel), meaning that the particles are of a limited size range, with no fines, so that small particles do not choke the voids between large particles. Open-graded crushed stone of all sizes has a 38 to 40% void space, allowing for substantial subsurface water storage.

2. Crushed stone may be City Standard Specification for Class I, Type A Permeable Material.

3. Rounded river gravel (pea gravel) is not recommended due to movement and deformation. The angular sides of the crushed stone will form an interlocking matrix, keeping the surface stable.

4. Permeable pavements must be laid on a relatively flat slope, generally 5% or flatter. If permeable pavements are laid on steep slopes, the underlying base course tends to migrate downhill, causing the surface to deform.

D. TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF PERMEABLE PAVEMENTS, PLAN THE SLOPE OF PARKING LOTS SO THAT PERIMETER PARKING RECEIVES THE RUNOFF FORM THE MORE PERVIOUS AREAS. IN COMBINATION WITH PLANTER STRIPS, THE PERVIOUS AREAS CAN ACT AS A FITTER MEDIUM AS WELL (SEE PAGE 7).

Generally derived from “Start at the Source: Design Guidance Manual for Stormwater Quality Protection” (1999 edition); and “California Stormwater Quality Association: Stormwater Best Management Practice Handbook” (January 2003).

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City of Redwood City Pavement Permeability Chart 1

Material

Description

Possible

Percent

Example

Applications 2

Permeable 3

Asphalt

Impervious cemetitious material in which the predominating constituents are bitumens. Contains fine aggregate (dust or sand) that fill the voids between larger particles making it impermeable.

High volume

Negligible

 

(conventional)

and/or speed

traffic areas

If feasible, slope towards

infiltration basins instead of into

directly-

connected

collection

structures

Asphalt

Open-graded asphalt concrete over an open- graded aggregate base, over a draining soil. Contains very little fine aggregate (dust or sand) and is comprised almost entirely of stone aggregate and asphalt binder;

Flat sites

25 to 40%

(dust or sand) and is comprised almost entirely of stone aggregate and asphalt binder; • Flat

(porous)

(slopes <6%)

with uniform,

permeable

subgrade

Low traffic use, such as parking lots, travel lanes, parking stalls

Surface may be too rough for

1 This chart was generally derived from Start at the Source: Design Guidance Manual for Stormwater Quality Protection (1999 edition); and California Stormwater Quality Association: Stormwater Best Management Practice Handbook (January 2003).

2 Permeable pavements are not appropriate for gas stations, truck stops, or areas in which high concentrations of hydrocarbons or other pollutants can be leached into soil.

3 Percentages are based largely on runoff coefficients that determine the portion of rainfall or irrigation that will run off the surface based on the permeability and water-holding capacity of the material. The runoff coefficient value, expressed as C, can vary from close to zero to up to 1.0. A low C value indicates that most of the water is retained for a time on the site, as by soaking into the ground or forming puddles, whereas a high C value means that most of the water runs off rapidly. These estimates are only approximate and should not be used for flood control sizing.

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Material

Description

Possible

Percent

Example

Applications 2

Permeable 3

 

surface void content of 12-20%.

 

bicycle path

   

Brick

Solid unit paver laid on a permeable base with sand joints.

Flat sites

25

to 85%,

Brick Solid unit paver laid on a permeable base with sand joints. • Flat sites 25

(slopes <6%)

depending on

Driveways,

walkways,

joint spacing

(larger joints have greater permeability). Mortared joints on a concrete base have 0% permeability

 

patios, public

sidewalks,

plazas, low

volume streets

Cobbles

Natural stones of various sizes generally consisting of larger granular material ranging from 6 inches to 24 inches diameter set on soil.

Garden areas (i.e., around bases of trees), parkway planter strips and median island, decorative landscaping

10

to 40%,

Garden areas (i.e., around bases of trees), parkway planter strips and median island, decorative landscaping 10

depending on

joint spacing

and stone

size

Concrete

Impervious composite building material made from the combination of aggregate (generally gravel and sand) and cement binder.

High volume

Negligible

 

(conventional)

 

driveways,

sidewalks

If feasible, slope towards infiltration basins instead of into directly- connected collection structures

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Material

Description

Possible

Percent

Example

Applications 2

Permeable 3

Concrete

A discontinuous mixture of coarse aggregate, hydraulic cement and other cementitious materials, admixtures, and water which has a surface void content of 15-25% allowing water to pass through.

Flat sites

30

to 50%

and water which has a surface void content of 15-25% allowing water to pass through. •

(pervious)

(slopes <6%)

 

also called

with uniform,

Portland

permeable

cement

subgrade

pervious

Sidewalks and

patios

pavement

Low traffic volume and low speed (less than 30 mph limit) bikeways, streets, travel lanes, parking stalls, and residential driveways

Crushed

Crushed stone ranging from sand- sized fines to 2- inch diameter stone.

Parking stalls,

60

to 90%,

Crushed Crushed stone ranging from sand- sized fines to 2- inch diameter stone. • Parking stalls,

aggregate

driveways,

permeability

(gravel)

walkways,

increases with

plazas, patios,

larger

street shoulder

aggregate

 

Low volume and low speed vehicle traffic areas

sizes

Areas of low erosion

For surfaces subject to vehicular use, crushed gravel sizes between 3/8” and 3/4” make a stable surface that is also easy to walk on

 

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Material

Description

Possible

Percent

Example

Applications 2

Permeable 3

Natural stone

Laid on pervious surface area in random pattern with wide sand, gravel, or soil joints (from 1/2 to 4 inches).

Flat sites

20

to 75%,

area in random pattern with wide sand, gravel, or soil joints (from 1/2 to 4 inches).

(slopes <6%)

depending on

Driveways,

walkways,

joint size.

Mortared joints on a concrete base are not considered permeable

patios,

sidewalks,

plazas, low-use

 

parking stalls

Turf block

Open celled unit paver filled with soil and planted with turf. Sometimes the cells are filled with crushed rock only.

Areas of low flow traffic and infrequent parking

40

to 85%,

Sometimes the cells are filled with crushed rock only. • Areas of low flow traffic and

depending on

slope and

surface

Residential driveways and overflow parking areas, emergency access roads, utility roads, and street shoulders

configurations

 

Outer

commercial and

 

retail

development

where low-use

spaces are

located

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Material

Description

Possible

Percent

Example

Applications 2

Permeable 3

Unit pavers

Discrete units set in a pattern on a prepared base. Unit pavers are typically made of precast concrete in shapes that form interlocking patterns; some of the shapes form patterns that include an open cell to increase permeability. Solid unit pavers are made of impermeable materials, but can be spaced to expose a permeable joint set on a permeable base.

Flat sites (<6%)

25 to 90% (more permeable if larger voids)

to expose a permeable joint set on a permeable base. Flat sites (<6%) 25 to 90%

on sand

Parking stalls,

private driveways,

walkways, patios

Low volume

 

streets, travel

lanes, and

bikeways

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Conventional Approach Drain Creek or Channel
Conventional Approach
Drain
Creek or Channel

Inlet

Creek or Channel
Creek or Channel

Vegetated Swale (Bio- Swale)

The conventional approach to parking lot design uses impermeable paving (asphalt or concrete) and directs runoff to drains that transport the drainage to the stormwater system or to a discharge point at a creek or other channel.

An alternative (permeable) approach to parking lot design directs runoff to pervious pavement, landscape or vegetated swales for infiltration, and disperses drainage prior to discharge to a creek or other channel.

Permeable (Hybrid) Approach

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