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ASTRIX 5 – Radio Planning Tools White Paper Version 1.0
ASTRIX 5 – Radio Planning Tools White Paper Version 1.0
ASTRIX 5 – Radio Planning Tools White Paper Version 1.0
ASTRIX 5 – Radio Planning Tools White Paper Version 1.0
ASTRIX 5 – Radio Planning Tools White Paper Version 1.0
ASTRIX 5 – Radio Planning Tools White Paper Version 1.0

ASTRIX 5 – Radio Planning Tools

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

2 ASTRIX RADIO PLANNING PRODUCT FEATURES

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Seamless map handling

2.3 Antenna modelling

2.4 Propagationloss predictions

2.5 Automatic propagation model tuning tool

2.6 Efficient processing

2.6.1 Multithreading Support

2.6.2 Multiple resolution coverage files

2.6.3 Official coverage files

2.6.4 Raster export of calculated layers

2.7 Flags and filters

2.8 Combined coverage

2.9 Neighbours relations management

2.10 Automatic neighbourhood planning tool

2.11 Interference analysis

2.11.1 Cell/Channel selection

2.11.2 Hopping/Non-hopping

2.12 Interference matrix calculation

2.13 Measurement analysis tool

2.14 Statistics module

2.15 Traffic analysis

2.16 Dual-band functionality

3 ASTRIX 3G PLANNER (UMTS)

3.1 Introduction

3.2 UMTS calculations

3.3 UMTS simulator tool

4 ASTRIX 4G PLANNER (LTE)

4.1 Introduction

4.2 LTE calculations

5 ASTRIX FREQUENCY PLANNER (AFP)

6 ASTRIX OPTIMIZER (ACP)

6.1 Analysis

6.2 Optimisation

7 RADIO LINK TOOL 7.1 Functional overview

8 DOCUMENTATION

9 QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CONFIGURATION CONTROL

10 COMPANY INFORMATION

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INTRODUCTION ASTRIX Radio Planning system is essential for efficient planning, maintenance and optimisation of cellular radio networks. ASTRIX has been developed by Teleplan Globe, who is an independent supplier of software solutions.

The main modules of the ASTRIX software are as follows:

• ASTRIX Radio Planner. Main module for the ASTRIX solutions package for network planning. The main user interface is the geographical map of the planning area with the network elements presented.

• ASTRIX 2G Planner (GSM). This is the module where 1G and 2G radio planning operations and calculations are performed. The ASTRIX 2G module is needed for composite calculations.

• ASTRIX 3G Planner (UMTS): This UMTS module allows for planning of 3G networks, and simultaneous views of e.g. GSM networks and UMTS networks. This allows the user to plan mixed mode networks, to have data consistency across the networks, to plan with site re-use and to optimise network performance.

• ASTRIX 4G Planner (LTE). This LTE module allows for planning of 4G networks and simultaneous views of e.g. GSM, UMTS and LTE networks.

• ASTRIX Propagation model tuning. Automatic tuning of propagation models based on live measurements and the installed mapping data. In addition to a automated model tuning tool, a correction layer tool is included in the module for optimum coverage predictions within each cell’s dominance area.

• ASTRIX Frequency Planner (AFP). This Automatic Frequency Planning module allows for advanced automated frequency planning processes. The tool is based on the Telenor R&D developed optimisation algorithm for Automatic Frequency Assignments.

• ASTRIX Optimizer (ACP). With the ASTRIX Optimisation Module, time spent on fine tuning antennas azimuth, tilts and power parameters for best possible coverage and quality, is reduced to a minimum by Automatic Cell Planning (ACP) features.

• ASTRIX Radio Link (RLT). This module is used for planning microwave networks. The user interface is the same as for the ASTRIX Radio Coverage, but the functionality is tailored to radio link planning requirements of mobile communication operators.

