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5/09/13

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Mech2700 Thermofluids

Energy and the 1
st
Law of
Thermodynamics
Work and Kinetic Energy
( )
!" !# \$
" # \$
Energy kinetic in change
2
1
2
2
work
2
1
F
2
1
v v m ds KE
s
s
! = = "
#
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Gravitational Potential Energy
) (
1 2
z z mg PE ! = "
g = 9.81 m / s
2
Unit of Energy
(oule) ] [
2
J m N m
s
m
kg z mg
N
= ! = ! ! = "
! " #
i.e. starting from potential gravitational energy
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Conservation of Energy in
Mechanics
Work in Thermodynamics

Work is done by a system on its surroundings if the sole effect on
everything external to the system could have been the raising of a
weight
!
=
2
1
s
s
Fds W
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Work in Thermodynamics
Sign convention IMPORTANT
W > 0 work done by the system
W < 0 work done on the system
Work depends on the process ! it is not a
property

(in contrast volume )

!
" #
2
1
1 2
W W W \$
1 2
2
1
V V dV
V
V
! =
"
Expansion or Compression
Work
! !
! ! !
= = =
2
1
2
1
2
1
s
s
V
V
dV
s
s
pA
pdV Ads p ds F W
Work is no
property!
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Expansion or Compression Work in
Quasiequilibrium process
Quasi equilibrium is a
simplification
(such as no friction)
Only infinitesimal
departure from equilibrium
All states belonging to the
process are considered
equilibrium states
Allows for the deduction
of relationships between
different properties,
i.e. p * V
n
= constant
(polytropic process)
Example
Expansion by a polytropic process p * V
n
= const.
(a) n = 1.5, (b) n = 1.0, (c) n = 0. Find work
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Power
!
=
" =
2
1
v F
t
t
dt W W
W
!
!
Unit: J/s = W(att)
Further Examples of Work
Extension of a solid
bar
Stretching of a liquid
film
!
" = Adx W #
!
!
" = dx A W
F
#
!
" = dA W #
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Further Examples of Work
Power transmitted by a shaft
M = Torque, ! = angular velocity, rad / s
Electric Power
i = electric current, " = electrical
potential difference
! M v F W
t
= =
!
i W ! " =
!
Internal Energy
Energy is stored in the system

we distinguish
Kinetic Energy
Gravitational Potential Energy
Internal Energy
Symbol U, Unit J(oule)
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Energy Balance
! ! ! !
energy pot. grav. in Change energy kinetic in Change energy internal in Change energy in total Change
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
) ( ) ( ) (
PE KE U E
PE PE KE KE U U E E
! + ! + ! = !
" + " + " = "
Energy Transfer by Heat
No work but internal energy increases!
Result of temperature gradient
In the direction of the lower temperature
Symbol Q, Unit J(oule)
Sign convention
Q > 0 to the system
Q < 0 from the system
(opposite of work!)

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Heat
Heat is not a property (i.e. depends on the
process, like work)

Rate of heat transfer

Heat flux

Adiabatic process " no heat transfer
!
= dt Q Q
!
!
=
A
dA q Q !
!
Heat Transfer modes
Thermal conduction
Fouriers law
Stefan-Boltzmann law
Convection
Newtons law of cooling
dx
dT
q
A
Q
! " = = !
!
4
T
A
Q
!" =
!
) (
f b
T T h
A
Q
! =
!
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Net exchange between small surface A and
large surroundings
Stefan Boltzmann constant # = 5.67 x 10
-8
W / (m
2
K
4
)
( )
4 4
s b
e
T T
A
Q
! ="#
!
Example 2.43
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Energy Balance for Closed
Systems
Remember

Now: including concepts of work and heat
(sign convention: +Q in the system, +W out of the system!)
PE KE U E
PE PE KE KE U U E E
! + ! + ! = !
" + " + " = " ) ( ) ( ) (
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
W Q PE KE U E
W Q E E
! = " + " + " = "
! = !
1 2
Net ammounts!
Energy Balance for Closed
Systems
Time Rate Form of Energy Balance

all rates are net rates!

Remember: heat and work are means of
energy transport. Only energy can be
transferred or stored

W Q
dt
dE
! !
! =
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Calorimeter
Example
Cooling of gas in a piston-cylinder assembly
m
Gas
= 0.4 kg, p
initial
= 3 bar, V
initial
= 0.1 m
3
, V
final
= 0.2 m
3

? Determine the net heat transfer for the process, in kJ
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A system is at steady state if non of its
properties change with time

! !E = 0

W Q
! !
=
Cycle Energy Balance
System reaches same state after each
complete cycle ! !E = W Q = 0

Remark: in sketches,
energy flows are
positive in the
direction of arrows
cycle cycle
W Q =
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Power Cycle
System undergoing power cycles deliver a net
transfer of energy by work
Thermal efficiency (we aim to maximize W and
minimise Qin)
out in cycle
cycle cycle
Q Q W
W Q
! = "
=
1 1 ! " =
"
= =
in
out
in
out in
in
cycle
Q
Q
Q
Q Q
Q
W
#
Refrigeration and Heat Pump
Cycles
System requires work to transfer thermal energy
Refrigeration cycle (aim is to maximize Q
in
); coefficient of performance
Heat pump cycle (aim is to maximize Q
out
); coefficient of performance
in out cycle
cycle cycle
Q Q W
W Q
! = "
=
in out
in
cycle
in
Q Q
Q
W
Q
!
= = "
in out
out
cycle
out
Q Q
Q
W
Q
!
= = "
Important:
\$, % must be > 1,
aim is to maximise both
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Example
Example
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Mech2700 Thermofluids

Evaluating Properties