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FACULTY OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL


ENGINEERING


ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY



LABORATORY INSTRUCTION SHEET




SUBJECT CODE
BFC3121
EXPERIMENT CODE
MA4
TEST
JAR TEST
COURSE CODE













FACULTY OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

SHORT REPORT


SUBJECT CODE
CODE & EXPERIMENT
TITLE

COURSE CODE
EXPERIMENT DATE
NAME OF STUDENT
NO. OF GROUP
NAME OF GROUP
MEMBERS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
NAME OF LECTURER/
TUTOR/TRAINER

DATE OF SUBMISSION
MARK DISCIPLINE / PARTICIPATION /15%
RESULT /25%
DATA ANALYSIS /30%
DISCUSSION /30%
TOTAL /100%
EXAMINERS COMMENT




APPROVAL RECEIVE








FACULTY : CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING
NO. OF PAGES : 1/6
DEPARTMENT : WATER AND
ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING
EDITION : MA4
REVISION NO. : 04
LAB : ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING EFFECTIVE DATE : 0112/2007
TEST : JAR TEST AMENDMENT DATE : 20/11/2007

1.0 OBJECTIVE

To determine the optimal coagulant dose which will produce the highest removal of a given water turbidity.



2.0 LEARNING OUTCOME

1. To identify the most common coagulant used in the coagulant process.
2. To determine the most effective and optimum dosage of coagulant for a particular mixing intensity and
duration.
3. To understand the complex interrelationships that exists between the chemicals and the constituents of the
water being treated, as well as other factors such as pH, temperature, the intensity and duration of mixing.


3.0 THEORY

Raw water and wastewater is normally turbid containing solid particles of varying sizes. Particles with sizes greater
than 50 m settle fairly rapidly. The settling velocities of colloidal particles of sizes less than 50 m are very slow.
Thus, these particles are encouraged to collide leading to coalescence of particle to form flocs particles, which are
bigger and heavier. These particles will have higher settling velocities and easily settle out. Colloidal particles do not
agglomerate by itself due to the presence of repulsive surface forces. A process is needed to suppress these forces
so as to allow flocs formation. This process is called coagulation process. It is actually the addiction of chemical
coagulant to the raw water or wastewater. Coagulant that are normally used are salts of aluminium namely aluminium
sulphate and ferric salts namely ferrous sulphate and ferric chloride. The next processs that follows the coagulation
process is flocculation. It is the process that promotes particles collision due to gentle agitation resulting in
agglomeration of smaller non-settleable particles into flocs (bigger particles) which settles easily to produce clarified
water. Addition of coagulant aid such as synthetic polymer will accelerate settling.











PREPARED BY : AZRA MUNIRAH MAT DAUD

SIGNATURE :

DATE : 20 NOVEMBER 2007






FACULTY : CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING
NO. OF PAGES : 2/6
DEPARTMENT : WATER RESOURCE AND
ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING
EDITION : MA4
REVISION NO. : 04
LAB : ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING EFFECTIVE DATE : 01/12/2007
TEST : JAR TEST AMENDMENT DATE : 20/11/2007

4.0 EQUIPMENTS AND MATERIALS

1. Jar test apparatus with six rotating paddles blade
2. Six (6) beakers
3. pH meter
4. Turbidity meter
5. Pipette

REAGENT

1. Aluminum sulfate (alum) with a known concentration or anionic/cationic coagulant such as ferrous
sulfate and ferric chloride.



5.0 PROCEDURES

1.0 Select any coagulant aid from the bench.
2.0 Prepare samples of wastewater into six different beakers with one litre each and label the
beakers.
3.0 Add in coagulant aid with different dosage and one control sample.
4.0 Run the experiment.
5.0 Observe the results.


















PREPARED BY : AZRA MUNIRAH MAT DAUD

SIGNATURE :

DATE : 20 NOVEMBER 2007



FACULTY : CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING
NO. OF PAGES : 3/6
DEPARTMENT : WATER RESOURCE AND
ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING
EDITION : MA4
REVISION NO. : 04
LAB : ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING EFFECTIVE DATE : 01/12/2007
TEST : JAR TEST AMENDMENT DATE : 20/11/2007


6.0 RESULTS AND CALCULATION

Fill in the table provided in the bench sheet.



