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Human Emotions in Robots Presentation By Riya Maitra MSc. Instrumentation Sc. 2 nd year 1
Human Emotions in Robots Presentation By Riya Maitra MSc. Instrumentation Sc. 2 nd year 1
Human Emotions in Robots
Presentation By
Riya Maitra
MSc. Instrumentation Sc.
2 nd year 1 st sem
 The word robot comes from the Slavic word robota, which means labor.  A
 The word robot comes from the
Slavic word robota, which
means labor.
 A robot is a mechanical or
virtual agent, usually an
electro-mechanical machine
that is guided by a computer
program or electronic circuitry
and ranging from industrial to
humanoids and even
microscopic nano robots. By
mimicking a lifelike
appearance or automating
movements, a robot may
convey a sense of intelligence
or thought of its own.
 Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design , construction, operation,

Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the

design, construction, operation,

and application of robots, as well

as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing.

These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behavior, and/or cognition.

Many of today's robots are

inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics.

cognition.  Many of today's robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired
cognition.  Many of today's robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired
cognition.  Many of today's robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired
cognition.  Many of today's robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired
cognition.  Many of today's robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired
 Throughout history, robotics has been often seen to mimic human behavior, and often manage

Throughout history, robotics has been often seen

to mimic human behavior, and often manage

tasks in a similar fashion. Today, robotics is a

rapidly growing field, as technological advances

continue, research, design, and building new

robots serve various practical purposes, whether

domestically, commercially, or militarily. Many

robots do jobs that are hazardous to people such

as defusing bombs, mines and exploring shipwrecks.

militarily. Many  robots do jobs that are hazardous to people such as defusing bombs, mines
militarily. Many  robots do jobs that are hazardous to people such as defusing bombs, mines
militarily. Many  robots do jobs that are hazardous to people such as defusing bombs, mines
militarily. Many  robots do jobs that are hazardous to people such as defusing bombs, mines
 The concept of creating machines that can operate autonomously dates back to classical times,

The concept of creating machines that can operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow substantially until the 20th century.

The idea of automata was given in third century B.C. and earlier. It has achieved rapid growth in 20 th century and it has achieved much more within beginning of 21 st century.

rapid growth in 20 t h century and it has achieved much more within beginning of
rapid growth in 20 t h century and it has achieved much more within beginning of
rapid growth in 20 t h century and it has achieved much more within beginning of
rapid growth in 20 t h century and it has achieved much more within beginning of
rapid growth in 20 t h century and it has achieved much more within beginning of
 1. Power Source: At present mostly (lead-acid) batteries are used as a power source.
1. Power Source: At present mostly
(lead-acid) batteries are used as a
power source. Many different types of
batteries can be used as a
power source for robots.
Potential power sources could be:
pneumatic (compressed gases)
• hydraulics (liquids)
• flywheel energy storage
• organic garbage (through anaerobic
digestion)
• faeces (human, animal); may be
interesting in a military context as
faeces of small combat groups may be
reused for the energy requirements
of the robot assistant.
Power sources used
as faeces of small combat groups may be reused for the energy requirements of the robot
as faeces of small combat groups may be reused for the energy requirements of the robot
as faeces of small combat groups may be reused for the energy requirements of the robot
as faeces of small combat groups may be reused for the energy requirements of the robot

2.Sensors: Sensors allow robots to receive information about a certain measurement of the environment, or internal

components. This is essential for robots to perform their tasks, and

act upon any changes in the environment to calculate the

appropriate response. They are used for various forms of measurements, to give the robots warnings about safety or malfunctions, and to provide real time information of the task it is performing.

give the robots warnings about safety or malfunctions, and to provide real time information of the

3.Actuators:

Actuators are like the "muscles" of a robot, the parts which convert

stored energy into movement. By far

the most popular actuators are electric motors that spin a wheel or gear, and linear actuators that

control industrial robots in factories. But there are some recent

advances in alternative types of actuators, powered by electricity,

chemicals, or compressed air.

Most commonly used actuators are-

Electric motors , Linear actuators, series elastic actuators, Piezo motors, Elastic nanotubes etc.

actuators, Piezo motors, E l a s t i c n a n o t u
actuators, Piezo motors, E l a s t i c n a n o t u
actuators, Piezo motors, E l a s t i c n a n o t u
actuators, Piezo motors, E l a s t i c n a n o t u
actuators, Piezo motors, E l a s t i c n a n o t u
Actuators in a Robotic leg
Actuators in a Robotic leg
Control of a robot to perform a task
Control of a robot to perform a task
Perception Processing Action Sensors give Information is Signals are information then then received about the
Perception
Processing
Action
Sensors give
Information is
Signals are
information
then
then received
about the
environment
or the robot
itself
processed to
calculate the
appropriate
signals
by actuators
which move
the
mechanical
or the robot itself processed to calculate the appropriate signals by actuators which move the mechanical
or the robot itself processed to calculate the appropriate signals by actuators which move the mechanical
or the robot itself processed to calculate the appropriate signals by actuators which move the mechanical
or the robot itself processed to calculate the appropriate signals by actuators which move the mechanical
 There are several types of robots. Some of the types of modern robots
There are several types of robots. Some of the types of modern robots

are:

types of robots. Some of the types of modern robots are: Mobile robots: Mobile robots have

