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1 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date

For internal use


Module 7: DCN
2 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
Overview and Objective
The DCN network in OSS4 provides the means of creating a
connection between OSS and network elements as well as
between different OSS sites
Objective of the Module is to
To understand the overall DCN network architecture
What information is needed in order to plan DCN network
Different alternatives for implementation
OSPF
3 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
Network Planning
All Equipment
IP Addresses Network Topology
System Requirements
Network planning
4 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
General View of OSS4 DCN
Regional cluster Regional cluster
Site 2 Site 2
Regional cluster Regional cluster
Site 3 Site 3
3G 2G 3G 2G
WAN (IP)
VPN
Global cluster Global cluster
Site 1 Site 1
PaCo PaCo
5 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
3G DCN Architecture
2G MSC MGW
3G Switching Core
NetAct
RNC RNC RNC
BTSBTSBTSBTS BTS
BTSBTS
BTSBTSBTSBTS
IP DCN
3G SGSN
3G Packet Core
3G RAN
Iub
IuCS
Iur
IuPS
BTS
RNC DCN
area
6 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
RAN IP addressing
IP addressing is dependent on the network topology -> No default IP
addressing scheme can be provided
OMU in the RNC acts as an IP router
Reserve appropriate subnet for RNC internal LAN (depends on your IP
network configuration)
WCDMA BTS consists of AXC and Ultrasite and Flexi BTSs
Allocate a /29 subnet per BTS at minimum
/28 subnet recommended
Unnumbered links between BTSs
Simplifies the IP network planning
Since RAN04 static and OSPF routing is supported -> To make the
routing configuration easier, use network segmentation (route
summarization)
Leave space for possible network expansion (for example 2 x /29 subnets
for each WCDMA BTS)
7 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
IP over ATM connection for DCN in Ultra site BTS
VCI 36
VCI 30
AXU
Private IP addresses
192.168.255.32/25
LMP
192.168.255.129/25
IFUA
PDH, IMA or SDH
CIF 1
VCI 44
VPI 1
VPI 0
VCI 32
Transmission
Convergence
Adaptor
VPI 4
VPI 0
WBTS
C-NBAP
O&M
D-NBAP
AAL2 TPs
AAL2 sig
WAM 1-0
192.168.255.1
192.168.255.16
O&M Master WAM
VCI 33
VCI 34
VCI 35
VCI 45
VCI 49
VCI 50
IP
router
WAM 1 is Telecom
Master WAM
8 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
AXC
Master
WAM
WAM WAM
LMP
Inter unit
communication
inside AXC:
Subnet: 192.168.254.0
/ 24
192.168.255.1 192.168.255.2 192.168.255.3
192.168.255.32
WAM-AXU Subnet: 192.168.255.0 / 25
192.168.255.16
192.168.255.129
192.168.255.130
LMP Subnet: 192.168.255.128 / 25
Internal IP Addresses in AXC
Private IP addresses are used only for BTS internal communication.
They are predefined and same in all BTS.
These addresses must not be used for any other purpose!
9 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
Private IP Addresses in AXC
Only public IP addresses are seen from other network elements and NMS.
"Public" addresses may be in the "private" IP address space
"Private" subnets in the sense of AXC are only those defined on the
previous slide.
AXC
Master
WAM
WAM WAM
10.100.0.5
10.100.0.9 10.100.0.9
LMP
10.100.0.9
LMT -10.100.0.10
Subnet: 10.100.0.8/29
10 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
Internal IP Addresses in Flexi BTS
Private subnet
Private IPv4 addresses from
the 192.168.255.0/24 subnet
are used in the BTS LAN for
BTS-internal communication
e.g.
user plane forwarding
BTS internal O&M functions
Provide local access for the
element manager
FSP
FSP
FCM
FTM
192.168.255.129
IPV4 router
DCN
LMP
Flexi BTS
internal
LAN

FlexiBTS Control &


Multiplexing
192.168.255.130
( For LMT to
connect to LMP)
11 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
Private IP Addresses in Flexi BTS
Public subnet
FTM and FCM have also public
IPv4 addresses
The public IPv4 addresses are
configurable and used for
management traffic
For external equipment at the BTS
site (e.g. battery backup, webcam,
antenna tilt etc.) FTM provides a
DHCP server
Can statically (client identifier or
MAC address) or dynamically
(pool) allocate public IPv4
addresses to the external
equipment
192.168.255.0/24 subnet must not
be used in the DCN for public
addresses
FSP
FSP
FCM
FTM
IPV4 router
DCN
LMP
Flexi BTS
internal
LAN

FlexiBTS Control &


Multiplexing
Flexi
Transport
Module
12 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
RNC IP Address Planning
IP addressing can be based on
network topology.
