You are on page 1of 8

TEKNOsim Europe

Climate Simulation
l i ndab i ndoor cl i mate
2
TEKNOsim simulation software for thermal indoor
climate.
Function
Simulation of indoor climate with computer support.
Use
Calculation of heating and cooling
effects in all types of room.
Application
PC platform, Windows based.
Features
Can be used in all stages of the building process.
Gives documented accurate values.
Allows wide variation of input data.
Easy and quick to use.
Not tied to a specific manufacturer.
TEKNOsim Europe
Climate Simulation
3
Climate simulation
Rapid developments in computer and calculation tech-
nologies have made it possible to study and modify a
building or a function in a room prior to construction.
This can save both time and resources during all stages
of a building project. Its safe to say that computerised
simulation is the modern day crystal ball!
Calculations about the indoor climate of a given room
are extremely complicated, and can in practice only be
achieved with the help of a computer. As software for
climate simulation has been available since the seven-
ties, we have learned more about the degree of impact
of different factors on the indoor climate of a room.
Understanding the heat storage in a room with thin
walls, ceiling and floor has made it possible to reduce
the installed cooling effect compared to earlier situa-
tions, while still satisfying indoor climate requirements.
Its well-known that the thermal climate in a room is
influenced by many different factors. What is probably
less known is how these factors individually influence
the indoor climate or the requisite cooling effect.
In the example below we compare how some of these
factors affect an office during the summer. Naturally, the
results only apply to the actual example, but can, to a
certain extent, act as guidelines for other rooms. The
conditions for the original office are shown on page 5.
Simulations were performed using TEKNOsim.
Room (15 m) with a window, 1.2m 1.6m, facing
south, double glazing with clear glass.
One person, one computer, normal lighting, all with an
operating time between 08:00 17:00.
Ventilation with 15 l/s at a supply air temp. of +19C.
In the light room, all wall surfaces, facades, and inner
walls of plasterboard with insulation. Wooden floor
and ceiling structures. No suspended ceiling.
In the heavy room, interior of outer facade is of
concrete, and floor and ceiling structures are also of
concrete. Inner walls as the light room. No suspended
ceiling.
For cooling effect calculations, max. indoor temp.
25C.
Predictably, an increase in the window area or a halving
of the suns rays has a significant effect. The impact
of the suns rays can be reduced with a blind or by
changing the windows. Another important factor is the
direction in which the facade faces. On the other hand
an increase in the outdoor temperature only has a minor
effect.
The percentage difference in the effect requirement
between the light and heavy rooms averages 33% for
the different situations. The difference in room tempera-
ture between the light and heavy room with no extra
cooling effect averages 7.5 C.
4
5
Table 1.
Table 2.
Calculation
parameter
Light
room
(W)
Diff.
(%)
Heavy
room
(W)
Diff.
(%)
Original office 887 0 589 0
Suns rays -50 % 534 -40 347 -42
Window area +50 % 1228 +38 809 +35
Facade facing north 398 -55 266 -56
With suspended
ceiling
883 -0.5 629 7
Vent. flow +50 % 825 -7 506 -15
Supply air temp. fr.
19 to 17 C
843 -5 532 -10
Outdoor vent. 15 l/s 1080 +21 789 +31
Internal load +50 % 1020 +15 720 +20
Outdoor temp.
raised by +3 C
922 +4 632 +6
Calculation
parameter
Light
room
(W)
Diff.
(%)
Heavy
room
(W)
Diff.
(%)
Original office 37.9 0.0 29.9 0.0
Suns rays -50 % 33.1 -4.8 27.5 -2.4
Window area +50 % 42.2 +4.3 32.3 +2.4
Facade facing north 31.1 -6.8 26.8 -3.1
With suspended
ceiling
37.9 0 31.3 +0.4
Vent. flow +50 % 34.9 -3.2 28.5 -1.4
Supply air temp. fr.
19 to 17 C
35.6 -2.3 28.3 -1.6
Outdoor vent. 15 l/s 41.1 +3.2 32.0 +2.1
Internal load +50 % 40.4 +2.5 31.3 +1.4
Outdoor temp.
raised by +3 C
38.8 +0.9 30.5 +0.6
TEKNOsim
The most important characteristic features of
TEKNOsim are:
The application fully supports Windows. This makes
it easy to use and understand, even if only used spo-
radically.
The software can be used during all stages of the
building process. Floors, walls and ceilings are easy
to define as light, medium or heavy structures if the
actual structure is not known.
Most input data is selected by a mouse click. Defined
structures for walls, windows, ceilings and floors, as
well as other features, are selected from a database
using dialog boxes.
Naturally, the software takes into account heat stor-
age in the building structures. The heating effect from
people and the cooling effects of Lindab Climate prod-
ucts influence the indoor temperature.
All information in the database is fully accessible so
each user can supplement, modify or remove objects.
An input data guide leads new users through all the
input data windows through to the results of the
process.
The software is general, i.e. you can choose whether
the software selects our products or not. We do not
want TEKNOsim to be another example of manufactu-
