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AP Biology Name _________________________

Chapter 45 Guided Reading Assignment


1. What is a hormone?
2. What constitutes the endocrine system and what are its functions?
3. What are endocrine glands?
4. How do neurosecretory cells demonstrate the overlap between the endocrine and
nervous system?
5. eview the basics of negative feedbac! " e#plain negative feedbac! using the
following terms$ receptor% control center% effector% and efferent signal.
&. 'abel the diagram below representing the basic patterns of hormonal control.
(. What are the three ma)or classes of molecules that function as hormones in
vertebrates?
*age 1 of &
+. ,se the diagram below to review basics of signal transduction pathways.
-. How can one chemical signal cause different effects?
1.. What type of molecules are intracellular receptors? /nclude the why and give an
e#ample in your answer.
11. 0etail the following local regulators.
a1 cyto!ines
b1 growth factors
c1 nitric o#ide
d1 prostaglandins
*age 2 of &
2tudy the table on page -4- " it is overwhelming when presented with a long list of
information " the easier way to approach the memori3ation is first loo! through the list
for what you already !now and would associate together " for e#ample pancreas and
insulin4glucagon. 5hen attac! the glands with the least amount of information. 6s you
can see% the pituitary has the most. /f you memori3e the others then by default% the
pituitary is any you didn7t memori3e.
12. How does the hypothalamus integrate information?
13. What two hormones are released by the posterior pituitary and what are their
actions?
14. What is the importance of tropic hormones?
15. 'ist three tropic hormones and their action.
1&. What is the general function on the anterior pituitary nontropic hormones?
1(. What is special about the structure of growth hormone?
1+. 'ist one e#ample of a physiological response to overproduction and
underproduction of growth hormone.
1-. What are the types of hormones that nonpituatary?
2.. 'abel the feedbac! loop for regulation of the thryroid?
*age 3 of &
21. 0escribe one e#ample of hypothyroidism and one of hyperthyroidism. Why are they
both a problem?
22. What is the main function of the parathyroid hormone and in your own words% why is
it important?
*age 4 of &
23. 8omplete the diagram below of the feedbac! loops concerning calcium regulation.
24. 8omplete the diagram below " you have seen this before " concerning glucose
homeostasis.
*age 5 of &
25. How does the body respond differently to long term and short term stress and why is
this an advantage to the organism?
2&. How could chronic low level stress responses be a disadvantage to the organism?
2(. 8ompare and contrast glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids.
2+. What are the gonadal se# hormones?
2-. What is the pineal gland and why is it important?
3.. 'abel the diagram below representing hormonal regulation of insect development.
*age & of &