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Snippets of Physics
9. Ambiguities in Fluid Flow

T Padmanabhan

T h e id e a liz e d ° o w o f ° u id a ro u n d a sp h e r ic a l
b o d y is a c la ssic te x tb o o k p r o b le m in ° u id m e -
c h a n ic s. In te r e stin g ly e n o u g h , it le a d s to so m e
c u r io u s tw ists a n d tu rn s a n d c o n c e p tu a l c o n u n -
d r u m s.
T Padmanabhan works at
IUCAA, Pune and is T h e ° ow in d u ced in a ° u id w h en a b o d y m ov es th ro u g h
interested in all areas it is o f trem en d o u s p ra ctica l im p o rta n ce { w ith th e a ir-
of theoretical physics, p la n e w in g s p rov id in g ju st o n e ex a m p le. In g en era l, n o -
especially those which
b o d y u n d ersta n d s th e ° ow o f real ° u id s a n d w e h av e
have something to do with
gravity.
to reso rt to sca led m o d els (e.g ., in w in d tu n n els) o r to
n u m erica l sim u la tio n s to m a k e p ro g ress. B u t th ere a re
so m e idealized m o d els th a t o n e ca n so lv e a n a ly tica lly
w h ich co rresp o n d s, b ro a d ly sp ea k in g , to th e m y th ica l
° u id so m etim es ca lled \ d ry w a ter" . T h ese p ro b lem s a re
su p p o sed ly w ell-u n d ersto o d a n d w e w ill see, in th is in -
sta llm en t, th a t ev en th e sim p lest o f th em ca n lea d to
su rp rises.
W h en a b o d y m ov es th ro u g h th e h y p o th etica l ° u id , th e
resu ltin g ° ow sa tis¯ es th e fo llow in g co n d itio n s: F irst,
th e ° u id ° ow is in co m p ressib le w ith th e d en sity b ein g a
co n sta n t. T h en , th e co n serva tio n o f m a ss, ex p ressed in
th e fo rm o f a co n tin u ity eq u a tio n

+ r ¢ (½ v ) = 0

(1 )
@t

red u ces to th e sim p le co n d itio n r ¢ v = 0 . S eco n d , w e


(in w h ich ½ is th e d en sity a n d v is th e ° u id v elo city )

w ill a ssu m e th a t th e ° ow is irro ta tio n a l (r £ v = 0 )

a sca la r p o ten tia l v = r Á . F in a lly w e w ill ig n o re a ll th e


a llow in g fo r th e v elo city to b e ex p ressed a s a g ra d ien t o f
Keywords
Fluid mechanics, electrostatics. p ro p erties o f rea l ° u id s lik e v isco sity, su rfa ce ten sio n ,

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so lu tio n s to th e tw o eq u a tio n s r ¢ v = 0 a n d r £ v = 0
etc., a n d w ill trea t th e p ro b lem a s o n e o f ¯ n d in g th e

su b ject to certa in b o u n d a ry co n d itio n s. E q u iva len tly,

r 2 Á = 0 . S o th e p ro b lem red u ces to so lv in g th e L a p la ce


w e ¯ n d th a t th e p o ten tia l sa tis¯ es L a p la ce's eq u a tio n

eq u a tio n w ith v sa tisfy in g th e b o u n d a ry co n d itio n s {


w h ich is th e o n ly n o n triv ia l fea tu re o f th e p ro b lem !
L et u s co n sid er a b o d y o f a n a rb itra ry sh a p e m ov in g
w ith a v elo city u th o u g h th e ° u id . T h en w e n eed to

