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Cap. I.


to the square root of the smaller area. Let, for instance, the
larger area 1156, and that of the smaller, to wliiL-li the figure
IS to be reduced, =529. Draw an indefinite line, on wliicli
make AB
34, the square root of 1156. Lastly, from the
point A, as a centre, having described an indefinite arc, with a
lensjth equal to the S(]uare root 23 of 529, set out Bt/ ; through
draw kq, which will be the angle. of reduction (/A 15, by means
"of which the figure maybe reduced, transferring all the niea- "
sures of the larger area to the line AD, with which arcs are
fik. 503.
to be described whose chords will be the sides sought.
1523. ]f it be not recjuired to reduce but to describe a figure whose area and form art
given, we must make a large diagram of any area larger than tiiat sought, and then
reduce it.
1524. Tlie circle, as we have alreadv observed in a jirevious suiisection (933.), being but
apolvo-on of an infinite number of sides, it would follow that a circular enclosure would be
stible with an iniiuitelv small thickness of wall. This property may be easily demonstrated
by a verv simple experiment. Take, for instance, a sheet of paper, which would not easily
be made to stand while extended to its full length, but the moment it is bent into the form
of a cvlinder it ac(iuires a stability, though its thickness be not a thousandth part of its
1525. But as walls must have a certain thickness to acquire stability, inasmuch as
thev are composed of particles susceptible of separation, we may consider a circular en-
closure as a regidar polygon of twelve sides, and determine its thickness by the preceding
process. Or, to render the operation more simple, find the thickness of a straight wall
whose length is ecjual to one half the radius.
1526. Suppose, for example, a circular space of 56 ft. diaineter and 18 ft. high, and
the thickness of the wall be re(iuired. Describe the rectangle A BCD
594.), whose
base is equal to half the radius, that is, 14 ft., and whose height AB is 18 ft. ; then,
drawing the diagonal BD, make Bti e(iual to the ninth ])ari of the height, that is, 2 ft.
Through d draw ad parallel to the base, and its length will represent the thickness sought,
which is 1
1527. By calculation. Add the square of the heisjht to ih:it of half tlie radius, that is,
of lg_,324, and of 14=196 (
520). Then extract the s(|nare root of 520, which will be
found =i2-8, and this wi'l be the value of the diagonal B D. Then we have the follow-
proportion : 2^-8 : 14 :: 2 ft.
the height) :
1528. The exterior wall of the church of St. Sttfuno Botondo at Rome (Temjile of
Claudius) incloses a site 198 feet diameter. The Mall, which is coutructed of rubble
niasonry faced with bricks, is 2ft. 4 in. (French) thick, and 22^ ft. high. Li aj)-
plving to it the preceding rule, we shall find the diagonal of the rectangle, whose base
would be the side of a polygon, equal to half the radius and 221 ft. high, would be
49,^ +
221 X 22^
Then, using the proportion 54-37; 49-5:: H?i
: 2ft.
3 in. and 4 lines, the thickness sought, instead of 2 ft. 4 in., the actual thickness. We
mav as well mention in this place that a circle encloses the greatest quantity of area
with the least (juantity of walling ; and of polygons, those with a greater number of sides
more than those with a lesser: the proportion of the wall in the circle being 31416 to an
area of 78540000 ;
whilst in a stjuare, for the same area, a length of wall equal to 35448
would be re(juired. As the square falls away to a flat parallelogram, say one whose sides
are half as great, and the others double the length of those of the square, or 17724 by 4431,
in which the area will be about 78540000, as before
we have in such a case a length of
walling =44310.
On the Thickness
Walls in Eaildings nut vaulted.
1529. The walls of a building are usually connected and stiffened by the timbers of the
roof, supposing that to be well constructed. Some of the larger edifices, such as the
ancient basilica; at Rome, have no other covering but the rot)f ; others have only a simple
ceiling under the roof; whereas, in palaces and other habitations, there are sometimes two
or more floors introduced in the roof.
1530. We will begin with those edifices covered with merely a roof of carpentry, which
are, after mere walls of enclosure, the most smiple.
1531. Among edifices of this species, there are some with continued points of support,
such as those wherein the walls are connected and mutually support each otlier
; others in
A-hich the points of support are not connected with each other, such as piers, columns, and
pilasters, united only by arcades which spring from them.
1532. When the caruentry forming the roof of an editiee is of great extent, instead of
being injurious to the stability of the walls or points of siqiport, it is useful in keeping lliiiu