ASTRIX Modules

Te chnology Module GSM UMTS WiMax TETRA Microwave Point to Point ASTRIX Basic ASTRIX Professional
Te chnology
Module
GSM
UMTS
WiMax
TETRA
Microwave Point to Point
ASTRIX Basic
ASTRIX Professional
3G Planner
4G Planner
ASTRIX Frequency Planner (AFP)
ASTRIX Optimiser (ACP)
Radio Link Tool

2

ASTRIX RADIO PLANNING PRODUCT FEATURES

2.1

INTRODUCTION

ASTRIX has all the functionality of an advanced radio planning tool. GSM functionality is an integrated part of the ASTRIX 2G module and allows simultaneous view of e.g. GSM900/1800 networks and UMTS networks. This allows the user to plan mixed-mode networks, to have data consistency across the networks and to plan with site re-use.

across the networks and to plan with site re-use. Figure 1 ASTRIX main window 2.2 SEAMLESS

Figure 1 ASTRIX main window

2.2 SEAMLESS MAP HANDLING

ASTRIX uses an integrated GIS (Geographical Information System) as the basis for map handling. The GIS system provides advanced map features for best possible views and management of maps. The GIS system supports dynamic map resolution and various map formats.

The solution is designed to avoid the large growth of coverage file sizes when working with high-resolution map data (less than 1m). The calculation efficiency and storage of coverage files are optimised to minimize storage files and speed up the handling of large amount of coverage data.

and speed up the handling of large amount of coverage data. Figure 2 Examples of ASTRIX
and speed up the handling of large amount of coverage data. Figure 2 Examples of ASTRIX
and speed up the handling of large amount of coverage data. Figure 2 Examples of ASTRIX

Figure 2 Examples of ASTRIX map layers

The following map layers are supported:

• Raster/grid ground heights

• Raster/grid morphology

• Vector/linear features

• Ortho photo

• Raster/grid building heights

• 3D vector of building foot-prints and heights

• Demographic data

2.3 ANTENNA MODELLING

The effect of the physical environment on the antenna radiation patterns is a neglected part of many radio planning tools. ASTRIX takes into account a number of antenna issues:

• ASTRIX handles mechanical tilt and/or electrical tilt correctly in side and back lobes.

• Mast concept, with the possibility to have antennas at a position other than the site position

side and back lobes. • Mast concept, with the possibility to have antennas at a position

• Measured side lobes and back lobes

• Effects of wall mounting on the back-lobe

and back lobes • Effects of wall mounting on the back-lobe • True over-the-roof propagation angles

• True over-the-roof propagation angles in urban areas

• True over-the-roof propagation angles in urban areas ASTRIX provides full flexibility for creating, editing and

ASTRIX provides full flexibility for creating, editing and modelling of antenna elements and combined antenna structures.

of antenna elements and combined antenna structures. 2.4 PROPAGATION LOSS PREDICTIONS The default propagation
of antenna elements and combined antenna structures. 2.4 PROPAGATION LOSS PREDICTIONS The default propagation

2.4 PROPAGATION LOSS PREDICTIONS

The default propagation model in ASTRIX is based on industry standards: Okumura-Hata, COST231-Hata,

COST231-Walfisch, Walfisch-Bertoni, Blomqvist-Ladell, and a general model. Added to these models are

a number of correction factors which have been

developed to improve accuracy in hilly terrain. There are several diffraction methods, effective antenna heights and LOS correction methods optimised for handling mountainous and water/sea areas.

In addition, ASTRIX includes multipath propagation models that identify areas with severe time dispersion problems for interference in GSM and multipath areas for LTE.

for interference in GSM and multipath areas for LTE. Figure 3 Successful prediction of a) Increased

Figure 3 Successful prediction of a) Increased coverage by multipath b) Areas with multipath interference (i.e. Q15 problems)

To address the need for ever denser urban networks, ASTRIX includes:

• Micro-cell models

• Advanced small cell models, based on an automatic combination of Okumura-Hata and Walfisch-Ikegami.

automatic combination of Okumura-Hata and Walfisch-Ikegami. ASTRIX offers optional integration with WaveSight (

ASTRIX offers optional integration with WaveSight (http://www.wavecall.com/). WaveSight is a ray

tracing module which employs vector data. The module

is world leading for microcell predictions.