d itio n n ¢v = n ¢u a t th e su rfa ce, w h ere n is th e n o rm a l


so lv e th e L a p la ce eq u a tio n su b ject to th e b o u n d a ry co n -

to th e su rfa ce. W e w o u ld ex p ect th e ° u id ° ow n ea r th e


b o d y to b e a ® ected b y its m o tio n , b u t a t su ± cien tly
la rg e d ista n ce th is e® ect sh o u ld b e n eg lig ib le. H en ce
th e ° u id v elo city v w ill b e zero a t sp a tia l in ¯ n ity.
In terestin g ly en o u g h th e g en era l fo rm o f th e ° u id v elo c-
ity a t la rg e d ista n ces fro m th e b o d y (o f a rb itra ry sh a p e)
ca n b e d eterm in ed b y th e fo llo w in g a rg u m en t. W e k n ow
th a t th e fu n ctio n 1 = r sa tis¯ es th e L a p la ce eq u a tio n . F u r-
th er, if Á sa tis¯ es th e L a p la ce eq u a tio n , th e sp a tia l d eriv -
a tiv es o f Á a lso sa tisfy th e sa m e eq u a tio n . T h erefo re,
th e d irectio n a l d eriva tiv e o f 1 = r , a lo n g so m e d irectio n
sp eci¯ ed b y a n a rb itra ry v ecto r A w ill a lso sa tisfy th e

b y A ¢ r (1 = r ) a n d w ill fa ll a s 1 = r 2 a t la rg e d ista n ces.


L a p la ce eq u a tio n . S u ch a d irectio n a l d eriva tiv e is g iv en

H en ce, a t la rg e d ista n ces fro m th e b o d y, w e ca n ta k e


th e lea d in g o rd er term s in th e p o ten tia l to b e
µ ¶
Á = ¡ + A ¢r + O (1 = r 3 ):
q 1
(2 )
r r
Y o u w ill, o f co u rse reco g n ize a ll th ese to b e electro sta -
tics in d isg u ise a n d th e ex p a n sio n in (2 ) to b e ju st th e
la rg e d ista n ce ex p a n sio n o f th e p o ten tia l d u e to th e d is-
trib u tio n o f ch a rg es. T h e ¯ rst term is th e m o n o p o le
co u lo m b term a n d th e seco n d o n e is th e d ip o le term .
(In cid en ta lly, th e d ip o le term is ju st th e d i® eren ce in
th e p o ten tia l d u e to tw o ch a rg es k ep t sep a ra ted b y a

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d ista n ce A ; clea rly, th e n et p o ten tia l w ill b e th e d irec-


tio n a l d eriva tiv e a lo n g A . T h is is th e q u ick est w ay to
g et th e d ip o le p o ten tia l.) A t su ± cien tly la rg e d ista n ces
w e ig n o re fu rth er term s, o b ta in ed b y ta k in g th e seco n d ,
th ird , ... d eriva tiv es o f 1 = r .
T h e v elo city ¯ eld w ill th en b e th e a n a lo g u e o f th e electric
¯ eld in electro sta tics. F ro m G a u ss' law w e k n ow th a t th e
° u x o f th e electric ¯ eld a t la rg e d ista n ces is p ro p o rtio n a l
to th e `to ta l ch a rg e' q . S in ce w e ca n n o t h av e a n o n -
zero ° u x o f v elo city a t la rg e d ista n ce in o u r p ro b lem ,
it fo llow s th a t q = 0 a n d th e a sy m p to tic fo rm o f th e
p o ten tia l m u st h av e th e fo rm :
A ¢n
µ ¶
Á = A ¢r = ¡
1
; (3 )
r r2
w h ere n is th e u n it v ecto r in th e ra d ia l d irectio n . T a k in g
th e g ra d ien t, w e g et th e v elo city ¯ eld to b e
3 (A ¢ n )n ¡ A
µ ¶
v = (A ¢ r )r
1
= : (4 )
r r3
(T h ese m a n ip u la tio n s a re m o st e± cien tly d o n e u sin g in -
d ex n o ta tio n a n d su m m a tio n co n v en tio n , w ith @ ® r =
(1 = 2 r )@ ® r 2 = x ® = r u sed rep ea ted ly.) T h e a ctu a l fo rm
o f A n eed s to b e d eterm in ed u sin g th e co n d itio n s n ea r
th e b o d y (w h ich w ill b e a m ess fo r a b o d y o f a rb itra ry
sh a p e) b u t it is in terestin g th a t th e ° ow a t la rg e d is-
ta n ces is ¯ x ed en tirely in term s o f a sin g le v ecto r A . In
° u id m ech a n ics, it is a b it o f a su rp rise b u t in electro -
It is interesting that
sta tics it is n o t. If th e m o n o p o le va n ish es, y o u w o u ld
the flow at large
ex p ect th e d ip o le m o m en t to d eterm in e th e b eh av io u r
distances is fixed
o f th e electric ¯ eld a t la rg e d ista n ces.
entirely in terms of a
single vector A. In T h e rea l su rp rise co m es w h en w e try to ca lcu la te th e
fluid mechanics, it is to ta l k in etic en erg y a sso cia ted w ith th e ° u id ° ow g iv en
a bit of a surprise by
but in electrostatics Z
1
it is not. K la b = ½ d 3 x v 2 ; (5 )
2

