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Chap. II. STONE.

473
required, as iu connection with those portions of -work which may Leeome exposed to the
co.itiaual abrasive action of water. The rough
'
whit-bed
'
stone from Admiraltv quariy, ia
also a highly valuable stone for work of a similar kintl, where great strength isreqmred, and
particularly where the numerous irregularities in the
'
roach
'
stone may be ol jectiunalJe.
For Internal work, the following rank highest, on accountof nniiormity and comparative
strength:

'l.a.^e-bed' stone, Old Maggot quarry, IT


;
'whit-l)ed' stone, Independent
quarry; 'base-bed' stone, Waycroft quarry; ;nid 'base-bed' stune, New Maggot
qn irry. The following are inferior to those ju>t named, both in texture and uniformity
:

'Whit-bed' stone, Waycroft quarry;


'
b;ise-bed ' stone. Old Maggi^t quarry, IE; and
'
base-bed
'
btone, Inmof-thay quarry. The 'base-bed' stone, from Old Maggot quarry,
marked LI, and that from Independent quarry, are of low quality, as compared wah the
remainder; and no reliance can be placed on the durability of the
'
roach ' stone from
ludependent quariy, judging from the specimens received."
166fi/. Hopion Wood s;r/e is obtained fromquanies situared near Middleton and Wirks-
wortb, in Derbyshire, in the mountiiin limestone districts of that part of the country. An
analysis of it gives:lime 5o"09, magnesia 'l?, carbonic Ar\A 4t30, water 'IQ, organic
matter '0,5, silii'eous matter insoluble in acids "15, oxide of iron '10. alumina a trace, and
s^ilica soluble in acids a minute tiace= 100 02. It is well adapted for paving purpose.-,
owing to the closeness and evenness of the grain
;
these properties give this stone its
principal recommendation
;
its durability does not depend, apparently, upon any ntcessity
f'>r placing it on its quarry bed. The late Mr. C. H. Smith iias stated in the Builder,
!864, p. 912, that "these extensive quarries have been worked from time immemorial ; the
material is decidedly marble, for it is fine grained, compact in texture, and quite liard
enough to take a brilliant polish. The colour is a pale brownish white, certainly as white
as Sicilian marble, which approaches to a bluish grey. It is tuuch heavier than Purtland
stoue, but ligiiter than Carrara marble. Blocks of very large dimensions may be obtained
free from serious defects
;
and as it is an aqueous formation, hard, and well crystallised,
there is no doubt of it standing weather extremely well. Both material and workmanship
are less than those of Sicilian marble. A quantity of it was laid down about the year
1854, for foot-pavements, close to the Parliament Houses iu Old Palace-yard, and part
of Abingdon Street ; and, though in constant use, no symptoms of decay, or of the sur-
face wearing away, are perceptible."
1666;'. Bath stone (noticed
p. 46() is an oolite, obtained from several quarries in the
neighbourhood of the city of Bath, in Some^^etshi^e. Its colour, a light cream, is more
agreeable than the cold tone of Portland stone; its texture is similar, but as it is softer
and more absorbent, precautions must be observed in the manner of using it, and to
prevent its rap'H decay. It may be sawn drj'. Much depends on the bedding of the
stone in the works. The Comham Bourn stone is usually iree f.'-om the bars and vents
which are found in the Combe Down stone ; it, is a sound stone, blocks being obtained of
any movable dimensions
;
the beds vary from 1 foot to 4 feet in thickness. It is finer in
texture and more regular in quality than any other description of Bath stone, and is well
adapted both for external and internal purposes, except plinths. Below the beds of good
stone are two bels of a harder quality, called Corn Grit, which cannot well be used for
any purpose on which labour is required. It does well for steps and landings. One of
these beds run.s 2 feet 9 inches deep; the other al)oiit 4 feet 6 inches. The blocks
average 24 feet cube. Combe Bown stone, when well selected, is considered to Ve an excel-
lent weather stone, fcr ut-e in plinths, copings, and other work
;
but the blocks have bars
and vents, which are defects. The beds vary from 10 inches to 4 feet 6 inches in thick-
ness, and are rccasionally found up to 6 feet; in length from o to 6 feet; wi h an
average size of block ot about 16 feet cube. Box Gruund stone is carse in texture, but
sound in qiuility, and a goocl weather stone: harder than Combe Down stone, and with
less vents. The beds vary from 1 to 4 feet in thiekne-s, with blocks of average size of
20 cubic feet. Farleigh Bown t^tone is at s^me distance. Ihe upper or white beds vary
in thickness from 10 inches to 2 f.^et 6 inches. The lowtr or reddish beds are coarser in
texture, but are supposed to stand '
he weather better than the upper beds, which are more
suitable for internal purposes. The average size o: block is 14 feef.
1666/t. The Monk's Park quarry stone is stated tobedurable and reliable, with uniformity
of colour and evenness of texture. Bath stone, on the whole, is one of the most fragile
of freestones, lor when first quarried it is as soft as cheese, and although it hardens in
the open air to some extent, yet it soon disintegrates, as it consists onlv of minute
globules cemented together byyellowish earthy calcareous matter, and contains a consider-
able portion of broken shells. It has been said that for outside work the stone from
Murhill Down quariy and the weather bed of the Combe Down quarry ar^ the only
two stones that will really stand the weather. This material has been well described by
writers in the Builder for the years 1845 and 1800, and the detailed mode of working at
the quarries in 1862, p.
613. The weight of Bath stone is about 123 lbs. per cube frot,
aLd the crushing weight about 1800 to 2000 lbs. per inch superficial. In an erperiineut