Depending on available address
ranges e.g. a /19 range could be
reserved per RNC.
/19 subnet has max. 2046 subnets
and max. 8192 hosts.
This results in 448 /28 subnets or
BTSs.
A0001
A0002
A0003
A0004
A0005
A0006
A0007
A0008
A0009
A0010
A0011
A0012
A0013
A0014
A0015
A0016
A0017 A0018
A0019
A0020
A0021
A0022
A0023
A0024
A0025
A0026
A0027
A0028
A0029
A0030
A0031
A0032
A0033
A0034
A0035
A0036
A0037
A0038
A0039
A0040
A0041
A0042
A0043
RNC001
A0045
AXC
AXC
AXC
IU
IU
IU
IU
AXC
IU
IU
IU
A
IU
IU
IU
A
IU
IU
AXC
IU
AXC
IU
IU
IU
IU
IU
IU
AXC
IU
A
A
AXC
AXC
IU
AXC
IU
IU
AXC
IU
AXC
AXC
AXC
AXC
AXC
AXC
AXC
AXC
AXC
AXC
AXC
AXC
IU
AXC
ATM
IU
ATM
AXC
AXC
RNC
IU
AXC
AXC
AXC
AXC
AXC
AXC
AXC
IU
AXC
IU
IU
IU
AXC
IU
AXC
IU
AXC
IU
IU
AXC
AXC
IU
AXC
AXC
AXC
IU
IU
IU
IU
AXC
IU
IU
IU IU
IU
IU
A
IU
IU
IU
IU
IU
AXC
IU
13 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
RAN DCN Topology Alternatives: Tree
IP: More complex IP topology as in Star topology
IP Planning: careful far-sighted IP planning
recommended to help for OSPF route
summarization
IP Routing: can be done automatically using
OSPF in the RNCs OMU (also in BTS starting
with AXC C2.1 sw!)
IP Resources: only few routing entries in AXC
and RNC
ATM: Simple preconfigured topology
ATM Planning not needed: default VPI/VCI
values can be used, no cross-connects needed
to be planned for
ATM configuring not needed: preconfigured
VPI/VCI (from the planning guideline) values can
be used, no ATM cross-connects to be
configured
ATM Resources minimised: no ATM cross-
connects in AXC or RNC
Tree topology
Physical
connection
ATM
connection
= logical IP
connection
RNC
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
14 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
RAN DCN Topology Alternatives: Star
IP: Simpler IP topology as in Tree topology
IP Planning: simple IP address planning
IP Routing: simple in AXC, many routes in RNC, but
done automatically via OSPF
IP Resources: only 1 routing entry in AXC, but 1 per
BTS in RNC
ATM: More complex ATM topology as in Tree topology
ATM Planning: individual VPI/VCI per BTS to be
planned for cross-connects needed for all AXC on way
to RNC
ATM configuring: individual VPI/VCI to be configured
Before adding a new BTS, all the ATM cross-connects
between the new node and RNC needs to be updated.
ATM Resources: many ATM cross-connects in BTS,
many VPI/VCI ending in RNC
Star topology
Tree or Star? Compare OPEX (Operational expenses) estimations
BTS BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
Physical connection
ATM connection
= logical IP connection
RNC
BTS
BTS BTS
Note: Since RAS05 RNC supports 512 simultaneous IP over ATM connections (AA interfaces)
15 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
DCN Network Topology Alternatives
16 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
DCN Bandwidth Requirements
Nokia recommends an available DCN bandwidth of 64 kbit/s (~151 cps) per
BTS.
The network topology has an impact on how this is bandwidth is allocated.