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w h ere th e in teg ra l is ov er a ll sp a ce o u tsid e th e b o d y a n d


th e su b scrip t `la b ' sta n d s fo r th e la b fra m e in w h ich th e
b o d y is m ov in g w ith a v elo city u . (T h e fa ct th a t th e
b o d y is m ov in g is irreleva n t sin ce it o n ly sh ifts th e o rig in
b y u t w h ich is a co n sta n t a s fa r a s th e sp a tia l in teg ra tio n
is co n cern ed .) W h ile th e ° u id ° ow a t la rg e d ista n ces ca n
b e ex p ressed en tirely in term s o f a sin g le v ecto r A , th e
° ow clo ser to th e b o d y ca n b e ex trem ely co m p lica ted .
O n e m ig h t h av e th o u g h t th a t, in su ch a g en era l ca se,
o n e ca n n o t say a n y th in g a b o u t th e to ta l k in etic en erg y
o f th e ° u id . B u t it is in d eed p o ssib le to ex p ress th e to ta l
k in etic en erg y o f th e ° u id ° ow en tirely in term s o f th e
sin g le v ecto r A ev en th o u g h th e ° u id ° ow ev ery w h ere
ca n n o t b e ex p ressed in term s o f A a lo n e. (T h is resu lt,
a s w ell a s eq u a tio n s (8 ) a n d (1 8 ) b elow , a re d eriv ed in
[1 ] b u t n o t d iscu ssed in d eta il in a n y o th er b o o k , a s fa r
a s I k n ow .)

u ) ¢ (v ¡ u ). If w e in teg ra te b o th sid es o f th is eq u a tio n


T o o b ta in th is resu lt, w e u se th e id en tity v 2 = u 2 + (v +

g iv e a co n trib u tio n p ro p o rtio n a l to (V ¡ V b o d y ). In th e


ov er a la rg e v o lu m e V , th e ¯ rst term o n th e rig h t w ill

seco n d term , w e w rite (v + u ) = r (Á + u ¢r ). N ow u sin g


r ¢ v = 0 ; a n d r ¢ u = 0 , w e ca n w rite th e seco n d term
a s a to ta l d iv erg en ce r ¢[(Á + u ¢r )(v ¡ u )]: In teg ra tin g
th is ov er th e w h o le sp a ce, th e seco n d term b eco m es a
su rfa ce in teg ra l ov er b o th th e su rfa ce o f th e b o d y a n d a
su rfa ce a t la rg e d ista n ce. T h a t is, w e h av e p rov ed :
Z I
v d V = u (V ¡ V 0 ) +
2 2
(Á + u ¢ r )(v ¡ u ) ¢ n d S ;
S+ S0
(6 )

w h ere S is a su rfa ce b o u n d in g th e v o lu m e V a t la rg e
d ista n ce a n d S 0 is th e su rfa ce o f th e b o d y. T h e su rfa ce

O n th e su rfa ce o f th e b o d y, (v ¡ u )¢n va n ish es d u e to th e


in teg ra l is ta k en ov er b o th . T h e m ira cle is n o w in sig h t.

b o u n d a ry co n d itio n s a n d h en ce w e g et n o co n trib u tio n s


fro m th ere! T h is is g o o d sin ce w e h a v e n o clu e a b o u t th e

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p a ttern o f v elo city ° ow n ea r th e b o d y. A t la rg e d ista n ces


fro m th e b o d y, w e ca n u se th e a sy m p to tic fo rm o f th e
v elo city ¯ eld g iv en in (4 ) a n d d o th e in teg ra l ta k in g th e
su rfa ce to b e a sp h ere o f la rg e ra d iu s R . S in ce d S =

a s 1 = R 2 w e ca n a p p rox im a te Á (v ¡ u ) ¢n ¼ ¡ Á u ¢ n o n
R 2 d - in crea ses a s R 2 w h ile v fa lls a s 1 = R 3 a n d Á fa lls