rer dependent software. When calculating the requisite
cooling effect the user can choose between air chilled
(100% convection) or any Lindab Climate products (a
mixture of radiation and convection).
In addition to calculating the effect requirement or the
resulting temperatures (air and operative), TEKNOsim
also calculates the PPD index. (Predicted Percentage
Dissatisfied with the given climate.)
Results are shown as diagrams and in text form. As
TEKNOsim works in Windows, results can easily be
transferred to other Windows applications, e.g. Word
or Excel.
Table 1: Table 1 shows how changing different parame-
ters affects the requisite cooling effect (excluding cooling
from the ventilation) for a given office.
Example: When th suns rays are reduced by 50%, the
cooling effect requirement falls by 40% for the light
room and by 42% for the heavy room compared with the
original rooms.
Table 2: Table 2 illustrates how changing different para-
meters affects the maximal indoor temperature with no
extra cooling effect.
6
Since 1995, thousands of satisfied customers have
used TEKNOsim to simulate indoor climate, and the
software is also used for training purposes. We engaged
Chalmers University of Technology to test TEKNOsim
in a number of different simulations, and the results
showed good accordance with authentic situations.
(A simulation program known as BRIS, developed by
the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, was
used for verification. In its turn, BRIS has been veri-
fied against real-life cases in many building research
projects).
Comparison with BRIS made for three types of
rooms.
Room 1 is a normal office with normal internal loads in
two designs, light and heavy building structures.
Room 2 is as room 1 in the heavy design but with
two facades with large window areas and no internal
loads. In this situation the effects of strong sun loads
and simultaneous storage in heavy building structures
are studied.
Room 3 is as room 1 in the heavy design but without
windows. Instead the load in the room comes from
10 people during two periods in a day. In this situa-
tion the effects of strong and varying internal loads
are studied, which can correspond to conditions in a
conference room, assembly room or similar.
Three situations were considered for each room:
Without basic cooling: ventilation air taken from out-
doors, calculation of the resulting condition.
With basic cooling: ventilation air, 20 l/s, chilled to
19C, calculation of the resulting condition.
Dim. cooling effect: requisite cooling effect calculated
for a max room temperature of 25C.
If you would like more information on the tests conduc-
ted by Chalmers, or the software, please contact us.
Table 3.
Table 4.
Calculation parameter
Resulting room temp.
TEKNOsim
C
BRIS
C
Difference
(TS-BRIS)
Room 1, light
w/o basic cooling
35.6 35.6 0 C
Room 1, light
with basic cooling
31.6 31.3 +0.3 C
Room 1, heavy
w/o basic cooling
29.7 29.9 -0.2 C
Room 1, heavy
with basic cooling
27.1 27.2 -0.1 C
Room 2, light
w/o basic cooling
33.6 32.9 +0.7 C
Room 2, light
with basic cooling
31.2 30.5 +0.7 C
Room 2, heavy
w/o basic cooling
27.8 28.2 -0.4 C
Room 2, heavy
with basic cooling
25.8 26.2 -0.4 C
Calculation parameter
Resulting room temp.
TEKNOsim
(W)
BRIS
(W)
Difference
(TS-BRIS)
Room 1, light
dim. cooling effect
707 696 +1.6%
Room 1, heavy
dim. cooling effect
494 503 -1.8%
Room 2,
dim. cooling effect
828 851 -2.7%
Room 3,
dim. cooling effect
448 449 -0.2%
7
1. Accurately simulates indoor climate, showing how
internal and external heat effects interact and how
these impact the indoor climate.
2. Simulates how selection of building materials
impacts the indoor temperature. Select building
materials from a comprehensive database of finished
structures.
3. Duration calculation of the room temperature (in
Sweden known as P25 and P27 methods). Calculate
how often the room temperature exceeds a given
value. Data can be used to calculate the most eco-
nomic scale of the indoor climate solution.
4. Calculates heat requirements for winter situations,
according to DUT or according to Swedish Standard
SS024310.
5. Calculations can be made using a directed operative
temperature. As usual TEKNOsim is not bound to a
specific manufacturer, and you can select from ceil-
ing heating, floor heating, convectors and radiators.
6. Improved and larger product range with capability to
actively vary the quantity of air and range of pres-
sure for a product. This selection option can also be
used to identify the correct product size in relation to
given requirements.
7. Printouts of input and output data in both graphical
and text form .
8. Climatic data for 11 European countries with over
150 cities in total. The operator can enter climatic
data for other cities.
9. Support in 8 European languages.
10. Simple program updates for TEKNOsim via Internet.
Applications and new features in
TEKNOsim Europe
Swedish
Norweigan
Danish
Finnish
English
German
Polish
Italian
S
u
b
j
e
c
t

t
o

a
l
t
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
s

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

p
r
i
o
r

n
o
t
i
c
e
.

P
h
o
t
o
g
r
a
p
h
e
r

L
a
r
s

L
u
n
d
b
e
r
g
.

J
u
n
e

2
0
0
1
.
www.lindab.com