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Project work PTS -4

By gayakwad
My subject: - The Indian Monuments
Contents :
1. Introduction
2. History about India
3. Importance of monuments in tourism
4. Indian monuments and their structure and
their history
5. How to save our monuments?
Introduction :-
Hello this is my project wor on !Indian monuments". Here I
want you to introduce my project wor. In my project I select
the main tourism subject# as we all now that Indian tourism
is mostly rely on monuments# only these monuments are the
reason which mae forei$ners attracts towards our country. If
we tal about %utab&minar# 'aj&(ahal or even other
monuments. 'ourism means when people spent their
holidays in enjoyments and they spent money for that# but
what if the money is not spend by them at a ri$ht
place...)lso it doesn*t matter where they spend their money#
but the most basis +uestion is that what attracts a tourist
most? ,hat they want to now about a country? ,hy
monument stae most stron$ place in Indian tourism? -es#
these +uestions are all over on your mind that*s why I $o
throu$h these +uestions and found some answers for you.
Hope you will $et all your answers. I thans for .oo$le for
main$ my project wor so successful. If you found any
mistae or you want to now any thin$ about this
information you can mail your su$$estion and comments
////////////.. thans.
History about India
The history o India :- be$ins with evidence of human
activity of Homo sapiens as lon$ as 05#111 years a$o# or
with earlier hominids includin$. Homo erectus from about
511#111 years a$o. 'he Indus 2alley 3ivili4ation# which
spread and 5ourished in th&e north western part of the Indian
subcontinent from c. 3311 to 1311 637# was the 8rst major
civili4ation in India. ) sophisticated and technolo$ically
advanced urban cultured eveloped in the (ature Harappan
period# from 2911 to 1:11 637. 'his 6ron4e )$e civili4ation
collapsed before the end of the second millennium 637 and
was followed by the Iron )$e 2edic 3ivili4ation# which
e;tended over much of the Indo&.an$etic plain and which
witnessed the rise of major polities nown as the
(ahajanapadas. In one of these in$doms# (a$adha#
(ahaviraand# .autama 6uddha were born in the 9th or 5th
century 637 and propa$ated their sramanic philosophies.
)lmost all of the subcontinent was con+uered by the (aurya
7mpire durin$ the 4th and 3rd centuries 637. It subse+uently
became fra$mented# with various parts ruled by numerous
(iddle in$doms for the ne;t 1#511 years. 'his is nown as
the classical period of Indian history# durin$ which India has
sometimes been estimated to have had the lar$est economy
of the ancient and medieval world# controllin$ between one
third and one fourth of the world<s wealth up to the 1=th
century. (uch of northern and central India was once a$ain
united in the 4th century 37# and remained so for two
centuries thereafter# under the .upta 7mpire. 'his period#
witnessin$ a Hindu reli$ious and intellectual resur$ence# is
nown amon$ its admirers as the >.olden )$e of India>.
?urin$ the same time# and for several centuries after wards#
southern India# under the rule of the 3haluyas# 3holas#
@allavas# and @andyas# e;perienced its own $olden a$e.
?urin$ this period# aspects of Indian civili4ation#
administration# culture# and reli$ion AHinduism and
6uddhismB spread to much of )sia. 'he southern state of
Cerala had maritime business lins with the Doman 7mpire
from around 00 37. Islam was introduced in Cerala throu$h
this route by (uslim traders. (uslim rule in the subcontinent
be$an in 012 37 when the )rab $eneral (uhammad bin
%asim con+uered Eindh and (ultanin southern @unjab#
settin$ the sta$e for several successive invasions from
3entral )sia between the 11th and 15th centuries 37#
leadin$ to the formation of (uslim empires in the Indian
subcontinent such as the ?elhi Eultanate and the (u$hal
7mpire. (u$hal rule came to cover most of the northern
parts of the subcontinent. (u$hal rulers introduced (iddle
7astern art and architecture to India. In addition to the
(u$hals andvarious Dajput in$doms# several independent
Hindu states# such as the 2ijayan a$ara 7mpire# the (aratha
7mpire# and the )hom Cin$dom# 5ourished
contemporaneously in southern# western# and northeastern
India respectively. 'he (u$hal 7mpire suFered a$ara dual
decline in the early 1=th century# which provided
opportunities for the )f$hans# Eihs# and (arathas to
e;ercise control over lar$e areas in the northwest of the
subcontinent until the 6ritish 7ast India 3ompany $ained
ascendancy over Eouth )sia. 6e$innin$ in the mid&1=th
century and over the ne;t century# India was $radually
anne;ed by the 6ritish 7ast India 3ompany. ?issatisfaction
with 3ompany rule led to the Indian Debellion of 1=50#after
which India was directly administered by the 6ritish 3rown
and witnessed a period of both rapid development of
infrastructure and economic decline. ?urin$ the 8rst half of
the 21th century# a nation wide stru$$le for independence
was launched by the Indian Gational 3on$ress and later
joined by the (uslim Hea$ue. 'he subcontinent $ained
independence from the Inited Cin$dom in 1:40# after bein$
partitioned into the dominions of India and @aistan.
Im!ortance o monuments in tourism :-
) monument is a type of structure
either e;plicitly created to commemorate a person or
important event or which has become important to a social
$roup as a part of their remembrance of past events. 'hey
are fre+uently used to improve the appearance of a city or
India is a land where wonderful temples and monuments
remind visitors about its rich traditions and cultural diversity.