S . H en ce th e su rfa ce in teg ra l in (6 ) o n S b eco m es th e


su m
I I
¡ Á u ¢n R d - +
2
(u ¢ n )(v ¢ n ) R 3 d -
S SI

¡ (u ¢ n )2 R 3 d - : (7 )
S

u sin g th e ea sily p rov ed rela tio n < (A ¢ n )(B ¢ n ) > =


T h e in teg ra tio n ov er a n g u la r co o rd in a tes ca n b e d o n e

(1 = 3 )A ¢ B w h ere < ::: > d en o tes th e a n g u la r average

see th a t th e in teg ra l ov er ¡ (u ¢n )2 R 3 g iv es ¡ u 2 V w h ich


w h ich is 1 = 4 ¼ tim es th e in teg ra l ov er d - . U sin g th is, w e

p recisely ca n cels th e u 2 V in th e ¯ rst term in (6 ). U sin g


(3 ) a n d (4 ) w e g et th e ¯ n a l a n sw er to b e:

½ (4 ¼ A ¢ u ¡ V 0 u 2 ):
1
K la b = (8 )
2
T h u s, if w e k n ow th e m o tio n o f th e ° u id a t v ery la rg e
d ista n ces fro m th e b o d y, w e ca n co m p u te th e to ta l k i-
n etic en erg y o f th e ° u id ° ow w ith o u t ev er k n ow in g th e
1
The electrostatic analogue is v elo city ¯ eld clo se to th e b o d y !1
the following. You are given a
distribution of charges with O n e ca n u se th is to o b ta in a n o th er cu rio u s resu lt. T o
qtot = 0 and dipole moment p in a

d i® eren t fo rm o f su rfa ce in teg ra l. W ritin g v = r Á , th e


d o th is, w e n o te th a t th e K la b ca n a lso b e ex p ressed in a
region bounded by a surface S0.
You are also given a constant
vector E0 and told that the nor- ex p ressio n fo r k in etic en erg y red u ces to
mal component of the electric Z Z
d 3 x r ¢ (Á r Á );
field normal to S0 is given by 1 3 2 1
2 V 2 V
K = ½ d x (r Á ) = ½ (9 )
n . E 0 . Then the electrostatic

w h ere w e h av e u sed r 2 Á = 0 . U sin g G a u ss' th eo rem ,


energy is proportional to
(4 p.E0–V0 E02) where V0 is the
volume of the region bounded
th is ex p ressio n ca n b e co n v erted to a su rfa ce in teg ra l
by S0.

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ov er th e b o d y a n d ov er a su rfa ce a t la rg e d ista n ce. T h e


seco n d o n e va n ish es, g iv in g
I I
K la b = ¡ ½ d S (n ¢ v )Á = ¡ ½ d S (n ¢ u )Á ;
1 1
2 S0 2 S0
(1 0 )

w h ere w e h av e u sed n ¢ v = n ¢ u a t th e su rfa ce. B u t


sin ce w e k n ow w h a t K la b is, th is a llow s u s to o b ta in
a n in teg ra l ov er th e su rfa ce o f th e b o d y o f a p a rticu la r
ex p ressio n , in th e fo rm
I
¡ d S (n ¢ u )Á = (4 ¼ A ¢u ¡ V 0u 2) (1 1 )
S0

ev en th o u g h w e d o n o t k n ow eith er th e sh a p e o f th e
b o d y o r th e v elo city p o ten tia l o n th e su rfa ce!
L et u s n ow sp ecia lize to th e sim p lest o f a ll p o ssib le
sh a p es fo r th e b o d y : a sp h ere o f ra d iu s a . In th is ca se,
th e d ip o le p o ten tia l h a p p en s to b e th e exact so lu tio n
a t a ll d ista n ces o u tsid e th e sp h ere. T h is is n o t d i± cu lt
to u n d ersta n d . G iv en th e sp h erica l sy m m etry, th e o n ly
v ecto r th a t ca n a p p ea r in th e so lu tio n is th e v elo city o f
th e b o d y u . L in ea rity o f th e L a p la ce eq u a tio n (a n d th e
b o u n d a ry co n d itio n ) tells u s th a t th e p o ten tia l m u st b e