2.5 AUTOMATIC PROPAGATION MODEL TUNING TOOL

ASTRIX includes a sophisticated propagation model tuning tool. The tool can be used to analyse the agreement between predicted and measured signal levels. The tool also includes algorithms and features for automatic tuning of propagation model coefficients.

for automatic tuning of propagation model coefficients. To exclude spurious data, measurements can be filtered based

To exclude spurious data, measurements can be filtered based on signal level, distance, angle, samples, and morphology type. The profile with morphology information from transmitter to each measurement point is found directly. The histogram of the error, the mean error, the median error, the RMS and the 10 % and 90 % values are presented for all loaded measurements or for the current measurement. For the automatic tuning, the user can select which model coefficients to tune and set limits or constraints to resulting allowable model coefficient values. The optimisation algorithm will then calculate new estimates of the selected coefficients within the defined constraints.

of the selected coefficients within the defined constraints. Special care has been made to make the

Special care has been made to make the algorithm robust in handling uncertainties and inconsistencies in measurements, and problems caused by mutual dependencies between model coefficients and by insufficient measurement data. In the latter case,

the algorithm will make a minimum modification to existing model coefficients.

Correction layer: ASTRIX offers a unique and advanced algorithm that combines calculated coverage predictions with drive test measurements to calculate significantly improved measurement based predictions. Using drive test measurements to produce a correction layer on top of normal coverage predictions the accuracy is improved to a standard deviation of 5 to 6 dB - close to the theoretical limit. The Teleplan unique algorithm fills “gaps” between measurement tracks in an intuitively “correct” way.

Measurement Tuning Tool

in an intuitively “correct” way. Measurement Tuning Tool Difference layer Initial Corrected showing initial
Difference layer Initial Corrected showing initial prediction prediction and prediction drive measurements
Difference layer
Initial
Corrected
showing initial
prediction
prediction and
prediction
drive measurements

2.6 EFFICIENT PROCESSING ASTRIX employs several strategies to achieve efficient processing, as described below.

2.6.1 Multithreading Support

ASTRIX calculation engine, RADIX, supports multithreading, multi platform (Unix/Linux/Windwos) and double parallel processing functionality. The parallel processing calculation engine is utilising multithreading when calculating one cell, ore when performing prediction of a larger number of cells simultaneously.

2.6.2 Multiple resolution coverage files

Multiple resolution coverage files resolve size problems related to high resolution maps. High resolution maps typically introduce demanding work environment in terms of processing time, memory and disk storage space. The ASTRIX multi-resolution concept permits calculations over large areas by automatically reducing the resolution when moving away from the site.

2.6.3 Official coverage files

The concept of official coverage files makes it easy to:

• Get an updated coverage map at any moment for any given state and project, without recalculating coverage files.

• Have just one coverage file to be used by all planners at all stages (makes necessary corrections for modified antennas, direction and tilt). This keeps the overall disk space requirements at a reasonable level, and reduces the need to recalculate large coverage files when modifications are done to the plan.

2.6.4 Raster export of calculated layers

Calculated coverage can be exported to the GSM Association/Coversoft coverage file format.

Other calculated layers, i.e. cell coverage, Best Server, C/I and several UMTS layers, can be exported to the following formats:

• ArcView grid import format

• MapInfo grid import format

• Google Earth

2.7 FLAGS AND FILTERS

Flag groups can be defined as global (available to all users), for a project, or private (for one user only) in a full flexible and dynamic way. Groups of flags can be defined and flags can be assigned to cells. The flags can be used as a filter when making queries to the database, when viewing cells in the map or when selecting cells for use in calculations.

in the map or when selecting cells for use in calculations. 2.8 COMBINED COVERAGE The combined

2.8 COMBINED COVERAGE

The combined coverage module calculates the network coverage, i.e. the joint coverage and interaction in a radio network coverage of separate many cells, and according to the functioning of the cellular network. The combined coverage results are automatically stored in files. This permits the user to access the results at later times for further analysis, post-processing and exporting, without having to perform new calculations. ASTRIX supports up to 10 simultaneous layers of combined coverage files. Different combined coverage calculations with different network parameters can be stored under different

names. Previous calculations can thus be retrieved without losing the current result. It is possible to compare different named calculations and show differences in coverage graphically on top of the map.

show differences in coverage graphically on top of the map. 2.9 NEIGHBOUR RELATIONS MANAGEMENT Neighbour data
show differences in coverage graphically on top of the map. 2.9 NEIGHBOUR RELATIONS MANAGEMENT Neighbour data

2.9 NEIGHBOUR RELATIONS MANAGEMENT

Neighbour data can be imported from the operations and maintenance centre (OMC) via the import tool. A relation editor is available to add, delete and edit neighbour relations graphically in the map.