I believe that no trip to India can ever be complete without a
visit to the House of ,orship# also nown as the Hotus
'emple and it is this monument that I would advise a 8rst
time visitor to India# to discover. Hocated in Gew ?elhi# the
Hotus 'emple is one of the most beautiful monuments of the
faith built in 1:=9 by Jaribor4 Eahba. 'he temple is desi$ned
in the shape of a half opened Hotus with 20 petals made of
marble# each sprin$in$ from a podium# which elevates the
buildin$ above the surroundin$ plain. 'he nine ponds that
surround the ma$ni8cent structure showcase the temple lie
a Hotus 5oatin$ in water. 'he KHotus*# the national 5ower of
India# si$ni8es the rich Indian culture and is symbolic of love#
peace and purity. 'hus# the temple ma$ically combines
traditional Indian culture with modern en$ineerin$
techni+ues. 'he Hotus 'emple provides a perfect
environment to meditate and $ain wisdom. It conveys the
teachin$s of the faith & the oneness of $od# oneness of
reli$ions and oneness of manind. I 8nd it interestin$ that in
this modern world# where society is divided on the basis of
reli$ion# race and caste and where terrorism has found a foot
hold# the Hotus 'emple# the eternal monument of peace and
unity is amon$ the world*s most visited monuments# drawin$
visitors from all parts of the $lobe.
Indian Monuments and their structure and their
India is amon$ one of the rare and
uni+ue countries in the world which stands for its ancient
cultures and traditions# which ran$e throu$h a span of
centuries. It is clearly evident from the remains of the
ancient monuments and traces in the diFerent parts of India.
'he Indian monuments are the livin$ e;amples which taes
us bac to thousands of years and helps in e;plorin$ the
history of India. 'hese monuments in India oFers a $reat
help to study and now more about the ancient civili4ations
of India. 'hese monuments also attracts a lar$e number of
tourist from all over the world. 'he famous monuments of
India can be classi8ed into the monuments of Eouth# Gorth#
,est and 7ast of India. 'he ancient Indian monuments have
a rare and uni+ue architecture# which tells about the story of
ancient India. 'hese monuments across India is considered
to be the real treasure of India# which is bein$ preserved with
$reat importance. )mon$ the Indian monuments# 'aj (ahal
is considered to be one of the seven wonders of the world.
India has lost many of its important and $reat historic
monuments# due to the invasions of the forei$n powers for a
lon$ period. 'he monuments in India mar the presence of
some $reat force sand in5uences such as (u$hal dynasty#
Dajputana 7mpire and the ?ravidian era. 'he monuments
are built for the future $enerations to let the comin$ world
now about their forefathers. 'he monuments in India are
timeless wonders which inspire people to create somethin$
more beautiful and architecturally superb. 'here are many
monuments in India which are built in the center of bi$ laes#
himalayan valleys# lar$e rivers# deserts# deep forest etc.
(any of the Indian monuments were destroyed or partially
destructed# either due to the fall of the rulin$ empire or due
to some natural calamities. 'he ancient monuments in India
has also boosted the tourism scenario of India# as a lot of
forei$ners 5ood to India to have a $limpse of these historical
monuments in India. 'he tourist are too much attracted with
these ancient Indian monuments# which tells the story of
ancient India. Eome of these monuments in India are also
pil$rima$e centers for various reli$ions. 'he style and
architecture of these ancient and herita$e monuments varies
rapidly as we $o from the north to the south of India. Eome
of the monuments of India are perfect mi;ture of @ersian#
7uropean and Indian style and architecture.
India is blessed with number of world
herita$e monuments showcasin$ the breath tain$
architecture and intricate wor. 'he monuments of India are
livin$ testimony which pull us bac to that particular era and
helps us in e;plorin$ the history of India. Indian monuments
have a rare and astonishin$ uni+ue architecture which tell us
the story of by $one era. (onuments of India are considered
as the real treasure and are preserved with $reat
importance. 6ehind each monument there is an underlyin$
sense of mystery# intri$ue and romance. Jive thousand years
of Indian History has $iven us the treasure of thousands of
monuments across the country# monuments belon$in$ to
Hindus# 6uddhists# (uslims and 3hristians. 'he monuments
of India are not only fairy tales carved out of stones# brics#
and mortar narratin$ the tales of valor and coura$e of Indian
rulers. 'he famous monuments of India lure tourist from all
over the $lobe and these can be classi8ed into the
monuments of Eouth# Gorth# ,est and 7ast India. It should
mention here that the seventh wonder of the world the 'aj&
(ahal is an Indian (onument. 7ach and every monuments of
India are an architectural feat in itself# they are splendid
sample of ama4in$ artistry# creatin$ a sense of deception
and romance. 6e it the majestic 'aj&(ahal in white marvel or
stone splendor Ded JortL or spellbindin$ temples of
Chajuraho temple# Conar and Hampi# or the caves of )jana
7llora. 2isit India in order to spectacle the miraculous beauty
of Indian monuments.
"# Taj Maha$ -% Mar&e$ o 'o&e
'ae a constitutional down Ehahjahan @ar in the
chilly mauve li$ht of dawn# and the pale white dome of the
'aj (ahal# India looms in the distance. Eet a$ainst the a4ure
sy line# it loos lie a mira$e in a desert. Inch closer and the
supreme majesty of the $reatest monument to love comes
into focus M with its dew&coated lawns and its pearl&white
mausoleum. 'ravel to 'aj (ahal )$ra to bapti4e into the true
$lory of this passion of love. )s the sunrises to cast a
reverential beam on the sepulchre# the Kdream in marble*
turns from lavender to yellow# while ni$htfall sees the
monument bathed in moonli$ht M looin$ lie a woman
wreathed in smiles while waitin$ for her lover. 'here are
many theories as at which time the 'aj (ahal# India loos the
best# but there is no substitute to viewin$ it at all hours of
the day and the ni$ht if you want to under stand its myriad
facets. 'aj (ahal# India is a microcosm of the universe M it
contains within it both the yin and the yan$# tain$ on a new
personality to suit the occasion. It can be harsh# dry and
stron$ lie alabaster# delicately chaste and fra$ile lie
porcelain# noisily populous or +uiet and secretive.
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state Ittar pradesh
location 'aj mahal stands majestically in a$ra city on
the bans of river yamuna.
watch out 'aj museum# closed on (ondays and fridays.
loo out 'aj mahotsav# february# held for 11 days.