In case all BTS DCN connection is a point to point in a star topology, then
this 64 kbit/s is speared from the control plane and user plane bandwidth
(configure all the CBR VCCs in a way that there is 64 kbit/s unallocated on
the Iub;
DCN bandwidth = Total Iub capacity (C-NBAP+D-
NBAP+AAL2SIG+AAL2UP)
In case there is DCN UBR VCC level cross connection, or intermediate IP
routing for the DCN traffic, the last mile should respect the above
recommendation, but the intermediate bandwidth, RNC-ATM switch, ATM
switch-ATM switch, etc should be left to an IP dimensioning based on
estimated DCN traffic.
Minor bandwidth savings with intermediate IP routing
Less configuration work with intermediate IP routing
17 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
IP DCN Example
NE-RNC-01
IP add :
10.10.0.0/24
OMU
10.10.0.1
AA1
EL0 10.10.0.2
NTP server
10.0.1.230
OSS IP net.
IP add : 10.100.0.16/28
AXC
10.100.0.25
MWAM
10.100.0.21
LMP
.27 LMT =
.26
.28 .29 .30
Use for 3
rd
party equipments
Subnet IP add :
10.100.0.24/29
NE-AXC-02
IP add : 10.100.0.0/28
ESA12
OMS
DNS_1 10.0.1.240
DNS_2 10.0.1.245
10.10.0.5
10.0.1.129
NetAct
AXC
10.100.0.9
MWAM
10.100.0.5
LMP
.11 LMT =
.10
.12 .13 .14
Use for 3
rd
party equipments
Subnet IP add :
10.100.0.8/29
NE-AXC-01
18 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
IP DCN Example
10.100.0.2
5
19 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
Example of Different Ultrasite BTS subnets for
DCN
If the unnumbered interface addressing is used,
all the AA interface will have the OMU-logical
address defined
Earlier DCN planning documents recommended an
addressing scheme like shown in left table because
AA-if subnet, MWAM subnet and LMP subnet had
to be separated. This is not valid anymore since
some releases ago. Therefore thetable above is
recommended to save IP addresses (network &
broadcast address)
20 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
IFUG Application Example
IFUG can be used to attach
external equipment on site
In Flexi BTS the LMP can be
attached with external Ethernet
hub to connect external
equipment on site
IP addresses via DHCP
straight cable
cross cable
fibre cable
21 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
Example of Flexi BTS subnet for DCN
Flexi IP addresses
TRS IP address, Subnet Mask, Default
Gateway
Addresses via DHCP
The DHCP is used to automatically
provide IP configuration parameters to
equipment or hosts connected to the
local management port (LMP) of the
BTS
DHCP parameters must be configured
on the transmission sub-module before
it responds to the DHCP clients
Should be part of the subnet defined by
the TRS IP address and Subnet Mask
BTS IP address
The BTS IP address has to be part of
the subnet defined by the TRS IP
address and Subnet Mask
RNC IP address
10.130.30.21
Free
10.130.30.20
Free
10.130.30.19
Free
10.130.30.18
Real Tilt
10.130.30.23
Broadcast
10.130.30.16
Subnet/29
10.130.30.22
BTS
10.130.30.17
TRS
Example Flexi BTS subnet
22 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
RAN IP Addressing cont.
In many cases, the operator has existing IP network. Some
addresses ranges (usually 10.n.n.n or 192.n.n.n) have been
already reserved and this reservation must be taken into
account during planning of 3G network.