7.0 DATA ANALYSIS

1. Compare the level of turbidity in each sample.
2. With the aid of a graph, show the relationship between pH and turbidity with respect to coagulant dosage.
3. From the graph, get the optimum value for pH and coagulant dose of the coagulation process.
4. Explain the implications of using different dosage of aluminium sulphate in the treatment process



8.0 DISCUSSION

1. By using aluminium sulphate, the mechanism is :

Al
3
+ + 3H
2
O Al(OH)
3
+ 3H

Describe the mechanism of reaction if the aluminium sulphate is replaced by ferum chloride
(FeCl
3
).

2. How the coagulant works?
3. Name three types of acid and base which are suitables for pH neutralization.
4. What are the benefits of using coagulant aids?
5. In what way the dosage of aluminium sulphate in the treatment process can be reduced?
6. Instead of Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
, name another three coagulants that can be best used as coagulant aid.










PREPARED BY : AZRA MUNIRAH MAT DAUD

SIGNATURE :

DATE : 20 NOVEMBER 2007




FACULTY : CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING
NO. OF PAGES : 4/5
DEPARTMENT : WATER RESOURCE
AND ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING
EDITION : MA4
REVISION NO. : 04
LAB : ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING EFFECTIVE DATE : 01/12/2007
TEST : JAR TEST AMENDMENT DATE : 20/11/2007

Figure 1: Scale for measurement of floc sizes






Scale for measurement of floc sizes

Very fine
Very fine / fine
Fine
Moderately fine
Moderate
Coarse
Very Coarse





FACULTY : CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING
NO. OF PAGES : 5/6
DEPARTMENT : WATER RESOURCE AND
ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING
EDITION : MA4
REVISION NO. : 04
LAB : ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING EFFECTIVE DATE : 01/12/2007
TEST : JAR TEST AMENDMENT DATE : 20/11/2007

9.0 BENCH SHEET



JAR TEST 1 (Set the coagulant dose)

Initial turbidity : _______ NTU
Initial pH : _______
pH adjustment (base) : ______ mg/L of ____________
pH adjustment (acid) : ______ mg/L of ___________
Coagulant concentration : _______ mg/L


Jar No 1 2 3 4 5 6
pH
Coagulant dose
(mg/L)
1 2 3 4 5 control
Agitate (minute) none
Fast (rpm) none
Slow (rpm) none
Settling depth (mm)
Turbidity (NTU)
Floc formation (final
10 minutes) *



* Floc formation can be recorded by referring to the measurement scale as depicted in Figure 1.












PREPARED BY : AZRA MUNIRAH MAT DAUD

SIGNATURE :

DATE : 20 NOVEMBER 2007








FACULTY : CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING
NO. OF PAGES : 6/6
DEPARTMENT : WATER RESOURCE AND
ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING
EDITION : MA4
REVISION NO. : 04
LAB : ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING EFFECTIVE DATE : 01/12/2007
TEST : JAR TEST AMENDMENT DATE : 20/11/2007


JAR TEST 2 (Set the pH value)


Initial turbidity : _______ NTU
Initial pH : _______
pH adjustment (base) : ______ mg/L of ____________
pH adjustment (acid) : ______ mg/L of ___________
Coagulant concentration : _______ mg/L



Jar No 1 2 3 4 5 6
pH 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0
Coagulant dose
(mg/L)
control
Agitate (minute) none
Fast (rpm) none
Slow (rpm) none
Settling depth (mm)
Turbidity (NTU)
Floc formation (final
10 minutes) *



* Floc formation can be recorded by referring to the measurement scale as depicted in Figure 1.












PREPARED BY : AZRA MUNIRAH MAT DAUD

SIGNATURE :

DATE : 20 NOVEMBER 2007