2.10 AUTOMATIC NEIGHBOUR PLANNING TOOL

ASTRIX offers an advanced Automatic Neighbour Planner tool. By searching coverage data, measurement and network statistics, the tool can plan and suggest neighbours based on parameters as: Co Site, Distance, Border Counter, Geometrical (Delaunay Triangulation) and overlap areas.

Geometrical (Delaunay Triangulation) and overlap areas. 2.11 INTERFERENCE ANALYSIS The interference analysis module

2.11 INTERFERENCE ANALYSIS

The interference analysis module is used to calculate the interference raster based on the frequency plan and the predicted coverage. Several options are available. Different calculation results can be stored under different names. Previous calculations can be retrieved without losing the current result. It is also possible to compare different named calculations.

2.11.1 Cell/Channel selection

It is possible to perform the calculations all-on-all

based on the selected cells, or based on a selection of

single carriers/interferers. It is also possible to base the calculation on the given channel assignment, to ignore the channel assignment, or to calculate interference for

a single channel or channel type (TCH or BCCH).

2.11.2 Hopping/Non-hopping

The calculation can be done with or without frequency hopping. Hopping can be on a cell-by-cell basis, i.e. with hopping and non-hopping cells in the same calculation, or with all cells hopping on the assigned channels.

2.12 INTERFERENCE MATRIX CALCULATION

The interference matrix module calculates the pair-wise

frequency re-use restrictions between cells in a cellular network. The results can be exported and used as input to automatic frequency planning algorithms. The interference relations and separation relations can also be created and edited with the graphical relation editor, also used for the neighbour editing. Various options exist for the calculation:

• Up-/Down-link. It is possible to base the calculation on up-link, down-link or worst-case interference probability.

• Asymmetric/Symmetric. The interference between cells A and B can be recorded asymmetrically for A to B and B to A or symmetrically (worst case of the two).

• Traffic-/Area weighting. The interference probability of a cell can be weighted with traffic raster, or assume uniform traffic across the coverage area.

• Thresholds. It is possible to set thresholds for acceptable co-channel and adjacent channel interference.

• Unit selection and partial calculation. Various options exist for selecting cells to be part of the calculation and for partial calculation of the interference matrix.

2.13 MEASUREMENT ANALYSIS TOOL

The measurement analysis tool is used to analyse drive

test measurements from the network. The tool can present network measurements as coloured tracks in the map, as 2D graphs or as numeric displays.

The module can establish automatic or manual links between measured BCCH/BSIC pairs and planned cell identities (CI), if such data are present in the plan. Several measurement formats are supported. Additional formats can be added upon request.

are supported. Additional formats can be added upon request. 2.14 STATISTICS MODULE ASTRIX generates area and
are supported. Additional formats can be added upon request. 2.14 STATISTICS MODULE ASTRIX generates area and

2.14 STATISTICS MODULE

ASTRIX generates area and demographic statistics for coverage, interference, GPRS and UMTS (per services, carriers, etc.). Filters for different thresholds, morphology types and inside of polygons can be specified. Aggregated statistics as well as per cell, per morphology type or per polygon statistics can be calculated. The statistics may be exported directly to Microsoft Excel ore text.

2.15 TRAFFIC ANALYSIS

The traffic analysis module permits the calculation of traffic density maps based on

• Measured or estimated traffic in the network

• Best server plot

• Morphology map (Clutter)

• Demographics

Live traffic per cell can be imported from the operations

and maintenance centre, scaled with the expected traffic growth, and used to predict the number of transmitters on each cell in the future network. The calculated maps can be edited and scaled.

2.16 DUAL-BAND FUNCTIONALITY

ASTRIX currently supports dual-band functionality which includes:

• Working with multiple systems in one plan

• Prediction of different systems in one plan

• Combined coverage and dominance plots based on dual-band functioning

3

ASTRIX 3G PLANNER (UMTS)

4

ASTRIX 4G PLANNER (LTE)

3.1

INTRODUCTION

4.1

INTRODUCTION

The UMTS network planning functionality in ASTRIX is based on a combination of analytical calculations and simulations using a number of different network parameters. Calculation- and simulation results can be presented in a number of plots and statistical reports. The UMTS module allows simultaneous view of e.g. GSM networks, together with the UMTS network. This allows the user to plan mixed mode networks, to have data consistency over the network, and to plan with site re-use.

