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Glossary of food terms

English terms Macedonian equivalents

1. Adulterated food Generally, impure, unsafe,
or unwholesome; Products that are adulterated
cannot enter into commerce for human food
!" #$, %!&'! ( $)'!
* +$. !" %,!-
Adverse conditions ne.ati/e and unpleasant;
unli0ely to produce a .ood result
e.g. Farmers were required to continue to farm
in adverse conditions where the land is poor.
*!+,1 )2,1
US Agency for nternational !evelo"ment
#A! or USA!$ 3n independent a.ency of
the e4ecuti/e 5ranch, esta5lished in 6786, that
administers 9.:. international de/elopment and
humanitarian assistance pro.rams. ;he
acti/ities often in/ol/e <oint efforts with pri/ate
/oluntary or.ani=ations >P?@sA.
BC!D1E %!F)$! $E GBH I
Animal drugs Lru.s intended for use in the
dia.nosis, cure, miti.ation, treatment, or
pre/ention of disease in animals.
M1"12-1 ,!-1 >,!-1 N1"1A
Animal hus'andry
Animal unit 3 standard measure, 5ased on
feed rePuirements, used to com5ine /arious
classes of li/estoc0 accordin. to si=e, wei.ht,
a.e, and use. Qor federal lands, an animal unit
represents one mature cow, 5ull, steer, heifer,
horse, mule, or fi/e sheep, or fi/e .oats, all o/er
si4 months of a.e.
R, >C!A, C$, >C!A
*roiler 3 youn. chic0en, usually 8 to S
wee0s old and T to U pounds, raised primarily
for its meat.
V$E,!$ ( W$E,!$2- +1,!
*uying u" "roduct sur"luses to
'uy sth u" to 5uy all or as much as possi5le
of somethin.
e.g. The practice of buying up product
surpluses has been scaled back.
Y"-)+)'! 1&-" +$11
1-. .A/0A Zanadian 3.riIfood ;rade 3lliance. XB[\B
.attle mar1et
G"O! +$
.om"etitiveness of farming
X-)$!"2" +$12""
.onsumer2s safeguards
R$D1E +"$&)O1"! ( &"1"
.onventional agriculture Generally used to
contrast common or traditional a.ricultural
practices featurin. hea/y reliance on chemical
and ener.y inputs typical of lar.eIscale,
mechani=ed farms to alternative agriculture or
sustaina'le agriculture practices.
\$1D1, ( -!D1, !%E!,2"
1(. .onventional "roduce X!D1, ( "$1D1, +$12"
1). !airy I ;he place where mil0 is processed or
stored. @n farms the 5uildin. housin. stainless
steel tan0s where mil0 is stored and cooled.
^$% +$12" %,!-
!emand #for sth3s'$ the desire or need of
customers for .oods or ser/ices which they
want to 5uy or use
!e"artment of 4utrition
H1$!-D1E #$
!e"artment of Agriculture
_112"!$2" !%E!,2"
!iversity of "roducts
$12" +$11"!
Enriched soil impro/in. the Puality of the
soil 5y addin. some chemicals to it.
WC"! +O
EU legislative
$!C),"1 `J
E5"ort su'sidy 3 direct or indirect
compensation pro/ided 5y .o/ernment to
pri/ate commercial firms to promote e4ports of
domestic products.
2)W!D11 1
2&. /allo6 land 3 untilled land 7 aand that is 5ein.
.i/en a temporary rest from crop production.
*!W$W",1 !%E1&"!
/armers people who own or mana.e a farm
2). /eed Mill 3 place where animal feeds are
b$ N1"1
/ertile soil a land or soil that plants .row well
], +O
3-. /ertiliser 3ny or.anic or inor.anic material,
either natural or synthetic added to the soil to
increase its producti/ityc artificial / chemical
fertilizers, liquid fertilizer
d!&"O- F)W$1
/ish and fish "roducts
1W 1 +$11 $1W
/ish farming 9sually, freshwater
commercial aPuaculture; catfish farms are an
33. /odder food for horses and farm animals G"O #$, -$%O
/odder 'eet 3 type of su.ar 5eet .rown for
feedin. to cattle or sheep.
