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TOPIC 6 : RATE OF REACTION

Title : The Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate Report : Complete


and Activation Energy
Duration: 4 hours Assess : DCP and CE
Level : SL/HL Date : 06/8/2014 (Cohort 3)

Introduction
Sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid are both clear, colourless solution. When sodium
thiosulphate solution reacts with hydrochloric acid, the reaction mixture goes cloudy due to the
formation of a precipitate of sulphur.
Sodium Thiosulphate + Hydrochloric Acid Sodium Chloride + Sulphur + Sulphur Dioxide
+ water
Na
2
S
2
O
3
(aq) + 2 HCl(aq) 2 NaCl(aq) + S(s) + SO
2
(g) + H
2
O(l)
The faster the reaction, the faster the reaction mixture goes cloudy.
In this experiment you will investigate how changing the temperature affects the rate (speed) of
this reaction.
Then with the use of the Arrhenius equation, you will estimate the activation energy of the
reaction.

From the Arrhenius equation, a plot of ln(k) vs. 1/T will have a slope (m) equal to Ea/R. R in
this case should match the units of activation energy, R= 8.314 J/(K mol).

Aim:
To find activation energy of sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric asid by using Arrhenius
Equation.



Variables:
Variable
Independent Temperature of sodium thiosulphate
Dependent Time taken for mark X to disappear
completely
Constant Concentration and volume of sodium
thiosulphate solution
Concentration and volume of hydrochloric
acid


ENVIRONMENTAL CARE: Sodium thiosulfate is known as photographers 'hypo' for fixing
developed films and prints. To minimise pollution the concentrations of thiosulfate ions have
been kept low and only very small amounts of sulfur dioxide are evolved. As soon as the
reaction is complete pour the solutions away, preferably into the fume cupboard sink. Wash
away with plenty of water. This is particularly important with solutions used at higher
temperatures.

SAFETY:





Hydrochloric acid






Sulphur dioxide produced in this reaction.
Ensure good ventilation. Warn asthmatics,
who should preferably use a fume cupboard.
Eye protection must be worn.
APPARATUS
- Thermometer / temperature probe
- 0.15mol dm
-3
Sodium thiosulphate solution (Na
2
S
2
O
3
)
- 2.0mol dm
-3
Hydrochloric acid solution (HCl)
- 10.0cm
3
pipette (+/- 0.05) cm
3

- 150.0cm
3
conical flask (+/- 6.25) cm
3

- Stopwatch
- White tile
- Whiteboard marker pen
- Water bath

PROCEDURE
1. Mark with a cross (X) on a white tile with a whiteboard marker pen.
2. Measure 50 cm
3
of 0.15 mol dm
-3
sodium thiosulphate solution into the conical flask.
3. Place the conical flask in a water bath with a thermometer in the solution (make sure the
temperature probe doesnt touch the conical flask). Warm until the temperature is one or
two degrees above 20
o
C and record it in a table.


4. Remove the conical flask from the water bath and add 5 cm
3
of 2.0 mol dm
-3

hydrochloric acid and record the temperature of the mixture. At the same time, start a
stopwatch.
5. Swirl the contents of the flask and then allow the flask to remain still on the white tile.
Look down vertically through the solution and record how long the time taken for the
cross (X) to just disappear.
6. Repeat the experiment using fresh portions of the 0.040 mol dm
-3
thiosulphate solution
each time at temperatures of approximately 30, 40, 50 and 60
o
C.
7. Record and process your data in an appropriate way to reach a conclusion then evaluate
your experiment fully

Temperature
0
C Trial Time taken for sodium thiosulphate to disappear
completely /s (0.05)
20
1 28.0
2 27.0
3 26.0
30
1 16.4
2 17.1
3 16.2
40
1 12.0
2 13.1
3 7.1
50
1 6.0
2 6.0
3 4.8
60
1 5.2
2 4.8
3 4.9
Figure 1: raw data
Temperature
o
C Time taken for X to disappear
20 Very slow
30 Slow
40 Fast
50 Faster
60 The fastest

Calculation:
Find k
Na
2
S
2
O
3
(aq) + 2 HCl(aq) 2 NaCl(aq) + S(s) + SO
2
(g) + H
2
O(l)

][

]

m=1, n=2

for 20
o
C:


k = 0.062 s
-1
mol
-2
dm
9

Temperature
0
C
Average time
taken for
sodium
thiosulphate to
disappear
completely /s
(0.05)
Rate of
reaction s
-1
k (s
-1
mol
-2
dm
9
)

ln k (s
-1
mol
-
2
dm
9
)

1/T
20 27.00 0.0370 0.062 -2.786 0.050
30 16.57 0.0604 0.101 -2.296 0.033
40 10.73 0.0932 0.155 -1.862 0.025
50 5.60 0.1786 0.298 -1.212 0.020
60 4.97 0.2012 0.335 -1.093 0.017
Figure 2: processed data

Figure 3: showing graph of temperature against rate of reaction
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
r
a
t
e

o
f

r
e
a
c
t
i
o
n

s
-
1

Temperature
o
C
Graph of temperature against rate of reaction

Figure 4: showing graph of ln k against 1/T






y = -51.888x - 0.345
-3.5
-3
-2.5
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
-0.01 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06
l
n

K

(
s
-
1
m
o
l
-
2
d
m
9
)


1/T (
o
C
-1
)
Graph of ln K against 1/T

) (

)
Ea=504.2508 Js
-1
mol
-1
dm
9


Conclusion
By observing figure 3, we can see an exponentially increase trend. This mean the temperature
play a significance role in chemical reaction. The higher the temperature, the faster the rate of
reaction. However, if you notice the graph is exponential. This is because when temperature too
high, the excessive kinetic energy could not be used. Therefore, the rate of reaction would not
increase anymore.
Moving to the figure 4, the graph of ln K against 1/T is actually to find the ln A or also
identify as Y-intersect. Using the data collected, the graph constructed and extrapolated to get the
value of -0.345 s
-1
mol
-2
dm
9
. From ln A, we can calculate the activation energy (Ea).

Evaluation
The random error is less in this experiment because we are using apparatus with low
uncertainties such as pipette and measuring cylinder. However, there may be some systematic
error due involving human.
Weaknesses

Improvements

The temperature would have changed from its
initial temperature as all experiments were
run in room temperature. Hence the sodium
thiosulphate solution would have either
cooled down or heated up while running the
experiment leading to a high uncertainty.
Could have run each experiments in different
atmosphere (with different temperatures) so
that the change of initial temperature is
altered in a great amount.

Human error of the stop watch Since the
time of the sulfur formation was recorded by
a stopwatch where a human stops the
stopwatch relying on his sight; it would lead
to a big uncertainty.
Use a reliable mechanic method where the
time is measured by a machine rather than
humans, so that it would reduce the human
error and allow more accurate data.

The drawing of the X. Each drawing of the X
had different thickness and darkness. Hence
when stopping the time for the complete
sulfur formation (when the X mark was no
longer visible) it would have ass been
different as the dissimilar darkness would
have caused me to have different standard of
darkness of the sodium thiosulphate solution
and hence lead to great uncertainty.
Should have used a printed X Mark where all
the darkness would have been the same as the
computer would have drawn it. It would have
reduced the human error.