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The process of teacher change as a

consequence of professional development


Luis F. Tinoca, Maria Odete Valente
Centro de Investigao em Educao,
University o Lis!on, "#$% Lis!on, &ortugal
Abstract:
T'is study investigates t'e eects o (roessional develo(ment or science
teac'ers on student learning. It is usually e)(ected t'at (roessional develo(ment
(rograms (ositively im(act student learning, 'o*ever t'is dimension is not commonly
incor(orated in t'e (rograms evaluation. T*o main researc' +uestions are addressed, "-
.oes student learning im(rove as a conse+uence o t'e (rogram/ 0- 1o* does teac'er
(ractice c'ange as a conse+uence o t'e (rogram/ To ans*er t'ese +uestions a
re(resentative (rogram *as c'osen *it' t'e c'aracteristics identiied 'as more relevant
to im(act student learning 2Tinoca and 3arualdi, 044#-. 5 signiicant im(act on student
learning 'as !een ound and a +ualitative descri(tion o teac'ers (ractice illustrating t'eir
c'ange *as develo(ed.
Introduction
I t'e correlation !et*een student learning and student ac'ievement is acce(ted,
t'e real +uestion !ecomes, 67'at actors determine overall student ac'ievement/8
9everal actors 'ave !een identiied as contri!uting to student ac'ievement, i.e., student
c'aracteristics suc' as socio:economic status, limited Englis' (roiciency and minority
status; (er:(u(il s(ending; (u(il teac'er ratios; class si<es; and teac'er +uality. O t'e
aore mentioned actors, teac'er +uality is t'e most 'ig'ly correlated *it' student
learning 2.arling:1ammond; "$$$-
65s noted in t'e e)tensive !ody o evidence cited t'roug'out t'is re(ort, researc'
is conirming t'at good teac'ing does matter8 2=>C, 044"; (. #-. T'e Committee on
9cience and Mat'ematics teac'er (re(aration clearly em('asi<es t'e crucial im(ortance
o teac'ers on student ac'ievement and learning in !ot' science and mat'ematics. 7it'
t'is in mind, t'e Committee (rovides a series o recommendations targeting !ot' (re:
service teac'er education and teac'er (roessional develo(ment, *it' t'e intent to
im(rove teac'er education due to its ultimate im(act on student learning. One o t'e
Committee recommendations states, 6=e* >esearc' t'at ocuses !roadly on synt'esi<ing
data across studies and lin?ing it to sc'ool (ractice @ *ould !e es(ecially 'el(ul to t'e
im(rovement o teac'er education and (roessional develo(ment8 2(. "0"-. In an earlier
*or? 2"$$$- t'e =ational >esearc' Council is also saying t'at 6>esearc' studies are
needed to determine t'e eicacy o various ty(es o (roessional develo(ment activities
@e)tended over time and across !road teac'er learning communities8 2(. 0#4-
7it'out overloo?ing t'e im(ortance o (re:service teac'er education, no matter
'o* eective it is, *'at 'a((ens once teac'ers are actually *or?ing in t'e ield during
t'eir induction and su!se+uent years seems to !e 'ig'ly determinative o t'eir continuous
gro*t' and develo(ment as a teac'er 2Lut, >oe'rig, A &atterson, 044B-. T'ereore, any
study concerned *it' im(roving teac'er +uality, must (ay s(ecial attention to t'e ?ind o
(roessional develo(ment t'at is (rovided to t'em. Moreover, i t'e ultimate goal o
im(roving teac'er +uality is also to conse+uentially im(rove student learning, it is
im(erative to evaluate t'e im(act o (roessional develo(ment (rograms on student
learning.
Theoretical Framework
Even t'oug' t'e maCority o &roessional develo(ment (rograms in t'e last B4
years *ere not conce(tuali<ed as a system im(acting student learning, !ut only ocusing
on teac'er outcomes. 9ome aut'ors 2Dus?ey, "$EF- 'ave already advanced t'e
im(ortance conce(tuali<ing &roessional .evelo(ment t'roug' its ultimate im(act on
students.
Dus?ey 2"$EF, "$$G- (resented a model 2Figure "- o teac'er c'ange (rocess t'at
teac'ers go t'roug' *'en (artici(ating in (roessional develo(ment (rograms. T'is
model 'as t'e (roessional develo(ment (rogram as t'e initial triggering mec'anism in
t'e c'ange (rocess. 1o*ever, it recogni<es t'at t'e student learning outcomes, as
o!served !y t'e teac'ers ater t'ey 'ave transormed t'eir classroom (ractices, are a
determinant in (romoting teac'ersH c'ange in !elies and attitudes.