fo rm in eq u a tio n (3 ) w ith A / u . U sin g th e b o u n d a ry


lin ea r in th is v ecto r u . H en ce th e so lu tio n m u st h av e th e

co n d itio n n ¢ v = n ¢u a t th e su rfa ce, it is ea sy to sh ow


th a t
1 3
A = a u (1 2 )
2
w h ich co m p letely so lv es th e p ro b lem . W e w ill n ow p lay
a ro u n d w ith th is so lu tio n .
G iv en th e ° u id ° ow p a ttern ev ery w h ere, w e ca n ex p lic-
itly co m p u te th e to ta l k in etic en erg y ca rried b y th e ° ow
u sin g a n y o f th e ex p ressio n s d eriv ed a b ov e. W e g et

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Z µ ¶
= ¡ ½ a d - ¡ 2 (A ¢ n )(u ¢ n )
1 2 1
K la b
2 a

½ (4 ¼ ) (A ¢ u ) = m d isp u 2 ;
1 1 1
= (1 3 )
2 3 4
w h ere m d isp is th e m a ss o f th e ° u id d isp la ced b y th e
sp h ere. S o th e to ta l k in etic en erg y is (1 = 2 )[m b o d y +
(1 = 2 )m d isp ]u 2 a n d th e ° u id a d d s (1 = 2 )m d isp to th e ef-
fectiv e m a ss o f th e sp h ere. O f co u rse, o u r g en era l ex -
p ressio n , eq u a tio n (8 ) lea d s to th e sa m e resu lt w h en w e
u se (1 2 ) a n d ev ery th in g seem s ¯ n e.
L et u s n ex t co n sid er th e to ta l m o m en tu m P ca rried b y
th e ° u id w h ich is th e in teg ra l ov er a ll sp a ce o f ½ v . In
a rea so n a b le w o rld , w e w o u ld h av e ex p ected it to b e
(1 = 2 )m d isp u b u t w e a re in fo r a ru d e sh o ck . B y sy m m e-

o n ly n eed to co m p u te th e sca la r P ¢u . B u t sin ce v fa lls


try, th e v ecto r P h a s to b e in th e d irectio n o f u so w e

a s 1 = r 3 a n d th e v o lu m e g row s a s r 3 w e a re in tro u b le!

w ere in teg ra tin g v 2 / 1 = r 6 ov er a ll sp a ce.). E x p licitly,


(T h is d id n o t h a p p en fo r th e k in etic en erg y sin ce w e

w e h av e,
Z
P la b ¢ u = ½ d 3 x 3 [3 (A ¢ n )(u ¢ n ) ¡ A ¢ u ]
1
Z1 Z
r
d - [3 (A ¢ n )(u ¢ n ) ¡ A ¢ u ]:
dr
= ½
a r
(1 4 )
O b v io u sly, o u r p ow er co u n tin g a rg u m en t is co rrect a n d
Whoever would th e r -in teg ra l d iv erg es lo g a rith m ica lly a t la rg e d ista n ces!

su rfa ces g iv es zero b eca u se < 3 (A ¢ n )(u ¢ n ) > = A ¢ u


have guessed that O n th e o th er h a n d th e a n g u la r in teg ra tio n ov er sp h erica l
the simplest
problem in fluid ca n cels th e seco n d term . W h o ev er w o u ld h av e g u essed
flow past a body th a t th e sim p lest p ro b lem in ° u id ° ow p a st a b o d y w ill
will actually lead to
a ctu a lly lea d to a p ro d u ct o f zero a n d in ¯ n ity !
a product of zero If w e d o th e in teg ra l b etw een tw o sp h eres o f ra d ii r = a
and infinity! a n d r = R cen tred o n th e m ov in g sp h ere a t a n y g iv en