Clear IP address plan for 3G network elements
Separate switches and RNCs from access part (e.g. BS)
If, for example, the 10.n.n.n addressing is used, the planners
can use the following recommendation:
10.0.0.0 10.0.255.255 Reserved for the backbone
10.1.0.0 10.9.255.255 Reserved for Core network (CS and PS)
10.10.0.0 10.99.255.255 Reserved for RNCs
10.100.0.0 10.199.255.255 Reserved for BS network
23 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
OSPF in AXC
24 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
OSPF in AXC for Routing
OSPF is a high level routing protocol
OSPF automates the exchange of routing information throughout a
network
no need to add manual routes
all devices know how to reach each other in the network
all devices configurations can as well affect all other devices
OSPF in BTS is available RAN04 onwards
AXC C2.1 or newer required
OSPF in RNC for DCN is totally independent from OSPF in RNC for Iu-PS
Benefits of OSPF:
Automatic calculation of the routing tables for all network elements in the DCN
No need for a manual configuration of routes
RNC receives automatically routing table information from new BTSs
AXC1 AXC2 AXC3
10.100.0.9 10.100.0.25 10.100.0.41
PtP link
PtP link
route
dest: 10.100.0.41
gw: 10.100.0.25
dest: 10.100.0.9
gw: 10.100.0.25
25 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
Purpose and Use
Easier configuration of even large DCN networks
no need to configure additional routes in AXC1 to reach AXCs beyond AXC2 via IP
Protection of DCN links (limited scope)
If link (a) fails link (b) is used to reach AXC5 from AXC2
Optimised use of memory possible when stub areas are configured
All AXCs are holding only one route (towards RNC) to be fully interconnected to all
devices in Area 0
AXC2
AXC6
AXC5
AXC4
AXC3
AXC7
AXC1
(a)
(b)
(b)
RNC
OSS
GGSN
SGSN
Area 0
Area 1
(Stub)
26 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
Configuration via AXC-Manager
1. Create OSPF area
2. Add DCN
interface
towards
next WBTS
in the chain
3. Add DCN
interface
towards
RNC
27 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
Limitations for OSPF in AXC
AXC in BTS does not support:
Propagation of static routes to OSPF
Configuration of Virtual Links
Authentication on its OSPF messages
OSPF to routers on the subnet connected to LMP
No OSPF messages are exchanged with routers on the LMP link (for
reasons of security) although the subnet might be advertised.
Other Routing Protocols, therefore it cannot be used as an
ASBR (autonomous system boundary router)
OSFP is not supported over numbered interfaces on BTS
O&M interfaces
28 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
OSPF areas example
In 3G OSPF is best used with tree
topology
General OSPF rules:
If a router is part
of multiple areas,
one of the areas has
to be the backbone
Routers in an area should
not be more than 50
ABR router in 3G networks
using OSPF is the RNC
BTS areas should be configured as
totally stub areas
Address allocation should be contiguous
to make route summarisation possible
Backbone
R
N
C
s
u
b
n
e
t
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
Area 501
IP 10.150.16.0/20
Area 500
IP 10.150.0.0/20
Area 50
IP 10.10.5.0/24
Area 0
RNC
29 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
Configuring DCN in RNC
30 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
Configuring IP for BTS O&M
1. Configure physical interfaces.
2. Create ATM resources (ATM interfaces, access profiles, VPLtps, VCLtps).
3. Create an IP over ATM interface towards BTS in OMU (QMF).
4. Assign IP addresses to the network interface (QRN).
5. Create static route for O&M connection towards BTS (QRC) or configure OSPF.
IP over ATM
interface
ATM
interface
VPI,
VCI
unnumbered
interface
Index skipped when
logical IP address
IP address,
logical
destination IP
address
State* no index
needed
MTU
size
OMU
index
destination IP
address
Default:
GW
Gateway address netmas
k
IP /
MAC
31 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
3. Required parameters for IPOAM in the RNC (1/2)
Parameters for IP over ATM interface:
unit type/Index
OMU and its index (0 or 1). For interface terminated on the logical address, skip index.
Logical/physical
L or P, This parameter defines whether IP over ATM interface is terminated to the logical
or physical address type of the unit. The possible parameter values are L for logical
address type and P for physical address type.
DCN connection is terminated on the logical OMU address.
IP interface
Its a unique name for the IP over ATM interface. It begins with 'AA' and continues with
numbers, for example AA0, AA1....
ATM interface if / VPI / VCI
Encapsulation method
LLC/SNAP or VCmux. The default value is LLC/SNAP.
Usage
The value can be IPOAUD, IPOART or IPOAM. The default value is IPOAM.
32 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
4. Required parameters for IPOAM in the RNC (2/2)
Parameters to assign IP address for the created AA interface
unit type/index
OMU and its index (0 or 1). For interface terminated on the logical address, skip index.