Mobile robots: Mobile robots have the capability to move around in their environment and are not fixed to one physical location.

environment and are not fixed to one physical location. Ex.-i-foot, developed by Toyota. Industrial robots: An

Ex.-i-foot, developed by Toyota.

to one physical location. Ex.-i-foot, developed by Toyota. Industrial robots: An automatically controlled,

Industrial robots: An automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose, manipulator programmable in three or more axes, which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation applications. Ex.-HRP-3 PROMET Mk-II, manufactured by Kawada Industries, designed by Yutaka Izubuchi.

by Kawada Industries, designed by Yutaka Izubuchi. Modular robots: Modular robots are a new breed of
by Kawada Industries, designed by Yutaka Izubuchi. Modular robots: Modular robots are a new breed of
by Kawada Industries, designed by Yutaka Izubuchi. Modular robots: Modular robots are a new breed of

Modular robots: Modular robots are a new breed of robots that are designed to increase the utilization of the robots by modularizing the

robots.

the utilization of the robots by modularizing the robots. Humanoid entertainment robots : Ex: ASIMO, manufactured
the utilization of the robots by modularizing the robots. Humanoid entertainment robots : Ex: ASIMO, manufactured

Humanoid entertainment robots: Ex: ASIMO, manufactured by Honda; QRIO, by Sony

Androids: Androids are robots designed to strongly resemble humans. Ex: Hanako, a humanoid robot designed for dentist training.

Androids are robots designed to strongly resemble humans. Ex: Hanako, a humanoid robot designed for dentist
Androids are robots designed to strongly resemble humans. Ex: Hanako, a humanoid robot designed for dentist
Animal(four legged) robots: Ex: AIBO is a commercial robotic dog manufactured by Sony Electronics. Rescue
Animal(four legged) robots: Ex: AIBO is a commercial robotic dog manufactured by Sony Electronics. Rescue

Animal(four legged) robots: Ex: AIBO is a commercial robotic dog manufactured by Sony Electronics.

a commercial robotic dog manufactured by Sony Electronics. Rescue robots : Ex: T-53 Enryu, manufactured by
a commercial robotic dog manufactured by Sony Electronics. Rescue robots : Ex: T-53 Enryu, manufactured by
a commercial robotic dog manufactured by Sony Electronics. Rescue robots : Ex: T-53 Enryu, manufactured by
a commercial robotic dog manufactured by Sony Electronics. Rescue robots : Ex: T-53 Enryu, manufactured by

Rescue robots: Ex: T-53 Enryu, manufactured by TMSUK.

Rescue robots : Ex: T-53 Enryu, manufactured by TMSUK. Guard robots: Ex: Banryu, manufactured by Sanyo
Rescue robots : Ex: T-53 Enryu, manufactured by TMSUK. Guard robots: Ex: Banryu, manufactured by Sanyo

Guard robots: Ex: Banryu, manufactured by Sanyo and TMSUK.

Guard robots: Ex: Banryu, manufactured by Sanyo and TMSUK. Social robots: Ex: PaPeRo; Paro, a robot

Social robots: Ex: PaPeRo; Paro, a robot baby seal intended for

therapeutic purposes

Paro, a robot baby seal intended for therapeutic purposes Mining robots: Mining robots are designed to

Mining robots: Mining robots are designed to help counteract a number of challenges currently facing the mining industry, including skills shortages, improving productivity from declining ore grades,

and achieving environmental targets.

declining ore grades, and achieving environmental targets.  Research robots: While most robots today are installed

Research robots:
Research robots:

While most robots today are installed in factories or homes, performing labour or life saving jobs, many new types of robot are being developed in laboratories around the world.

performing labour or life saving jobs, many new types of robot are being developed in laboratories

Collaborative robots: A collaborative robot or Cobot is a robot that can safely and effectively interact with human workers in performance of simple industrial tasks. Ex: Boxter

k ers in performance of simple industrial tasks. Ex: Boxter   Military robots: Military robots
 
performance of simple industrial tasks. Ex: Boxter   Military robots: Military robots include the SWORDS

Military robots: Military robots include the SWORDS robot which is currently used in ground-based combat. It can use a variety of weapons and there is some discussion of giving it some degree of

autonomy in battleground situations.