808 RESONANCE  September 2008


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in sta n t o f tim e, th en th e a n sw er is in d eed zero b eca u se One feels uneasy


th e a n g u la r av era g e g iv es zero . T h is w o u ld h av e b een about the result being
a n a ccep ta b le resu lt, ex cep t fo r tw o rea so n s. F irst, th e dependent on what
resu lt d ep en d s o n ta k in g th e o u ter b o u n d a ry to b e a one is doing at infinity
sp h ere. If w e ch o o se so m e o th er sh a p e, say, a cy lin d er
especially since the
co a x ia l w ith th e d irectio n o f m o tio n o f th e sp h ere, th e
direction of u breaks
resu lt ca n b e d i® eren t. O n e feels u n ea sy a b o u t th e re-
the spherical
su lt b ein g d ep en d en t o n w h a t o n e is d o in g a t in ¯ n ity
symmetry.
esp ecia lly sin ce th e d irectio n o f u b rea k s th e sp h erica l
sy m m etry.
S eco n d , o n e ca n a rg u e th a t, if y o u p u sh th e sp h ere fro m
rest to let it a cq u ire a v elo city u , th en { in th e p ro cess
{ y o u im p a rt so m e m o m en tu m to th e ° u id . T o d o th is
co m p u ta tio n o n e n eed s to k n ow th e p ressu re w h ich a cts
o n th e sp h ere w h en u is a fu n ctio n o f tim e [2 ]. L et m e

p o in t is th e E u ler eq u a tio n @ v = @ t + (v ¢ r )v = r p = ½ .
b rie° y in d ica te h ow th is ca n b e o b ta in ed . T h e sta rtin g

W h en v = r Á (t;x ), y o u ca n m a n ip u la te th is eq u a tio n
to sh o w th a t r [p + (1 = 2 )½ v 2 + ½ (@ Á = @ t)] = 0 , so th a t
th e p ressu re ca n b e ex p ressed in th e fo rm

p = p1 ¡ ½v ¡ ½ ;
1 2 @Á
(1 5 )
2 @t
w h ere p 1 is th e p ressu re a t in ¯ n ity. (T h is is ju st a tim e
d ep en d en t v ersio n o f B ern o u lli's eq u a tio n .) W e a re in -
terested in th e n et fo rce in th e d irectio n o f m o tio n o f th e
sp h ere, ta k en to b e th e z-a x is, w h ich ca n b e o b ta in ed b y
in teg ra tin g p co s µ ov er th e su rfa ce o f th e sp h ere. F ro m
(4 ) w e see th a t v 2 w ill b e a fu n ctio n o f co s2 µ so th e
co n trib u tio n fro m th e ¯ rst tw o term s w ill va n ish o n in -
teg ra tio n ov er a sp h ere. T h e o n ly su rv iv in g co n trib u tio n
co m es fro m th e la st term w h ich ca n b e ea sily eva lu a ted
to g iv e
Z¼ · ¸
Fz = ¡ 2 1 2 duz 1 duz
2 ¼ a sin µ d µ ½ a co s µ = m d isp :
0 2 dt 2 dt
(1 6 )

RESONANCE  September 2008 809


SERIES  ARTICLE

C lea rly, th e to ta l m o m en tu m im p a rted is


Z
1
F z d t = m d isp u z ; (1 7 )
2
w h ich m a k es sen se w h en w e rem em b er th a t th e k in etic
en erg y co m es w ith th e e® ectiv e m a ss (1 = 2 )m d isp . S o ,
th is is a n o th er p u rely lo ca l rea so n to b eliev e th e to ta l
m o m en tu m o f th e ° u id ° ow is n o n -zero .
In fa ct, o n e ca n g en era lize th is a rg u m en t a n d o b ta in a
¯ n ite ex p ressio n fo r th e m o m en tu m fo r a n y b o d y m ov -
in g th ro u g h a ° u id [1 ]. O n ce a g a in th e resu lt ca n b e
ex p ressed en tirely in term s o f th e v ecto r A fo r a b o d y o f
arbitrary sh a p e. T o o b ta in th is resu lt, w e ca n u se a trick

m o m en tu m b y th e rela tio n d E = u ¢d P a n d u se th e re-


w h ich rela tes th e in ¯ n itesim a l ch a n g es in th e en erg y a n d

su lt in (8 ). T o p rov e th is rela tio n , let u s a ssu m e th a t


th e b o d y is a ccelera ted b y so m e ex tern a l fo rce F ca u sin g
th e m o m en tu m o f ° u id ° ow to in crea se b y a n a m o u n t

w e im m ed ia tely g et u ¢ d P = F ¢ u d t = d E . G iv en th e
d P in a tim e in terva l d t. F ro m th e rela tio n d P = F d t

fo rm o f E , it is n ow a n elem en ta ry m a tter to v erify th a t


th e to ta l m o m en tu m o f th e ° u id ° ow is g iv en b y

P = 4¼ ½A ¡ ½V 0u : (1 8 )