G"O $!+ >5eta /ul.arisA
/ood additives 3ny su5stance or mi4ture of
su5stances other than the 5asic foodstuff present
in a food as a result of any phase of production,
processin., pac0a.in., stora.e, transport or
B1"11 >#!%12-1 "D1A #$"
/ood and Agriculture 8rgani9ation of the
United 4ations #/A8$ 3 9e or.ani=ation,
founded in 67fU, that collects and disseminates
information a5out world a.riculture. Q3@ also
pro/ides technical assistance to de/elopin.
countries in a.ricultural production and
distri5ution, food processin., nutrition,
fisheries, and forestry. ;he Q3@gs Glo5al
hnformation iarly jarnin. :ystem >Ghij:A
monitors for famine conditions in re.ions of
Y$C1D1E Y* #$ 1 !%E!,2"
/ood handlers
]$!$W")O1 #$
/ood manufacturers
]$11"!,1 #$
3,. /ood safety 7 3ssurance that food is accepta5le
for human consumption and without ris0 to
health when consumed in accordance with the
use for which it is intended. eot to 5e confused
with food security.
V!W!2" #$"
%-. /ood security 3/aila5ility of and access to
food of sufficient Puantity and Puality to meet
the nutritional needs of a healthy and acti/e life.
@ften wron.ly used to mean a countrygs selfI
G1C)$2" #$"
sufficiency in 5asic food products. eot to 5e
confused with food safety.
/ood shortage
*!2"1C #$
/ood su'sidy
G)W!D1E #$
/oodstuff any su5stance that is used as foodc
basic foodstuff
]$!#$%W! +$1
/ree mar1et 3 system in which the mar0et
forces of supply and demand determine prices
and allocate a/aila5le supplies, without
.o/ernment inter/ention. ;he concept of a freeI
mar0et approach in a.ricultural policy, in its
purest form, is no .o/ernment price and income
support pro.rams, supply mana.ement
pro.rams, e4port su5sidies, or 5arriers to
international trade.
G,W! +$
%&. /ungicide I 3 chemical used to control or
destroy fun.i in crops.
Glo'al mar1et
R,W,! >2!"2-1A +$
%+. :A..; 3cronym for :a9ard Analysis
.ritical .ontrol ;oint. hnternationally
reco.ni=ed production mana.ement system for
determinin. the health pro5lems that may
appear throu.hout the food production process
and pre/entin. their appearance 5y monitorin.
a certain num5er of critical points. kandatory
in certain types of food processin. facilities in
%,. :er'icides 7 Zhemicals used to control or
destroy weeds.
:igh value "roducts #:<;$ 3.ricultural
products that are hi.h in /alue, often 5ut not
necessarily due to processin.. l?Ps can 5e
di/ided into three .roupsc 6A semiIprocessed
products, such as fresh and fro=en meats, flour,
/e.eta5le oils, roasted coffee, refined su.ar; mA
hi.hly processed products that are ready for the
consumer, such as mil0, cheese, wine, 5rea0fast
cereals; and TA hi.hI/alue unprocessed products
that are also often consumerIready, such as
fresh and dried fruits and /e.eta5les, e..s, and
nuts. hn recent years l?Ps ha/e accounted for a
.reater percenta.e than 5ul0 commodities in
total /alue of 9.:. a.ricultural e4ports.
&1. :oggs kale or female sheep from weanin. to
first shearin..
nC1' > W1'! !'! +$
ndividual agricultural holdings
K11),1 !%E!,2-1 2"+2"
m"lementation the process of ma0in. sth
that has 5een officially decided start to happen
or 5e used;
K%+,!%!"D1E, !)'!, +$1%!
ncentives ;he incenti/e payment rate is the
percenta.e needed to 5rin. the national a/era.e
return to producers >the mar0et price plus the
incenti/e paymentA up to the annually set
national support price.
&&. =illing out "ercentage I ;he proportion of an
animal that is edi5le meat as opposed to
inedi5le material such as 5ones or s0in.
>ess incentive "roduction
YC$1O! +$12"
>ivestoc1 the animals 0ept on a farm, for
e4ample cows or sheep
G"-, W1"-
Mar1et demand
]W$)O- +$"
&,. Mar1et Garden 3 small scale intensi/e farm
producin. >usuallyA /e.eta5les and fruit for sale
in local mar0ets, sometimes direct to local
5usinesses and the pu5lic.
Meat and meat "roducts
_!2 1 %!21 +$11
Meat industry
_!2 1)2"$1E
Mil1 and dairy "roducts
_,!- 1 %,!O1 +$11
Mil1ing machine
_&1 %,!'!