The History Maniest :-
'aj (ahal India was made in
commemoration of )rjumand 6ano 6e$um. 'he +ueen was
married at the a$e of 21 to emperor Nahan$ir<s son Churram.
?urin$ all the phases of Churram life# )rjumand 6ano 6e$um
supported him throu$h out. Ehe was lie a supportin$ pillar
in his life. In )? 192=# Churram became in$ after a bloody
battle of succession. He chan$ed his name from Churram to
Ehahjahan or the Cin$ of the ,orld. )rjumand 6ano also
chan$ed her name from (umta4 (ahal. (umta4 (ahal was
not destined to be a +ueen for a lon$ period of time. Ehe
died at the a$e of 3: while deliverin$ a child at 6urhanpur.
'hat auspicious day turned into a mournful event. ,hen
)rjumand 6anu 6e$um Abetter nown as (umta4 (ahalB
died in child birth in 192:# her husband# 7mperor Ehah Nahan
immortali4ed their love by buildin$ the Kdream in marble* M
the 8nest illustration of (u$hal architecture. 'he dream too
over 22 years to fructify and over 21#111 craftsmen were
employed to build it.
)esigning o Taj :-
,ho desi$ned the 'aj (ahal India is
shrouded in mystery M some historians credit the 2enetian
architect 2eroneo with its construction# while others believe
it was the wor of a @ersian called Istad Isa. 6ut we do now
of the lesser luminaries connected to it with certainty M the
central dome was built by Ismail 7Fendi from 'urey# the
calli$rapher was )manat Chan from Ehira4# the mosaicist#
3hiranji Hal hailed from ?elhi while the $oldsmith# %a4im
Chan was summoned from Hahore. ) story which is probably
apocryphal but has been doin$ the rounds for $enerations#
says that Ehah Nahan had the chief mason*s ri$ht hand
amputated to preclude him from replicatin$ the Kmarvel in
marble* anywhere else in the world.
'aj Gestles On 'he 6ans of -amuna Diver
Hocated at the southern end of the city on the bans of the
-amuna Diver# the site where the 'aj stands belon$ed to a
Hindu nobleman# Daja (an Ein$h. )bdul Dehman Hahori# the
court historian recorded that 8ve million rupees were spent
on the buildin$ M a in$*s ransom in those days. Once
complete# the upeep of the mausoleum and its 42&acre
$arden was funded with there venue obtained from 31
nei$hborin$ villa$es. 'here are three lofty $ateways to the
'ajmahel comple;. 'he central portal is richly decorated with
5oral arabes+ues and is inscribed with passa$es from the
Coran. ) hu$e forecourt leads onto a lush $arden# which is
divided by an a+ueduct. 'he main monument is a two
storied octa$onal buildin$ with a hu$e rotunda as its
crownin$ $lory. Jour sy&scraper tall minarets position
themselves as sentries on each side of the monument M all
built out of bric and encased in marble. 'he $raves of the
celebrated duo# Ehah Nahan and (umta4 (ahal are housed in
the catacomb below. 'he 'aj is remarable for its perfect
proportions and rich pietra dura# and every minutiae in the
monument has been etched with consummate sill. In a
nutshell# the 'aj is the K7mbodiment of the Islamic 3oncept of
The %rchitectura$ Mar&e$ - Paradise on *arth :-
In the Curan# the $arden
symboli4es paradise. Islam ori$inated in the deserts of
)rabia where $reenery and water was very much coveted.
!.ardens underneath which rivers 5ow" is a phrase# that
appears no less than 31 times in the Coran. 'he four main
rivers of paradise are also mentionedP water# mil# wine and
puri8ed honey.
It is unmistaable that Ehah Nahan conceptuali4ed the 'aj
(ahal as Kheaven on earth*. )s you enter the $ates of the
'aj# it is lie an in$ression into heaven. 'he water courses
divide the $arden into +uadrants. It was 6abur who had
introduced the char&ba$h Afour&$ardenB concept into India.
'he ima$ery is threefoldP it is a symbol of paradise to reward
the faithfulL an oasis from the dry desert heatL and a
summation of the secular tradition of the royal pleasure
$arden. and the watercourse# which divides the $arden into
four# epitomi4es both# the life source and the meetin$ of
man and .od. In this conte;t# the spacious lawns
surroundin$ the 'aj (ahal become as important as the
mausoleum it self. -our travel trip to 'aj de8nitely leaves you
mesmeri4e# a K@aradise on 7arth* really summari4es its
ethereal appeal M the monument rivals any of the other
wonders of the world.
Taj Mahotsa& :-
'he best time to visit this 10 th
century monument is durin$ 'aj (ahotsav. 'aj (ahotsavis 11
day sa$a held annually at Ehilp$ram# near 'aj (ahal.
6edeced elephants and camels# drum beaters# fol artists
and master craftsmen to$ether recreate the $lorious past of
the (u$hals. ?urin$ this fest# 'aj (ahal comes alive with
culture and traditions. 'aj (ahostav provides an opportunity
to its artisans to perform their art and craft. -ou can actually
purchase crafts which includes wood carvin$s from
Eaharanpur# handmade carpets of 6adohi# the pottery of
Churja# chican&wor of Hucnow# the sil of 6anares and
much more. 'hrou$h 'aj (ahotsav# performers $et a
platform to showcase profusion of fol music and dances of
?undelhand# <Gautani< A?ramaB# <Eapera< dance of
Dajasthan# Havani of (aharashtra.
Sho!!ing %t Taj Maha$ :-
Nust at the entrance# there are
number of shops. 'hese shops sells e;+uisite crafts and arts
at aFordable price. -ou can purchase leather wor# footwear
and embroidery. Infect# you small 'aj (ahal miniature made
of white marble are +uite popular amon$st the tourists.