S T A F F
D E V E L O P M E N T
C h a n g e i n
T E A C H E R S
C L A S S R O O M
P R A C T I C E S
C h a n g e i n
S T U D E N T
L E A R N I N G
O U T C O M E S
C h a n g e i n
T E A C H E R S
B E L I E F S A N D
A T T I T U D E S
Figure ", 5 Model o t'e (rocess o Teac'er C'ange 2Dus?ey, "$EF-
T'ere are several models o (roessional develo(ment (resent in t'e literature,
one o t'e most evolved ones is (resented !y Louc?s:1orsley, 1e*son, Love, and 9tiles
2"$$E- 2Figure 0- or designing (roessional develo(ment (rograms or teac'ers o
science and mat'ematics. T'is rame*or? em('asi<es t'e continuous and circular design
(ermeating t'e im(lementation o (roessional develo(ment (rograms. T'is design is
inused !y t'e continuous relection !ased on t'e outcomes o t'e (rogram to reevaluate
and urt'er im(rove it.
S e t G o a l s P l a n D o R e l e ! t
C o n t e " t C # i t i ! a l
I s s $ e s
% n o & l e ' g e
( B e l i e s
S t # a t e g i e s
Figure 0, &roessional .evelo(ment .esign &rocess or Mat'ematics and 9cience Education >eorm
2Louc?s:1orsley et al., "$$E-
1ein 2"$$G- (resented a vie* o t'e U.9. Educational 9ystem *'ere student
learning *as t'e ultimate goal and t'e teac'ers *ere (ortrayed as t'e main level Cust
!eore students t'roug' *'ic' t'at goal could !e ac'ieved. =onet'eless, according to
1ein at t'at time 6t'e evaluation o Teac'er En'ancement eorts must ocus on
o!serva!le outcomes or teac'ers @ 2!ecause- t'e researc' !ase t'at lin?s teac'er
!e'avior and student learning is still inade+uate8 2(. "F"-.
One may argue t'at (roessional develo(ment researc'ers must (lace student
learning at t'e center o t'e educational system, and also t'at it must inorm and
inluence t'e ste(s rig't a!ove it, teac'er (roessional develo(ment in (articular, since
t'e teac'ers are one o t'e greatest inluences on student learning.
3ased on t'e (resented models and rame*or?s or t'e structure o (roessional
develo(ment and its im(act on teac'er c'ange, and on t'is researc'erHs irm !elie t'at
student learning s'ould !e t'e ocal (oint o t'e educational system, a t'eoretical
rame*or? or (roessional develo(ment *as develo(ed 2Figure B-. T'is rame*or?
relects t'ese researc'erHs values a!out *'at s'ould guide (roessional develo(ment
(rograms. T'ree concentric domains c'aracteri<e t'e rame*or?. It includes t'e student
learning domain, a teac'ersH c'angeIevolution domain, and a (roessional develo(ment
domain.
C'ange is a com(licated (rocess, not an event 2Louc?s:1orsley A >oody, "$$4-.
It is not reasona!le to e)(ect teac'ers to c'ange overnig't !ecause o t'eir (artici(ation
in a (roessional develo(ment (rogram. T'e im(act on teac'ersH !elies and attitudes is
muc' more (ro!a!le to !ecome a reality ater t'ey notice an im(rovement in t'eir student
learning outcomes t'an !eore. 1o*ever, intensive and e)tensive ollo* u( activities o
t'e (roessional develo(ment (rogram are ot'er essential re+uirements to nurture teac'er
c'ange.
T'e (roessional develo(ment domain *it' our main stages 29et goals, &lan, .o
and >elect- ada(ted rom Louc?s:1orsley et al. 2"$$E- is incor(orated *it'in t'is
rame*or?. T'e initial stage is t'e Doal 9etting &'ase t'at s'ould immediately start !y
ormulating its goals in terms o student learning outcomes, even t'oug' t'ere may !e
ot'er (arallel goals suc' as !uilding teac'er leaders'i( and im(roving teac'er retention.
Figure B, &roessional .evelo(ment T'eoretical Frame*or?

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T'e second stage is t'e &lan &'ase *'ere t'e (roessional develo(ment
(ractitioners develo( an action (lan. T'is (lan is im(lemented during t'e .oing &'ase
*'en t'e (roessional develo(ment (rogram actually interacts *it' t'e teac'ers.