(%. Mil1ing ;arlour 3 place where cows >or other
animalsA are mil0ed. 9sually attached to a dairy.
GW %,!'!
4on7organic "roduce
*!$C2- +$12"
4utrient "ollution Zontamination 5y
e4cessi/e inputs of nutrient
*)"$1"11, #$,11 %"!$11
(+. 8rganic farming ;ype of a.riculture 5ased on
strict respect for the natural relations and
5alances 5etween soil, plants and animals
>animals nourish the soil, which nourishes
plantsA, and a prohi5ition a.ainst the use of
synthetic chemicals. ;he term oor.anic
farmin.p is .enerally re.ulated and(or su5<ect to
standards defined 5y the industry >producers,
processors, etc.A, .o/ernments, or 5oth.
Y$C2- !%E!,2"
8rganic /ood ?egulations
q- $C2- +$12"
8rganic foods Qood products produced 5y
or.anic farmin. practices and handled or
processed under or.anic handlin. and
manufacturin. processes as defined 5y se/eral
pri/ate and state or.anic certifyin. a.encies.
Y$C2- ( $ #$
)1. 8rganic "roduce 3 organic food "roduction Y$C2- +$12" ( +$12" $
)2. ;esticide Zhemicals used to control or
destroy crop pests. ;hey include insecticides,
her5icides >aimed at weedsA, molluscicides
>aimed at slu.s and snailsA, and fun.icides
>aimed at fun.iA.
;oultry #farming$
;oultry farm
M11$2- ^$%
;rice and income "olicy
],1"1- D!1 1 +$1#1
;rice su""ort Policy or pro.ram ena5lin. a
.o/ernment to increase the price paid to the
producer when supply e4ceeds demand and
prices fall 5elow a le/el deemed too low.
]$&- D!
_+, $ D!1
;roduct monitoring
G,!!'! +$1"
;roduction and handling
]$12" 1 +$!$W"-
;roductive ca"acities 3 facilities
]$12"!1 -+D1"!"1
;urchase "rice
Y"-)+ D! ( W D!
?a6 materials
+3. ?esidual her'icide I 3 her5icide that will
remain in the soil and continue to destroy weeds
lon. after it is applied.
b!$W1D1 &" 2! $N) +O"
?esidue a small amount of sth that remains at
the end of a process
?eturn #of ca"ital$
q$W")O-, +$^1" (+$"- -+1",
+(. ?uminant 3n animal >they are all her5i/oresA
that rchew the cudr. i4amples are cattle, sheep
and deer 5ut e@; horses. ;hey di.est more of a
plant than rsin.le stomachedr animals 5y ha/in.
a rrumenr >the first of se/eral stomachsA where
the plant material they ha/e eaten are fermented
5y microIor.anisms to produce proteins and
su.ars the animal can di.est.
Sta'le mar1et
G1C)$! +$ ( +,2%
Sterile soil land or soil not .ood enou.h to
produce crops
*!+, +O
Su'sidy 3 su'vention 3 direct or indirect
5enefit .ranted 5y a .o/ernment for the
production or distri5ution >includin. e4portA of
a .ood or to supplement other ser/ices.
Generally, su5sidies are thou.ht to 5e
production and trade distortin., resultin. in an
inefficient use of resources. 3r.ua5ly, su5sidies
may 5e <ustified on .rounds that they ad<ust for
nonmar0et considerations that are as important
as mar0et /alues. ;his term also is used to refer
to federal reim5ursements for meals ser/ed
throu.h child and elderly nutrition pro.rams.
G)W!D11, "D11
Su""lement Qor child nutrition pro.rams,
this refers to federally reim5ursed snac0s that
are ser/ed to children in participatin. facilities.
3lso used to refer to the addition of nutrients in
the diet 5y the use of /itamins.
Su""ly an amount of sth that is pro/ided or
a/aila5le to 5e used
Sur"lus ;he amount 5y which a/aila5le
supplies are .reater than the Puantity that will
5rin. producers an adePuate income. 3 surplus
may 5e due to production outrunnin. demand, a
decline in consumption, or a .eneral decline in
consumer income or 5uyin. power.
d1&- >+$11A
@ine and s"irits
d1 1 N!2"-1 +1E,D1