use a var i ety of weapons and there is some discussion of giving it some
Rescue robot Various types of robots AIBO (animal robot) ASIMO humanoid entertainment robot
Rescue robot
Rescue robot
Various types of robots
Various types of robots
Rescue robot Various types of robots AIBO (animal robot) ASIMO humanoid entertainment robot
AIBO (animal robot)
AIBO (animal robot)
ASIMO humanoid entertainment robot
ASIMO humanoid entertainment robot
Mining robot Social robot Industrial robot Robot soldiers
Mining robot
Mining robot
Social robot
Social robot
Mining robot Social robot Industrial robot Robot soldiers
Industrial robot
Industrial robot
Mining robot Social robot Industrial robot Robot soldiers
Robot soldiers
Robot soldiers
 Artificial intelligence ( AI ) is technology and a branch of  computer science

Artificial intelligence (AI) is technology and a branch of

computer science that studies and develops intelligent machines and software.

The field was founded on the claim that a central ability of humans, intelligencethe sapience of

Homo sapienscan be so

precisely described that it can be simulated by a machine.

— the sapience of Homo sapiens — can b e so prec i se l y
— the sapience of Homo sapiens — can b e so prec i se l y
— the sapience of Homo sapiens — can b e so prec i se l y
— the sapience of Homo sapiens — can b e so prec i se l y
— the sapience of Homo sapiens — can b e so prec i se l y
 A humanoid robot is a robot with its body shape built to resemble that
A humanoid robot is a robot with its body
shape built to resemble that of the human
body. A humanoid design might be for
functional purposes, such as interacting with
human tools and environments, for
experimental purposes, such as the study of
bipedal locomotion, or for other purposes. In
general, humanoid robots have a torso, a
head, two arms, and two legs, though some
forms of humanoid robots may model only
part of the body, for example, from the waist
up. Some humanoid robots may also have
heads designed to replicate human facial
features such as eyes and mouths. Androids
are humanoid robots built to aesthetically
resemble humans.
human facial features such as eyes and mouths. Androids are humanoid robots built to aesthetically resemble
human facial features such as eyes and mouths. Androids are humanoid robots built to aesthetically resemble
human facial features such as eyes and mouths. Androids are humanoid robots built to aesthetically resemble
human facial features such as eyes and mouths. Androids are humanoid robots built to aesthetically resemble
 Though humanoids don't yet have some features of the human body. They include structures

Though humanoids don't yet have some features of the human body. They include structures with variable flexibility, which provide safety (to the robot itself and to the people), and redundancy of movements, i.e. more degrees of freedom and therefore wide task availability.

In earlier days, robots were designed to perform only some laborious , hazardous works only and those had no such

some laborious , hazardous works only and those had no such intelligence. But in case of

intelligence. But in case of humanoid

robots, scientists succeeded to implement

artificial intelligence and also some artificial emotions and they can interact with human.

succeeded to implement artificial intelligence and also some artificial emotions and they can interact with human.
succeeded to implement artificial intelligence and also some artificial emotions and they can interact with human.
succeeded to implement artificial intelligence and also some artificial emotions and they can interact with human.
succeeded to implement artificial intelligence and also some artificial emotions and they can interact with human.
succeeded to implement artificial intelligence and also some artificial emotions and they can interact with human.
 If robots are to work effectively in homes and other
If robots are to work effectively in homes and other

non-industrial environments, the way they are

instructed to perform their jobs, and especially

how they will be told to stop will be of critical importance. The people who interact with them may

have little or no training in robotics, and so any

interface will need to be extremely intuitive. Science fiction authors also typically assume

that robots will eventually be capable of communicating with humans through

speech, gestures, and facial expressions, rather than a command-line interface.

of communicating with humans through  speech, gestures, and facial expressions, rather than a command-line interface.
of communicating with humans through  speech, gestures, and facial expressions, rather than a command-line interface.
of communicating with humans through  speech, gestures, and facial expressions, rather than a command-line interface.
of communicating with humans through  speech, gestures, and facial expressions, rather than a command-line interface.

Robots interact with human in following ways:

Robots interact with human in following ways: 1. Touch : Current robotic and prosthetic hands receive

1.Touch: Current robotic and prosthetic hands receive far less tactile information than the human hand. Recent research has developed a tactile sensor array that mimics the mechanical properties and touch receptors of human

fingertips.
fingertips.