T'e >election &'ase is a vital (art o t'e (roessional develo(ment (rogram
!ecause it is !ased on t'e actual results o t'e im(lemented (roessional develo(ment
(rogram on student learning and teac'erHs !elies. >evie*ing, during t'e >election
&'ase, accommodates necessary c'anges in t'e ne)t iteration o every (roessional
develo(ment (rogram.
5t t'e center o t'is rame*or? is t'e ultimate goal o t'e (roessional
develo(ment rame*or?, t'e student learning domain. Leading to t'e goal o student
learning is a c'ange or im(rovement in teac'erHs classroom (ractices, oten essential to
t'e im(rovement o student learning. Immediately ater student learning, teac'erHs !elies
are included, anc'ored in a t'eory o teac'er c'ange 2Dus?ey, "$EF; 1orsley A Louc?s:
1orsley, "$$E-.
On t'e (ro(osed rame*or?, t'e studentsH learning o!Cective is t'e center and
essentially t'e goal o t'e entire (rogram. T'e teac'ersH level is immediately a!ove it,
including teac'ersH classroom (ractices, !e'aviors, and !elies t'at 'ave t'e greatest
im(act on student learning !ut are also inluenced !y eed!ac? received rom studentsH
e)(eriences and outcomes. Finally, t'e (roessional develo(ment domain includes most
o t'e teac'ersH domain. It also includes t'e studentsH learning at its core, and *ill not
only inluence t'e teac'ers and t'e studentsH learning, !ut *ill also receive eed!ac? rom
t'e students and teac'er e)(eriences to restructure t'e goal setting and (lanning ('ases.
T'e teac'ersH domain goes !eyond t'e (roessional develo(ment domain o t'e
rame*or? !ecause (roessional develo(ment (rograms address only some o t'e issues
t'at aect a teac'erHs lie. 9ituations suc' as administrative environment, mandated
standardi<ed tests, and teac'ersH salaries are not *it'in t'e realm o (roessional
develo(ment (rograms !ut 'ave im(ortant conse+uences in any teac'ersH (ractice. In t'e
same *ay, t'e studentsH domain is e)tended !eyond !ot' t'e teac'er and t'e (roessional
develo(ment domains. 5lso in t'is case, some very im(ortant conditions suc' as num!er
o students (er class and amily environment are not *it'in t'e range o inluence o
eit'er teac'ers or (roessional develo(ers !ut do inluence student learning. Moreover,
t'e doted lines at t'e edge o eac' domain in Figure ".B re(resent t'e (ermea!ility o t'e
domains to e)ternal actors suc' as (olitics, economy, or mandated curriculum. T'ese
e)ternal actors, even t'oug' diicult to +uantiy, 'ave an im(act on t'e rame*or? and
must !e ac?no*ledged.
T'e ne)t ste( in t'is researc' is t'e evaluation o (roessional develo(ment
(rograms. T'e (ur(ose o t'e evaluation is to identiy t'e c'aracteristics t'at 'ave a
greater im(act on student learning. It is t'e o(inion o t'is researc'er t'at suc' researc'
s'ould !e conducted at a cross:cultural level com(aring (roessional develo(ment
(rograms rom dierent states, countries, and cultures. 5ssessing as many and as
dierent (roessional develo(ment (rograms as (ossi!le may !e a ruitul avenue o
urt'er investigations. .ierent cultures and countries 'ave (romoted (roessional
develo(ment (rograms *it' dierent degrees o success. Learning rom t'eir strengt's
and *ea?nesses is im(erative. T'ere is muc' to !e gained !y com(aring a variety o
(roessional develo(ment (rograms.
The %rofessional Development Domain
Encom(assing most o t'e teac'er and student domain is t'e (roessional
develo(ment domain *it' our main stages ada(ted rom Louc?s:1orsley et al. 2"$$E-.
T'e initial stage is t'e Doal 9etting &'ase t'at starts *it' t'e ormulation o goals in
terms o student learning outcomes, even t'oug' t'ere may also !e ot'er (arallel goals
suc' as !uilding teac'er leaders'i( and im(roving teac'er retention. T'e second stage is
t'e &lan &'ase, *'ere t'e (roessional develo(ment (ractitioners develo( an action (lan.
T'is (lan is im(lemented during t'e .oing &'ase *'en t'e (roessional develo(ment
(rogram actually interacts *it' t'e teac'ers. T'e >election &'ase is a vital (art o t'e
(roessional develo(ment (rogram !ecause it is !ased on t'e actual results o t'e
im(lemented (roessional develo(ment (rogram on student learning and teac'erHs
!elies. >evie*ing is al*ays im(osed in order to accommodate necessary c'anges in t'e
ne)t iteration o t'e (roessional develo(ment (rogram.