Interface name
Starts with AA
point to point interface type
N (Numbered Interface, unique IP address, default), U (Unnumbered interface, shares IP address)
IP address
The address of the OMU is specified in conventional dot notation (#.#.#.#).
IP address type
L (Logical IP address. This address belongs to the specified interface of the specified functional unit.
The logical IP address follows the active unit. The logical IP address can be given to 2N and N+1
units. In N+1 units you have to identify unit type and unit index. In 2N units you only have to identify
the unit type of the 2N unit; unit index is not needed)
P (Physical IP address). This address is assigned to the specified computer unit permanently.
destination IP address
The IP address of the point-to-point link. The address is specified in conventional dot notation
(#.#.#.#). The range for each part of the address is from 0 to 255.
MTU
The maximum transmittable size of a single, complete IP data unit. You can give MTU only for some
interfaces, for IP over ATM, the default value is 9180 byte.
33 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
5. Required parameters for IP static routes
The needed parameters for IP static routes are:
unit Type and Index
OMU,0 or OMU,1
destination IP address
netmask length
The length of the destination address netmask.
next hop type
GW Gateway. The default value.
IF Computer unit's own interface
Address Type:
IP address or MAC (Link level MAC address).
IP/MAC Address:
This is the address of the gateway.
34 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
DCN: Interface Configuration
1. Click Configuration TRS Configuration DCN Interfaces.
2. Click on New ATM DCN Interface.
4. Click Send to save changes.
Note: Interface, traffic descriptor and public IP address need to have been configured beforehand.
3. Configure all ATM Parameters using Pseudowire as ATM interface.
FTM
35 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
Pseudowire OAM: BFD Configuration #1
1. Click Configuration TRS Configuration ATM Over Ethernet.
2. Select ATM Over Ethernet Settings.
4. Click Send to save changes.
3. Set Control Word In Use.
FTM
36 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
Pseudowire OAM: BFD Configuration #2
5. Click Configuration TRS Configuration ATM Over Ethernet.
6. Select the required Pseudowire to setup BFD.
8. Click Send to save changes.
7. Take BFD Into Use.
FTM
37 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
Feature Description- IP Filtering
RAS06
AXC & FTM
Logical Exception Domains = Ruleset
TRS
LMP
subnet
BTS
Application
Manager
NetAct
RNC
RAN/DCN Node-B
TRS Ruleset
BTS Ruleset
Power Supply Monitor
Any 3
LMP Ruleset
Real Tilt
rd party equipment
Application Manager at Far-End is used for the management of the equipments
connected locally to the BTS/AXC.
38 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
Feature Description- IP Filtering
IP and Port based filtering is security feature designed to restrict access
of some hosts towards DCN while allowing other hosts at the same time.
The Filtering is done on IP addresses and IP ports (TCP/UDP ports)
level.
By default, traffic between LMP and DCN network is discarded and all
types of traffic between BTS/FTM and DCN network is allowed.
The filtering rules are classified into three Rulesets:
LMP Ruleset ..controls traffic between LMP subnet and DCN network
TRS Ruleset.. controls traffic between TRS and DCN network
BTS Ruleset.. controls traffic between BTS and DCN network
AXC & FTM
39 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
Feature Description- IP Filtering
The Near Endpoint IP address of each Ruleset is fixed.
LMP Ruleset LMP subnet (as a whole).
TRS Ruleset Public IP address of AXC/FTM.
BTS Ruleset Public IP address of the BTS.
The Far Endpoint IP addresses and Near and Far
Endpoint ports are configured by the user.
AXC & FTM
Allowed ports on the
LMP subnet
Allowed Far end IP
address/es
Allowed ports on the
Far End host
40 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
For internal use
Limitations of IP Filtering
Maximum rules that are allowed under each rule set is 32.
Port sequence configuration is not allowed in case of FTM.
AXC allows in total 10 ports in sequence form for both near
and far endpoint ports.
When Alias is used Far-end ports are fixed.
LMP rules are implied to whole LMP/TRS subnet
Enabling the Restricted Mode for LMP On deletes all rules
under LMP rule set.
ICMP tests (with ping or tracert) can be done only when
Wildcard rule is configured.
AXC & FTM