3.2 UMTS CALCULATIONS

The UTMS modules offers:

• Pilot interference calculations

• Pilot reception calculations CPICH RSCP

• Multiple combined coverage calculations, 10 levels

• Ec/Io calculations relative to load

• Pilot pollution detection and out of cell ratio calculations

• Capacity and coverage vs. population statistics tools

3.3 UMTS SIMULATOR TOOL

The UMTS simulations based on a number of factors, e.g.:

• Services settings

• Terminals settings

• Morphology settings

• Traffic per service and per pixel

• Path loss of each sector to each pixel

• Repeaters. UMTS specific carrier and sector parameters are the same as for the master cell. Repeaters and master cell are treated as one in the calculations.

The LTE planning functionality in ASTRIX is developed in close cooperation with ASTRIX customers, research institutes and system vendors. The LTE module allows i.e. simultaneous view of e.g 2G, 3G and 4G networks. This allows the user to plan mixed mode networks, to have data consistency throughout its networks, and to plan with site re-use og existing infrastructure.

4.2 LTE CALCULATIONS

Frequency Coordination

• Calculations of frequency reuse patterns

• Static coordination to support manual frequency administration

• Semi static coordination for adaptive allocation

Make Realistic Interference Arrays

• Nominal SINR Arrays

• Calculations of RSRP, SINR and RSRQ

• Table of SINR gain as function of load

Calculations CQI / modulations schemes based on RSRQ and definable mapping curves

• Various tables and plots to define throughput based on CQI

• Implementation of various mapping schemes based on network equipment

Calculations of capacity gains from MIMO configurations and LOS calculations

• Network planning with MIMO configuration

• Calculation of improvement relative to SISO

• LOS calculation to accurately simulate MIMO effect

Calculations of advanced statistics

• Capacity and coverage vs. population density maps.

• Throughput based on various network configurations

• Distribution of capacity vs. population density maps

Automatic optimization of antenna configurations

• Distribution of capacity vs. population density maps Automatic optimization of antenna configurations 10

5 ASTRIX FREQUENCY PLANNER (AFP)

ASTRIX Frequency Planner ASTRIX Frequency Planner is based on an optimization algorithm developed at Telenor Research Lab that supports the Frequency Assignments work processes. After Teleplan Globe acquired the algorithm from

Telenor, it was integrated in the ASTRIX Radio Planning System as an automatic frequency planning module. Functionality highlights

• Full user flexibility in defining constraints and weighting of : C/I, C/A, Traffic and Neighbour Statistics.

• Handling and management of several frequency plans simultaneously.

• Supports non hopping, baseband hopping and synthesized hopping

• BSIC and HSN planning.

• Full user flexibility for adjusting Co and Adjacent penalties for traffic and handover statistics.

• Supports full network retune and partial planning of new cells and TRXs.

• Visually view proposed changes to analyze, accept or retune.

Visually view proposed changes to analyze, accept or retune. Why ASTRIX Frequency Planner Reduce costly infrastructure
Visually view proposed changes to analyze, accept or retune. Why ASTRIX Frequency Planner Reduce costly infrastructure

Why ASTRIX Frequency Planner Reduce costly infrastructure investments with the best possible frequency plan. Proven solutions chosen by Telenor Operators around the world for over 10 years 20 years experience in delivering Radio Planning and GIS software to the Telecommunication industry.

6 ASTRIX OPTIMIZER (ACP)

The ASTRIX optimizer tool is used to optimise a set of performance metrics or criteria for the network. The aims are to:

• Reduce pilot pollution, improve performance

• Balance the network

• Identify noise contributors

6.1 ANALYSIS

The analysis mode is used to calculate current values of the performance criteria values for the network. Results are calculated across a selected geographical area. The following are some of the area performance metrics calculated:

• Ec/Io

• Dominant server

• Weak coverage

• Handover status

• Cell balance metrics (like cell noise contribution and areas with weak Ec/Io)

(like cell noise contribution and areas with weak Ec/Io) 6.2 OPTIMISATION The unique and advanced optimisation

6.2 OPTIMISATION The unique and advanced optimisation algorithm is used to improve the performance of the network based on network statistics, measurements and coverage predictions. The optimisation is done by iterating on antenna azimuth and elevation (electrical and mechanical tilt).