Shortcomings of traditional professional development programs
Many teac'ers identiy traditional (roessional develo(ment *it' s'ort, ater:
sc'ool initiatives commonly 'eld at t'e sc'ool li!rary or caeteria. T'ese are commonly
one:time initiatives in *'ic' t'e teac'ersH (artici(ation is oten mandated and organi<ed
!y t'e sc'ool administration. T'e to(ics are oten too !road or any given teac'er and
disconnected rom a((lication in t'eir o*n classrooms. T'e individual teac'er 'as little
or no (artici(ation in t'e decision ma?ing (rocess o *'at s'ould !e e)(lored, leaving
t'e teac'er disconnected rom t'e learning e)(erience 2OH3rien, "$$0-. In 'is revie* o
6eective8 guidelines or in:service *or?s'o(s, OH3rien 2"$$0- calls our attention to t'e
lac? o in(ut t'at t'e teac'ers usually 'ave in t'e e)(eriences (lanned or t'em.
Moreover t'e strategies, suc' as lecture, used are oten e)am(les o (oor and
ineective met'odology. 7or?s'o(s *'ere t'e teac'ers are lectured to are common and
t'e lac? o (artici(ation rom t'em ollo*s as a natural conse+uence 2>adord, "$$$-.
T'e outdated notion t'at learning comes in small actual (ieces is (assed along t'roug'
!oring im(ractical means. >adord 2"$$$- re(orts a!out t'e im(act o t'e (roCect LIFE
(roessional develo(ment (rogram, a t'ree *ee? summer *or?s'o(, on over $4 teac'ers
and 0"44 students. Even t'oug' 'is study does not control or initial dierences !et*een
t'e treatment and control grou(s, triangulation rom several data sources ma?es 'is
indings more ro!ust. 1e re(orts statistically signiicant gains on teac'ers and students
(rocess s?ills and attitudes to*ards science as a result o t'e LIFE (rogram.
Even t'oug' one recogni<es t'e im(ortant role o teac'ers in t'e success o t'e
educational enter(rise, t'ere is clearly a ga( !et*een t'e reorm goals and t'e (ractices in
(lace to translate t'em into reality. 2Lync', "$$G-. Teac'ers are not given t'e c'ance to
e)(erience t'e ne* reorm a((roac'es t'emselves. T'ey are only lectured to a!out *'at
to do. It is a classical case o 6do *'at I say not *'at I do8. Lync'Hs 2"$$G- study
e)(lores 'o* 0% science teac'ers interact *it' reorm !ased curricula suc' as t'e
=ational 9cience Education 9tandards 2=>C, "$$F- and &roCect 04F" 25559, "$E$-. 9'e
(oints out t'at 6eac' teac'er must construct or 'imsel or 'ersel a notion o *'at t'e
(articular reorm means@ since !eore a teac'er can !e em(o*ered to im(lement a
reorm eort, it must irst !e understood *ell and a((ear to !e im(lementa!le8 2(."#-.
7'at t'en are t'e s'ortcomings o traditional in:service (rograms/ 5ccording to
3arualdi 2"$$G, ada(ted- t'ey include,
5re ragmented, s'ort:term, and lac? ollo* u( activities
Lac? message and relevance to *'at actually 'a((ens in t'e teac'ersH
classrooms
5re o insuicient intensity and duration to ma?e a (ositive im(act on teac'erHs
(erormance and studentsH ac'ievement
Lac? incentives and do not res(ond to teac'ersH needs and concerns
Lac? !uilt:in release time or teac'ers to (lan ne* strategies and to interact *it'
ot'er teac'ers and (roessional develo(ment e)(erts
5re driven !y mandated re+uirements rat'er t'an !y student learningHs
5re too t'eoretical and lac? (ractical classroom a((lications and
develo(mentally a((ro(riate instruction
5re not aligned *it' recent develo(ments in curriculum, assessment, and
met'odology nor *it' tec'nological advances
Lac? science content rigor and are not t'oug't !y credi!le (roessionals in
science content and met'odology
.o not ma?e eective use o !usiness and industry e)(ertise and resources
Lac? colla!oration !et*een colleges o natural science and colleges o
education
5re not coordinated *it' (re:service teac'er (re(aration (rograms
T'ese s'ortcomings are ound in a *ide range o dierent settings all over t'e
*orld, even t'oug' *it' slig't c'anges. T'e lac? o time and incentives to attend
(roessional develo(ment activities, or e)am(le, c'anges a lot in dierent countries
21ayes, "$$G A 1o(?ins, "$EF-. 5ll t'ese s'ortcomings could !e easily identiied i t'e
teac'ers (artici(ating in traditional in:service teac'er education (rograms *ere invited to
evaluate t'em.