+etting to Taj Maha$:-
%ir :- Nust 0 ms from )$ra city lies Cheria airport. Jrom
?elhi# Indira .andhi )irport# 'aj (ahal is just 214 ms away.
,ai$ :- 'he nearest rail head for the 'aj (ahal is )$ra
3antonment railway station. 'he city is connected with
@alace on ,heels# Ehatabdi and 'aj 7;press.
,oadP& 7;press bus service are available from ?elhi# Naipur#
Hucnow# .walior# and Nhansi.
%ccommodation at Taj Maha$ :-
'aj&(ahal is one of the major
attractions of )$ra India. ?ue to its locale# 'aj&(ahal oFers
best of accommodation facilities.
-i&e Star Hote$ :-
Hotel 3lar Ehiraj
Hotel 'aj view
'hree Etar Hotel
Hotel ?eedar&e&'aj
Hotel )mar
Hotel (ansin$h @alace
Major Tour !ackages to taj maha$ :-
India herita$e tours A: ni$htsQ11 daysB
palace on wheels train tour A= ni$htsQ: daysB
pil$rima$e in india A24 ni$htsQ25 daysB
.#/antar Mantar
%n 0bser&atory:-
'he Nantar (antar was built in 1011
by Daja Nai Ein$h II of Naipur A19::&1043B in ?elhi. 'his is an
observatory consistin$ of mason&built astronomical
instruments to chart the course of the heavens. Nai Ein$h#
who was a very scholarly in$ with a very een interest in
astronomy and astrolo$y# had other observatories built too M
in Ijjain# Naipur# (athura Awhich no lon$er survivesB and
2aranasi. 'he 8rst amon$ these was this one in ?elhi. 'he
yantras Ainstruments# which has been distorted to NantarB are
built of bric rubble and plastered with lime. 'he yantras
have evocative names lie# samrat yantra# jai praash# ram
yantra and niyati charaL each of which are used to for
various astronomical calculations.
1#India +ate
%$$ India 2ar Memoria$ :-
India .ate is constructed as a
memorial and was built in the memory of :1#11 soldiers who
laid down their lives durin$ world war 1. Hocated at Dajpath#
India .ate is 42 m hi$h and is popular rela;ation area durin$
the summer evenin$s. India .ate also act as popular picnic
spot durin$ winter. )lso nown as the )ll India ,ar (emorial#
India .ate was desi$ned and constructed by Hutyens. He was
the who is considered the chief proclaimer in desi$nin$ the
Gew ?elhi plans.
The %rchitectura$ Mar&e$ :-
) tour of Hutyens* ?elhi just has to
ic oF with the stately India .ate at the east end of the
broad Nanpath Aearlier Cin$swayB that leads to the
Dashtrapati 6hawan. )nother additional 13#519 names
en$raved on the arch and foundations form a separate
memorial to the 6ritish and Indian soldiers illed on the
Gorth&,est Jrontier in the )f$han ,ar of 1:1:. 'he
foundation stone was laid by HDH the ?ue of 3o nau$ht in
1:21 and the monument was dedicated to the nation 11
years later by the then 2iceroy# Hord Irwin. )nother
memorial# )mar Nawan Nyoti was added much later after India
had said $ood bye to its imperial rulers. It is in the form of a
5ame that burns day and ni$ht under the arch to remind the
nation of soldiers who perished in the Indo&@aistan ,ar of
?ecember 1:01.'he entire arch stands on a low base of red
6haratpur stone and rises in sta$es to a hu$e cornice#
beneath which are inscribed Imperial suns. )bove on both
sides is inscribed IG?I)# 5aned by (3( and to the ri$ht#
RIR. 'he shallow domed bowl at the top was intended to be
8lled with burnin$ oil on anniversaries but this is rarely done.
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location Gew ?elhi
Jamous )s )ll India ,ar (emorial
?esi$ned by 7dwin Hutyens in 1:21
Hei$ht 42m
The Breathtaking 3iew o India +ate :-
Gowadays# if you drive down the
smooth wide e;panse of Dajpath on a midsummer ni$ht# you
mi$ht be e;cused for assumin$ that a hu$e $litterin$
carnival is in pro$ress at India .ate. 'he entire boulevard up
to the monument is lined with cars# scooter# motorcycles and
what&have&you. In fact all of ?elhi seems to have conver$ed
to the emerald lawns of India .ate. 'he air is thic with
chatter# lau$hter and the cries of assorted vendors peddlin$
their wares. -ou can snac on anythin$ from fruit chaat Afruit
salad with hot# spicy dressin$B# throu$h bhelpuri Aa snac of
puFed rice# spices and hot# sweet and sour chutneyB# chana
jor $aram Aspicy chicpeasB# dal a paodas Afried lentil&5our
dumplin$sB# potato chips to ice cream# candy 5oss and
aerated drins.
% Perect P$ace -or % Ha$t :-
(ost of the revelers come
e+uipped with balls# Jrisbees or just a pac of playin$ cards.
6ut India .ate has lots to oFer in the name of entertainment.
-ou can watch moneys perform# enjoy a camel ride# blow
soap bubbles all over the lawns# play with balloons and even
$et your insides turned inside out on a ferries wheel. 6ut if
you as us# the best thin$ to do is to loll on the cool lawns#
lic a bar of ice candy and watch the 5oodlit arch and the
fountains nearby that seem ma$ically lit up with colored
Major Tour Packages To India +ate :-
India Herita$e 'ours A: Gi$htsQ11daysB
.loden 'rian$le paa$e 'our A0Gi$htsQ= ?aysB
'he Gorthern 7cstacy A = Gi$htsQ: daysB
4#Par$iament House o India
%$so 4nown %s Sansad Bhawan - % 'arge 'egis$ati&e
%ssemb$y :-
If it were not for the (onta$u&
3helmsford reforms of 1:1:# the @arliament House may not
have been built. It*s corny how the buildin$ most
indispensable to modern Indian democracy came up as an
afterthou$ht. 7arlier called the 3ircular House# it was added
to the layout at a later sta$e followin$ the reforms which
created a lar$e He$islative )ssembly. 'his edi8ce is the
brainchild of Herbert 6aer and was much critici4ed in
comparison with Hutyens creations. )n article by Dobert
6yron in )rchitectural Deview# Nanuary1:31describes it thusP
>'he 3ouncil 3hamber has been Eir Herbert*s unhappiest
venture. Its eFect from a distance has been described. It
resembles a Epanish bull&rin$# lyin$ lie a mill&wheel dropped
accidentally on its side.>
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Etate ?elhi
Hocation On the northwest of 2ijay 3how# ne;t to the
Eecretariat buildin$s at the end of @arliament
Etreet AEansad (ar$B.
