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Chai'. I. MECHANICS AND STATICS.

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Fig. 5i3.
fereiices, or as the raiiii, the velocity of \V will be to the velocity of P as CA to CB ; that
is, the weight is moved as much slower as it is heavier than the power. Hence, wliat is
gained in power is lost in time; a property common to machines and engines of every class.
1309. If the power do not act at right angleu to the radius CB, but obli(iiiely, draw
CD perpendicular to the direction of the power, then, from the nature of the lever,
p : W::CA : CD.
1310. It is to the mechanical power of the wheel and axle that belong all turning or
wheel machines of different radii ; thus, in the roller turning on the axis or spindle
CE (Jiy.553.)
by the handle CBD, the power
applied at B is to the weight W on the roller, as
the radius of ihe roller is to the radius CB of the
handle. The same rule applies to all cranes,
capstans, windlasses, &c. ;
the power always being
to the weight as is the radius or lever at which
the weight acts to that at which the power acts;
so that they are always in the reciprocal ratio
of their velocities. To the same principle are
referable the gimlet and auger for boring holes.
1311. The above observations imply that the
cords sustaining the weights are of no sensible
thickness. If they are of considerable thickness,
or if there he several folds of them over one an-
other on the roller or barrel, we must measure
to the middle of the outermost rope for
the radius of the roller, or to the radius of the roller must be added half the thickness of the
cord where there is but one fold.
131'J The power of the wheel and axle possesses considerable advantages in point o<
convenience over the simple lever. A weight can be raised but a little way by a simjile
lever, whereas by the continued turning of the wheel and axle a weiglit may be raised to
any height and from any deptli.
1313. By increasing the number of wheels, moreover, the j)ower may be increased to any
extent, making the less always
turn greater wheels, by means
of what is called tuuth and pinion
work, wherein the teeth of one
circumference work in the
rounds or pinions of another to
turn the wheel. In case, here,
of an equilibrium, the power is
to the weight as the continual
j)roduct of the radii of all the
axles to that of all the wheels.
So if the power P
(Jig. 554.)
turn the wheel Q, and this turn
the small wheel or axle R, and
this turn the wheel S, and this
turn the axle T, and this turn
the wheel V, and this turn the
axle X, which raises the weight
W; then P : W::CB. DE .
EG : AC . BD . EF. And in
'''"'
the same proportion is the velocity of W slower than that of P. Thus, if each wheel
i)e to its axle as 10 to 1, then P : W;;! '
: 10-', or as 1 to 1000. Hence a power of one
pound will balance a weight of 1000 pounds; but when j)ut in motion, the power will
move 1000 times faster than the weight.
1314. We do not think it necessary to give examples of the different machines for raising
weights used in the construction of buildings : they are not many, and will be hereafter
named and described.
OF THE rULLEY.
1315. A ])ulley ia a small wheel, usually made of wood or brass, turning about a metal
axis, and enclosed in a frame, or case, called its block, which admits of a rope to pass freelv
over the circumference of the pvdley, wherein there is usually a concave groove to prevent
the rope slipping out of its place. The pulley is said to be fixed or moveable as its block
is fixed or rises and falls with the weight. An assemblage of several })ulleys is called a
system of pulleys, of which some are in a fixed block and the rest in a moveable one.
1316. If a power sustain a weight by means of a fixed pulley, the power and weight are