7 RADIO LINK TOOL

7.1 FUNCTIONAL OVERVIEW

The ASTRIX Radio link tool is used for planning microwave networks. The user interface and database support are the same as in the main module, but the functionality is tailored to the radio link planning needs of mobile communication operators.

radio link planning needs of mobile communication operators. The functionality of the radio link tool includes:

The functionality of the radio link tool includes:

• Creation of radio links

• Site sharing

- The sites created in any part of the ASTRIX system can be shares with the other modules. This

facilitates the planning tasks and data consistency checks.

• Map analysis

- Terrain profile, between terrain points, between cells, from one cell to any point in the terrain stepwise or continuously.

- Terrain height tracking, morphology tracking, peak height search

- Line-of-sight (LOS) analysis Calculation of the LOS is made from each transmitter to a receiver with given height in a selected area.

- Demographic analysis

• Link profile analysis The link profile is presented graphically with Fresnel zone, earth curvature, and morphology heights. Link fading and performance data are calculated on the basis of relevant ITU recommendations.

are calculated on the basis of relevant ITU recommendations. • Performance predictions - Link budget -

• Performance predictions

- Link budget

- Diversity Space and frequency diversity improvement is calculated, based on ITU-R P 530-11

- Parameters based on performance objectives in G.821 and G.826. Support for both calculation and management of objectives

- Fading and fading probabilities based on ITU-R P 530-11 and ITU-R P 530-8

• Interference Co- and adjacent channel interference.

• Precipitation Calculation of unavailability due to rain in 0.001% of the time.

• Support for frequency and channel plans Creation of channel plans based on ITU recommendations. Fill in channels based on channel arrangements (for example co-channel re-use).

• Unavailability due to poor link connection.

• Support for hop chains Create hop chains by selecting more hops. Some calculations can be carried out for the chain, as for example total length and total unavailability due to rain.

• Reflection protection Calculation of optimum space between space diversity antennas, calculation of wavelength difference based on ITU-R P 530-11. Detection of sea path reflections.

• Site candidate search From an arbitrary point or site in the map, find other sites which can be candidates for a hop to that point or site. The selection may be based on criteria, as for example line of sight. The result is a list of candidate hops with distance, direction and other data. Each item in the list can be opened into the hop profile window.

hops with distance, direction and other data. Each item in the list can be opened into

8 DOCUMENTATION

The software is delivered with a complete set of User Manual, System Manual, Installation Guide, and Release Notes. All documentation can be delivered in both electronic and printed form.

9 QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CONFIGURATION CONTROL

Teleplan Globe is certified according to ISO 9001. The ASTRIX software is developed according to Teleplan Globe’s Quality Assurance Procedures.

10COMPANY INFORMATION Teleplan AS was established in 1959 and is a leading independent consultancy and systems engineering house. Teleplan Globe is part of the Teleplan family of companies.

Teleplan has provided a wide range of services to private organisations, public civilian authorities, and to military authorities in NATO member countries. Teleplan has considerable experience in design and development of systems for radio planning, communications, information management, command and control, and electronic warfare. Teleplan has a long history of providing consultancy services within the fields of telecommunication.

Contact details are as follows:

Teleplan Globe AS P.O. Box 69 Fornebuveien 31 NO-1324 Lysaker Norway

Web: http://www.teleplanglobe.no Email: info@teleplan.no

Teleplan Globe AS T:+4767127000 Fornebuveien 31 F:+4767127270 P.O.Boks 69 E: info@teleplan.no

Teleplan Globe AS

T:+4767127000

Fornebuveien 31

F:+4767127270

P.O.Boks 69

E: info@teleplan.no

NO-1324 Lysaker Norway

www.teleplanglobe.no

31 F:+4767127270 P.O.Boks 69 E: info@teleplan.no NO-1324 Lysaker Norway www.teleplanglobe.no