Jamous as 'he place where the Indian @arliament meets
and the world<s lar$est democracy functions.
Jree# but prior permission re+uired
Aforei$nersQciti4ensP from their embassies or
Hi$h commissionsQ from the reception oSce on
Daisina DoadB
The Massi&e Structure:-
'o the northwest of 2ijay 3how#
this hu$e circular# colonnaded buildin$ comprises three
semicircular chambers for the He$islatures and a 3entral
Hibrary crowned by a20.4m hi$h dome. It is 103m in
diameter and covers 2.12 hectares in area# with colonnaded
verandahs enclosin$ the entire circumference. 'he three
semi&circular areas were desi$ned for the 3hamber of
@rinces# the 3ouncil of Etate and the He$islative )ssembly.
'oday they house the chambers of the Ho Eabha AHouse of
the @eopleB#Dajya Eabha AIpper HouseB and the library. )
verandah with 144 columns surrounds the three chambers.
'he boundary wall has blocs of sandstone carved in
$eometrical patterns that echo the (u$hal jalis.
)n entry pass to the library can be obtained from the
2isitor*s reception on Daisina Doad by providin$ a letter of
introduction from a (ember of @arliament. 'he library
worin$ hours are from 1111&1=11. 'o obtain a visitor*s pass
to Eansad 6hawan# Indian nationals should apply to the
@arliament Eecretariat. Jorei$n nationals should apply
throu$h their embassies or hi$h commissions.
5# ,ashtra!ati Bhawan
,ashtra!ati Bhawan 63iceroy Pa$ace7-Best 4nown
Monument o British *m!ire :-
'he 2iceroy @alace remains
Hutyens most si$ni8cant achievement. It is be8ttin$ly the
crownin$ $lory of the 6ritish 7mpire and architecture in
India. 'oday# it is perhaps India*s best nown monument
after the 'aj (ahal and the %utub (inar. 6i$$er than the
@alace of 2ersailles# it cost a whoppin$ T12#53#111 and now
houses the @resident of India. It is un+uestionably a
masterpiece of symmetry# discipline# silhouette# colour and
harmony. of course# it has come in for much criticism too but
that has mostly been limited to the imperial intent behind it
rather than its architecture.
Pictures8ue 'ocation :-
6etter nown now as the
Dashtrapati 6hawan# the sprawlin$ palace straddles the
crown of Daisina Hill and is the focal point of Gew ?elhi. 'he
majestic Dajpath Aearlier Cin$s ,ayB leads up to the palace
on Daisina Hill and here comes into view the one fatal 5aw in
desi$n. Hutyens and 6aer had a major showdown about the
hei$ht of the slope approachin$ the palace which was at that
time caricatured as the K,ar of the .radient*. Hutyens
wanted the palace to come into view as one climbed Daisina
Hill. Infortunately# 6aer miscalculated. 'he palace
disappears from si$ht till only the copper dome is visible.
Jurious with 6aer# Hutyens said he had Kmet his 6aerloo*.
'he palace is 5aned by the two Eecretariats and the three
to$ether# open into a hu$e s+uare called the 2iceroy*s 3ourt
where the Naipur 3olumn stands tall. 'he 2iceroys 3ourt#
which frames the main entrance to the house# has lateral
entrances on the a;is of the Naipur 3olumn. Here the levels
were reduced arti8cially and cascades of steps are 5aned
by hu$e sandstone elephants and rans of imperial lions
modeled by the sculptor 3.E. Na$$er.
The %ttractions o The Pa$ace :-
'he main entrance is approached
by a broad 5i$ht of steps which lead to a 12&column portico.
?o notice the enormous projectin$ cornice or chajja# a
(u$hal device# which blends so eFortlessly with the classical
style of the monument. Hutyens* ability to smoothly
incorporate li$ht oriental touches is all the more remarable
$iven his active and profound dislie for Indian architecture.
'he most outstandin$ feature of the House M you can spot it
while you are still a ilometer away M is the hu$e neo&
6uddhist copper dome that rises over a vast colonnaded
fronta$e. 6eneath the dome is the circular ?urbar Hall 22.=m
in diameter. 'he coloured marbles used in the hall come
from all parts of India. 'he 2iceroy*s throne# ceremonially
placed in this chamber# faced the main entrance and
commanded a view alon$ the $reat a;ial vista of Cin$sway
Anow DajpathB. )t present the hall is the venue of all oScial
ceremonies such as the swearin$ in of the @rime (inister#
the 3abinet and the (embers of @arliament. It is in this very
chamber that the @resident annually confers the )rjuna
)wards for 7;cellence. 'he columns at the front entrance
have bells carved into their capitals. Hutyens reasoned that
Kthe rin$in$ of bells sound the end of an empire and stone
bells never sound*. ?espite this# the empire came to an end
a brief 19 years later.