W e see th a t th is is, in g en era l, n o n -zero . In th e ca se


The need for o f th e sp h ere it d o es g iv e (1 = 2 )m d isp u ; th is is w h a t w e
regularizing the w o u ld h av e n a iv ely ex p ected . O f co u rse, th e a rg u m en t
problem by is d esig n ed to g iv e th is.
introducing a very
large but finite T h e n eed fo r reg u la rizin g th e p ro b lem b y in tro d u cin g a
volume for the total v ery la rg e b u t ¯ n ite v o lu m e fo r th e to ta l ° u id b eco m es
fluid becomes more m o re a p p a ren t w h en w e stu d y th e sa m e resu lt in th e rest
apparent when we
fra m e o f th e sp h ere. In th is fra m e, w e h av e a sp h ere
o f ra d iu s a lo ca ted a ro u n d th e o rig in a n d th e ° u id is
study the same
° ow in g p a st it. T h e b o u n d a ry co n d itio n a t in ¯ n ity is
result in the rest

a co n sta n t va lu e ¡ u a t la rg e d ista n ces. T h is is ea sily


n ow d i® eren t a n d w e ex p ect th e ° u id v elo city to rea ch
frame of the sphere.

810 RESONANCE  September 2008


SERIES  ARTICLE

a ch iev ed b y a d d in g a co n sta n t electric ¯ eld to a d ip o le in


th e electro sta tic ca se. T h is lea d s to a v elo city p o ten tia l
o f th e fo rm
A ¢n
à = ¡ r ¢u + Á = ¡ r ¢u ¡ : (1 9 )
r2
W e d en o te th e v elo city p o ten tia l in th e rest fra m e b y Ã
to d istin g u ish it fro m th e v elo city p o ten tia l in th e la b
fra m e Á . L et u s n ow a sk w h a t is th e k in etic en erg y o f

° u id v elo city n ow is V = v ¡ u . T h e k in etic en erg y in


th e ° u id in th is fra m e in w h ich th e b o d y is a t rest. T h e

th e rest fra m e w ill b e


Z Z
d x ½ V = ½ d 3 x v 2 + u 2 ¡ 2v ¢u
3 1 2 1 £ ¤
K rest =
Z
2 2
½ d 3 x u 2 ¡ u ¢ P la b + K la b :
1
= (2 0 )
2
W e see th a t th e la st term is th e k in etic en erg y in th e
la b fra m e co m p u ted a b ov e, w h ich is q u ite w ell-d e¯ n ed .
T h e seco n d term is a m b ig u o u s a n d va n ish es if w e u se
sp h erica l reg u la riza tio n w h ile is g iv en b y (1 8 ) if w e u se

K la b ¡ u ¢ P la b = ¡ (1 = 4 )m d isp u 2 is n egative. T h e ¯ rst


lo ca l en erg y co n serva tio n a rg u m en ts. In th e la tter ca se,

term , h ow ev er, w ill b e d iv erg en t if w e ta k e th e v o lu m e o f


th e ° u id to b e in ¯ n ite a n d is p o sitiv e. T h is d iv erg en ce

th en m o st o f it w ill b e m ov in g w ith a v elo city ¡ u in th e


a rises b eca u se if th e ° u id ex ten d s a ll th e w ay to in ¯ n ity

rest fra m e o f th e sp h ere. T h is w ill co n trib u te a n in ¯ n ite


a m o u n t o f k in etic en erg y. W h ile q u ite u n d ersta n d a b le,
it sh ow s th a t G a lilea n in va ria n ce n eed s to b e u sed w ith Address for Correspondence
ca re in th e p resen ce o f a n ex tern a l m ed iu m . T Padmanabhan
IUCAA, Post Bag 4
Suggested Reading Pune University Campus
Ganeshkhind
[1] L D Landau, E M Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics, Section 10,11, Pergamon,
Pune 411 007, India.
1989.
Email:
[2] T E Faber, Fluid Mechanics for Physicists, Section 4.8, Cambridge
paddy@iucaa.ernet.in
University Press, 1995.
nabhan@iucaa.ernet.in

RESONANCE  September 2008 811