2.Vision: Computer vision is the science and technology of machines that see. As a scientific discipline, computer vision is concerned with the theory behind

artificial systems that extract information from images. The image data can take many forms, such as video sequences and views from

cameras.

that extract information from images. The image data can take many forms, such as video sequences
that extract information from images. The image data can take many forms, such as video sequences
 3.Speech recognition: Though i t becomes harder when the speaker has a different accent,


3.Speech recognition: Though it becomes harder when the speaker has a different accent, currently, the best systems can recognize continuous, natural

speech, up to 160 words per

minute, with an accuracy of

95%.

speech, up to 160 words per minute, with an accuracy of 95%.  4.Robotic voice :

4.Robotic voice : For social reasons, synthetic voice proves

suboptimal as a communication

medium, making it necessary to develop the emotional component of robotic voice through various techniques.



5.Gestures: It is likely that

gestures will make up a part of

the interaction between humans and robots . A great many systems have been developed to recognize human hand gestures.

of the interaction between humans and robots . A great many systems have been developed to

 6.Facial expression: A robot should know how to approach a human, judging by their facial

6.Facial expression: A robot should know how to approach a human, judging by their facial expression

and body language.

Whether the person is happy, frightened, or crazy- looking affects the type of

interaction expected of the

robot. Likewise, robots like

Kismet and the more recent addition, Nexi can produce a range of facial expressions, allowing it to have

meaningful social exchanges

with humans.

addition, Nexi can produce a range of facial expressions, allowing it to have meaningful social exchanges
addition, Nexi can produce a range of facial expressions, allowing it to have meaningful social exchanges
addition, Nexi can produce a range of facial expressions, allowing it to have meaningful social exchanges
addition, Nexi can produce a range of facial expressions, allowing it to have meaningful social exchanges
addition, Nexi can produce a range of facial expressions, allowing it to have meaningful social exchanges
 7. Artificial emotions:
 7. Artificial emotions:

Artificial emotions can also be generated,

composed of a sequence

of facial expressions and/or gestures.

 8.Personality:
8.Personality:

Researchers are trying to

create robots which appear to have a personality , i.e. they use sounds, facial

expressions, and body

language to try to convey an internal state , which

may be joy, sadness, or

fear.

use sounds, facial expressions, and body language to try to convey an internal state , which
use sounds, facial expressions, and body language to try to convey an internal state , which
use sounds, facial expressions, and body language to try to convey an internal state , which
use sounds, facial expressions, and body language to try to convey an internal state , which
use sounds, facial expressions, and body language to try to convey an internal state , which
 Various techniques have emer g ed to develo p the science of robotics and

Various techniques have emerged to develop the science of robotics and

robots. One method is evolutionary robotics, in which a number of

differing robots are submitted to tests. Those which perform best are used as a model to create a subsequent "generation" of robots. Another method is developmental robotics, which tracks changes and development within a single robot in the areas of problem-solving and other

functions.Cooperation between robots with different capabilities is one of

aspects which can influence on the future of robotics. In this situation coordination is an important factor which must be take to account for making a robust behavior for each robot.

Projected robotics timeline:

2015-2020 - every South Korean and many European households will have a robot, The Ministry of Information and Communication (South Korea),

2007

2018 - robots will routinely carry out surgery, South Korea government

2007

2022 - intelligent robots that sense their environment, make decisions, and learn are used in 30% of households and organizations - TechCast

2030 - robots capable of performing at human level at most manual jobs Marshall Brain

2034 - robots (home automation systems) performing most household tasks,

2050 - robot "brains" based on computers that execute 100 trillion instructions per second will start rivaling human intelligence

2015 - one third of US fighting strength will be composed of robots - US Department of Defense, 2006

2035 - first completely autonomous robot soldiers in operation - US Department of Defense, 2006

Developments related to robotics from the Japan NISTEP 2030 report :

2013-2014 agricultural robots

2013-2017 robots that care for the elderly

2017 medical robots performing low-invasive surgery

2017-2019 household robots with full use.

2019-2021 Nanorobots

p erforming low-invasive surgery  2017-2019 — household robots with full use.  2019-2021 — Nanorobots
p erforming low-invasive surgery  2017-2019 — household robots with full use.  2019-2021 — Nanorobots
p erforming low-invasive surgery  2017-2019 — household robots with full use.  2019-2021 — Nanorobots
p erforming low-invasive surgery  2017-2019 — household robots with full use.  2019-2021 — Nanorobots
According to research commissioned by the UK Office of Science and Innovation's Horizon Scanning Centre,
According to research commissioned by the UK Office of Science and Innovation's Horizon Scanning Centre,
According to research
commissioned by the UK Office of
Science and Innovation's Horizon
Scanning Centre, robots could one
day demand the same citizen's
rights as humans. The study also
warns that the rise of robots could
put a strain on resources and the
environment. Even this technology
can be misused for destructive
works also (which is a threat to us).
and the environment. Even this technology can be misused for destructive works also (which is a
and the environment. Even this technology can be misused for destructive works also (which is a
To know more…. Google search is the best option….
To know more….
Google search is
the best option….