The +reat Interiors :-
'he principal 5oor comprises a
ma$ni8cent series of state apartments. 'he Etate ?rawin$
Doom is barrel&vaulted and plainly treated with domestic
8replaces. 'he Etate 6allroom is enriched with Old 7n$lish
mirror $lass. 'he Etate Hibrary is based on the form of
,ren*s Et Etephen*s# ,albroo. 'he Etate ?inin$ Doom is
lined with tea panel lin$ enriched with the star of India. 'he
concept of Imperial order and hierarchy permeates the entire
house. (arble staircases 5anin$ the ?urbar Hall provide
access to the private apartments above. 'here are 54
bedrooms to$ether with additional accommodation for
$uests. Hord Irwin# its 8rst occupant# Kept losin$ his way* but
insisted that >in spite of its si4e# it was essentially a live able&
Mugha$ +arden :-
'o the west the palace overloos an
enormous (u$hal $arden desi$ned by Hutyens. Here the
principles of hierarchy# order# symmetry and unity are
e;tended from the house into the landscape. ) series of
ornamental fountains# walls# $a4ebos and screens combine
with scores of trees# 5owers and shrubs to create a paradise
so deli$htful that Indians called the $arden K.od*s own
Heaven*. 'he Irwin<s supervised the plantin$ of the $arden
which $rew in tropical profusion softenin$ the formal pattern
of lawns and waterways. @opularly nown as the (u$hal
.arden# it is open to public every sprin$ but be prepared for
the ti$ht security chec.
The +$ory o The Pa$ace :-
)fter India became independent#
the sheer si4e of the buildin$ overwhelmed its new eepers.
(ahatma .andhi su$$ested it be turned into a hospital.
'hanfully# nobody too him seriously. 'he ?urbar Hall
served as a museum for several years till the buildin$ which
now houses the Gational (useum was completed. Here*s
what (ar&6ench Nones remared about life at the 2iceroy*s
House in his boo @alaces of the Daj. ?o note the then&and&
now comparison he maes on a later visit to the palace# lon$
after the 6ritish had $one. >'hen there were the ban+uets
held durin$ sessions of the 3hamber of @rinces# when every
other $uest at the lon$ table was the ruler of a Etate. 'he
$old plate $littered in it scrimson&lined niche# the lustres
$linted# the scarlet and $old hitma$ars moved deftly
a$ainst the tea&panelled walls# and from an adjoinin$ room
came the music of the 2iceroy*s band.>> In India that
replaced the Daj# Hutyens* @alace has mana$ed to eep some
of its $lory./)s the home of a modern democratic @resident#
it is certainly on the lar$e side# but the Indians have been
wise enou$h to maintain a @residential establishment worthy
of the settin$. Ecarlet&clad $uards still sit on their char$ers
beneath the stone sentry bo;es# hitma$ars in white# red
and $old line the corridors.>
9# (utub Minar in )e$hi
Constructed %s % Ho$y Minar :-
'he world famous towerin$ %utub
(inar# started in 11:2 by %utub&ud&din )iba A11:2&:=B#
breathes down the nec of the %uwwat&ul&Islam mos+ue.
'here is a sli$ht diFerence of opinion as to its purposeP it
probably was a tower of victory# but then a$ain it could have
been built to be a minar AtowerB#attached to the %uwwat&ul&
Islam mos+ue# for the mue44inApriestB to climb up top for a
0ther Be$ie o Its Construction :-
)mon$ ?eli$hts there are lots of
other theories about the ori$in of the tower. Eome say it was
the observatory of the $reat scientist )ryabhatta of ancient
India# other claim that it was built by @rithvi 3hauhan for his
dau$hter to see the -amuna. In fact everythin$ short of an
e;traterrestrial ori$in has been attributed to it. 'he presence
of the ancient non&rustin$ Iron @illar within the comple;
further appears to add credence to the 8rst theory. However
the tower# its entire desi$n and architecture are undisputedly
Islamic and all the other theories are just matters of wild
surmise. 3onsiderin$ how shortchan$ed he was for time# it is
doubtful that %utub&ud&din $ot much further than a couple of
levels of the minar# in fact many su$$est that lived to see
only the 8rst storey complete. )ltamash# his successor#
completed the remainin$ tower.
Measures Taken To 4ee! The Minar In Perect Sha!e :-
It is clear that the tower was very
close to the sultanate<s heart# since repeated eForts were
made to eep it in perfect shape. In its lon$ career# the tower
$ot hit by li$htenin$ twice M somethin$ that# of course# with
its hei$ht it was literally asin$ for. Once durin$ the rei$n of
(uhammad&bin&'u$hla+# who very decently repaired the
ensuin$ dama$e. 'he ne;t time was in the indefati$able
builder Jero4e Ehah 'u$hla+<s time# when the top most
storey $ot dama$ed. Jero4e Ehah# who of course couldn<t
well leave thin$s alone# not only repaired the 5oor# but also
sneaed in another level. 'he result of this combined eFort is
an interestin$ mi; in styles that is clearly discernable all over
the tower. 7ach of the ori$inal three storeys has diFerent
desi$ns. 'he base storey has alternate an$ular and circular
5utin$s while those of the second one are round and the
third one has only an$ular 5utin$s. 'heir ali$nment is
mercifully similar# so $ivin$ the tower a rhythmic harmony.
'he pretty projectin$ balconies have a very interestin$
pattern# with icicle&shaped pendentive Aan intricate desi$n in
which trian$ular pieces of vaultin$ sprin$ from the corners
of a rectan$ular area and support a rounded or poly$onal
domeB type of bracets. 'he attractiveness of the balconies
is hei$htened bythe bands of sonorous inscriptions. 'he
diameter Aat baseB of the %utub (inar is 14.32mand about
2.05m at the top.
The %ttraction o Crowning Cu!o$a :- 'he tower
had a crownin$ cupola on the top at one time# however this
was struc down sometime in the early 1:th century# an
earth+uae felled it. 'his was replced by a well meanin$
7n$lish en$ineer (ajor Emith. However it must have looed
+uite an eyesore for when Hord Hardin$e was .overnor&
$eneral of 6ritish India# he had it removed. -ou can see it
now on the spruce lawns of the %utub comple;. 3ome to
thin of it# it must have been eyesore M it<s called Emith*s
:# 4hajuraho - 2or$d Heritage Site o India
The Stones o Passion :-
Di$ht throu$h the (u$hal invasion
and the early 6ritish forays into India# Chajuraho temples in
India remained unnown. Dediscovered in this century# they
are 8ne reminders of India<s $lorious past. 'o some#
Chajuraho 'emples are the most $raphic# erotic and
sensuous sculptures of India# the world has ever nown. 6ut
Chajuraho has not received the attention it deserves for its
si$ni8cant contribution to the reli$ious art of India M there
are literally hundreds of e;+uisite ima$es on the interior and
e;terior walls of the shrines. )rchitecturally these temples
are uni+ue. ,hile each temple in Chajuraho has a distinct
plan and desi$n# several features are common to all. 'hey
are all built on hi$h platforms# several metres oF the $round#
either in $ranite or a combination of li$ht sandstone and
$ranite. 7ach of these temples has an entrance hall or
mandapa# and a sanctum sanctorum or $arbha $riha. 'he
roofs of these various sections have a distinct form. 'he
porch and hall have pyramidal roofs made of several
hori4ontal layers. 'he inner sanctum<s roof is a conical tower
& a colossal pile of stone Aoften 31m hi$hB made of an
arran$ement of miniature towers called shiharas. 'he
famous ,estern $roup of temples are desi$nated as the
,orld Herita$e Eite and is enclosed within a beautifully laid
out par. 'he Hashmana and 2ishwanath 'emples to the
front and 'he Candriya (ahadev# Na$adami and 3hitra$upta
'emples displays the best craftsmanship of Chajuraho
(uick bytes
state (adhya @radesh
location 'he 3ity of Chajuraho is situated in the
forested plains of (adhya @radesh in the
re$ion nown as 6undelhand and at area
son able distance from most cities and town
centers of the state
watch out ,estern .roup of 'emples 7astern .roup of
Eouthern .roup of 'emples
loo out Chajuraho ?ance Jestival Held & 25 th Jeb &
31 th Jeb
2or$d Heritage Site
2estern +rou! o Tem!$es
Major +rou!s o 4hajuraho Tem!$es :-
Jor the purpose of convenience#
the villa$e of Chajuraho has been divided into three
directional areas in which are located the major $roups of
temples .
2estern +rou! Tem!$es :-
'hese $roups of Chajuraho temples
are entirely Hindu# and constitute some of the 8nest
e;amples of 3handela art at its pea. 'he lar$est bein$ the
Candhariya (ahadev# followed by a $ranite temple &
3haunsath -o$ini. 'he 3hitra$upta 'emple is dedicated to
the Eun .od# while the 2ishwanath 'emple sports a three&
headed ima$e of 6rahma M the 3reator of the Iniverse. 'he
Hashmana 'emple is superbly decorated# while the ?evi
Na$dambi 'emple is dedicated to .oddess Cali. Other
temples in the ,estern .roup include the 2araha 'emple
with a nine&feet hi$h boar&incarnation of Hord 2ishnu# the
(atan$eshwara 'emple with a ei$ht&feet hi$h lin$am# and
the 6rahma 'emple.
*astern +rou! Tem!$es :-
'his $roup of Chajuraho tempels
comprises of two historic Nain temples M the )dinath'emple
lavishly embellished with sculpted 8$ures# and the
@arsvanath 'emple# the lar$est Nain temple# sculpted with
charmin$ detail. 'here are other shrines such as the 2amana
'emple with apsaras in sensuous poses# and the Navari
'emple that has a richly&carved doorway.
Southern +rou! :-
'his $roup has two impressive
Chajuraho temples# mainly belon$in$ to the 12th century M
the 3haturbhuja 'emple# with a massive# carved ima$e of
2ishnu# and the ?uladeo 'emple# one of the last temples of
the 3handela era# dedicated to Hord Ehiva. Eymbolisin$ a
medieval le$acy# the Chajuraho temples of India are a
perfect fusion of architectural and sculptural e;cellence#
representin$ one of the 8nest e;amples of Indian art.
Sou&enirs rom 4hajuraho :-
6ein$ one of the most visited
places in India# many shops have developed which oFer
ssouvenirs at best of prices. 'here are number of stalls in
front of these temples that presents array of articles which
are worth buyin$.
4hajuraho )ance -esti&a$ :-
Held every year from 25th Jebruary
to 2nd (arch# Chajuraho ?ance festival provides an
e;clusive platform to showcase the Indian classical dance
forms lie 6haratnatyam# Catha# Odisi# Cathaali etc. Jor
over 25 years now# the carved stones 8lls with life durin$ the
month of Jeb.
+etting to 4hajuraho :-
%ir P& 'he airport is 5 ms from the city centre
and is well connected by domestic 5i$hts to and from
)$ra# 2aranasi and Cathmandu.
Train P& (ahoba# Eatna and Nhansi are the nearest
railway stations. )ll of these are well connected by
most of the major cities of India.
,oad P& Chajuraho is connected by re$ular bus
services with (ahoba# Harpalpur# Eatna#Nhansi# .walior#
)$ra# Nabalpur and 6hopal. Chajuraho is 5:1 ms from
?elhi via .walior and Nhansi.
%ccommodation :-
,hether there are any $ood hotels
in Chajuraho or not? @robably you don<t have to worry much
as there are number of hotels in Chajuraho. Dan$in$ from
bud$et to delu;e# hotels in Chajuraho oFer $ood
accommodation at your price.
5 star hote$s :- Nass 'ridentHotel 3handela
1 star hote$ :-
Hotel Chajuraho
Isha 6undelaCairali )yurvedic Health
Best o 4hajuraho tem!$es :-
1. 3haturbhuja temple
2. devi ja$dambi temple
3. andariya mahadev temple
4. lasmana temple
5. parshvanath temple
Major Tour Packages To Madhya Pradesh :-
India Herita$e 'our A: Gi$hts Q 11 ?ays B
Doc Herita$eA10 Gi$htsQ1= ?ays B
'i$ers U Dhinos 'our A1= ni$hts Q 1:daysB
How to sa&e our monuments; :-
'he )rchaeolo$ical Eurvey of India
A)EIB under the provisions of the )()ED )ct# 1:5= protects
monuments# sites and remains of national importance by
$ivin$ a two&month*s notice for invitin$ objections# if any in
this re$ard. )fter the speci8ed two&month*s period# and after
scrutini4in$ the objections# if any received in this re$ard# the
)EI maes decision to brin$ a monument under its
protection. 'here are at present more than 3951 ancient
monuments and archaeolo$ical sites and remains of national
importance. 'hese monuments belon$ to diFerent periods#
ran$in$ from the prehistoric period to the colonial period and
are located in diFerent $eo$raphical settin$s. 'hey include
temples# mos+ues# tombs# churches# cemeteries# forts#
palaces# step&wells# roc&cut caves# and secular architecture
as well as ancient mounds and sites which represent the
remains of ancient habitation. 'hese monuments and sites
are maintained and preserved throu$h various 3ircles of the
)EI spread all over the country. 'he 3ircles loo after the
research on these monuments and conservation activities#
while the Ecience 6ranch with its head+uarters at ?ehradun
carries out chemical preservation and the Horticulture
6ranch with its head+uarters at )$ra is entrusted with the
layin$ out $ardens and environmental development.
"# Structura$ Conser&ation :-
)lthou$h there have been
references of conservation of structures way bac in the
early Historic @eriod as evidenced at Nuna$adh# .ujarat# it
was done on structures that were bene8cial to the
contemporary society. 7ven the dawn of vision for the need
to preserve monuments for its worth as a monument# mainly
credited to the 6ritish was not less hapha4ard in the earlier
times. 'he earlier attempts to $ive a le$al framewor for
preventin$ vandalism were the two le$islations namely the
6en$al De$ulation of 1=11and (adras De$ulation of
1=10.'he monuments and sties that received nominal funds
and attention way bac in 1:thcentury was 'aj (ahal# 'omb
at Eiandara# %utb (inar# Eanchi and (athura. 6ased on the
proposal submitted in 1=:=# 5 3ircles were constituted to do
the )rchaeolo$ical wor in India. 'hese 3ircles were re+uired
to devote themselves entirely to conservation wor. Hater
the K)ncient (onuments and @reservation )ct# 1:14* was
passed with the prime objective to ensure the proper upeep
and repair of ancient buildin$s in private owner ship
e;ceptin$ such as those used for reli$ious purposes. Jrom
the 8rst decade of the last century therefore many
monuments could be taen up for conservation. One of the
foremost conservators# N. (arshall who laid down the
principles of conservation was also instrumental in
preservin$ a number of monuments some of which are now
under the ,orld Herita$e Hist. 'he conservation wor of
stapes at Eanchi earlier lyin$ in a ma4e of ruins $ave the site
its pristine loos. 'he conservation processes had now
become +uite formali4ed and the later worers in the 8eld
were ac+uirin$ cumulative nowled$e of several
$enerations. 7ven before Independence# thus# the
)rchaeolo$ical Eurvey of India had developed si$ni8cant
e;pertise so much as that it was invited for conservation
wor in other countries. Eome of the outstandin$ e;amples
of such wors are that of 6amiyan in )f$hanistan and later in
the )n$or 2at of 3ambodia.
2. Chemica$ Preser&ation :-
'he )rchaeolo$ical Eurvey of
India*s Ecience 6ranch is responsible mainly for the chemical
conservation treatment and preservation of some three
thousand 8ve hundred ninety three @rotected monuments
besides chemical preservation of museum and e;cavated
objects countrywide. 'he real challen$e before us is to plan
the necessary measures of conservation with a view to
assure the survival of these built cultural herita$e and
uni+ue symbols of our civili4ations for centuries to come#
with as little intervention as possible but without alterin$ or
modifyin$ in any way the authenticity of their ori$inal
character. 'o ensure the stability as well as proper
conservation of our cultural herita$e# there is a need to $ive
more thrust to the scienti8c research in conservation options
must be based on a preliminary investi$ation which includes
the nowled$e of physical nature of the object Aconstituent
materials# architectural characteristics# production
techni+ues# state of decayB and of the factors which induce
or could induced its decay. In other words# as in the case of
medical study the 8eld of conservation therapy to be based
on a correct dia$nosis. 'he role of scienti8c disciplines vital
to both these steps of conservation activities. )ccordin$ly# a
speci8c objective of scienti8c research activities in
conservation bein$ carried out by the Ecience 6ranch is
aimed to studyP (aterial deterioration process. 6asic studies
of intervention technolo$ies. 6asic studies on materials.
?ia$nostic technolo$ies.
The main acti&ities o Science Branch are :-
3hemical treatment and
preservation of about 5111 centrally protected monuments
includin$ 1= world herita$e monuments. 3hemical treatment
and preservation of museum e;hibits and e;cavated objects
Ecienti8c and technical studies as well as research on
material herita$e of diFerent buildin$ materials to study the
causes of deterioration with a view to evolve appropriate
conservation measures in order to improve the state of
preservation of our built cultural herita$e and physical
herita$e as well. 3hemical conservation of monuments and
herita$e sites abroad 'echnical assistance to state protected
monuments as well as built cultural herita$e under the
control of trusts in the form of deposit wors. 'o impart
trainin$ on chemical conservation to the students of @ost
.raduated ?iploma in )rchaeolo$y# from Institute of
)rchaeolo$y# Gew ?elhi. 'o or$ani4e awareness pro$ram and
worshops Qseminars with re$ard to scienti8c conservation