Keys for successful professional development (from the literature)
1o*ever, all is not lost in t'e 6?ingdom o teac'ing8. 9everal initiatives are
(romoting a (roound s'it in teac'er education to*ards more reorm oriented (ractices.
.es(ite t'e act t'at (roessional develo(ment (rograms dier greatly in t'eir conte)t
and s(eciicities, t'ere are several ?ey c'aracteristics t'at 'ave !een identiied as crucial
to im(rove t'eir success. 5mong t'em are elements uni+ue to adult learning, attention to
t'e c'ange (rocess in *'ic' teac'ers are engaged, duration o t'e (rogram, o((ortunities
or modeling e)em(lary (ractices, and a colla!orative structure.
Louc?s:1orsley et al 2"$$E- (resent seven (rinci(les or eective (roessional
develo(ment e)(eriences 2see Ta!le"-
Ta!le ", &rinci(les o eective (roessional develo(ment 2ada(ted rom Louc?s:1orsley et al, "$$E-
". 7ell deined image o eective classroom learning and teac'ing
0. &rovide o((ortunities or teac'ers to !uild t'eir ?no*ledge and s?ills
B. Use or model *it' teac'ers t'e strategies t'ey *ill use *it' t'eir students
#. 3uilding a learning community
%. 9u((ort teac'ers to serve in leaders'i( roles
F. &rovide lin?s to ot'er (arts o t'e education system
G. Continuously assessing t'emselves and ma?ing im(rovements
&roviding science teac'ers *it' t'e (edagogical content ?no*ledge 29'ulman,
"$EF-, t'at is a((ro(riate to t'eir area and re(resents t'e most recent reorm !ased
initiatives, is also one o t'e values t'at s'ould guide (roessional develo(ment (rograms.
&roviding teac'ers o((ortunities to e)(erience reorm:!ased curriculum *ill en'ance t'e
degree o reorm:!ased activity im(lementation in t'eir res(ective classrooms.
T'e duration o t'e (rograms 'as also !een reerenced as contri!uting to its
success 2La*ren<, "$E#; Lync', "$$G-. T'e longer t'e duration o t'e (rogram t'e
greater t'e c'ance t'at t'e teac'ers are engaged in learning and c'ange. Time is
necessary or teac'ers to relect u(on *'at t'ey are learning, and to (rocess and a((ly it
in t'eir o*n classrooms. Time is also necessary or t'em to s'are t'eir e)(eriences *it'
t'eir colleagues. La*ren<Hs 2"$E#- study se(arated teac'ers into t*o grou(s re(resenting
t*o dierent lengt's o (roessional develo(ment sessions, one grou( *it' "#4
(artici(ants in a s'orter, one:credit (rogram, and anot'er grou( *it' 0$F teac'ers in a
longer t'ree:credit (rogram. T'e researc'er im(lemented a very *ell designed
met'odology, *it' t'ree dierent instruments, re(orting t'e relia!ility o eac' one o
t'em. 5 (re:test, (ost:test design *as im(lemented *it' all t'ree instruments. 5
statistically signiicant dierence *as ound !et*een t'e im(act o t'e t*o dierent
duration (rograms on all levels tested. 5ttitudes to*ards science, t'e value o curricular
c'ange, t'e *illingness to (artici(ate, and t'e !elie in teac'ing s(eciic science conce(ts
all increased or t'e longer duration grou( and decreased or t'e s'orter duration grou(.
One ot'er c'aracteristic oten identiied as im(ortant or (roessional
develo(ment (rograms is t'e necessity o tailoring t'e (rogram to t'e teac'ers needs
23et'el, "$E0; Fletc'er, 3et'el A 3arualdi, 0444; Louc?s:1orsley et al, "$$E-. T'e
im(ortance o ta?ing into account t'e needs o t'e teac'ers is also (resent in t'e *or? o
3et'el 2"$E0-. 1is study, involving 0%# randomly c'osen elementary teac'ers, *as
tailored to meet t'eir s(eciic needs and re(orted increased test scores assessing t'e
teac'ersH ?no*ledge o science and, increased amount o time teac'ing science (er *ee?
rom E to "44 minutes.
The Teachers& Domain
On t'e (ro(osed rame*or?, t'e studentHs learning o!Cective is t'e center and
essentially t'e goal o t'e entire (rogram. T'e teac'erHs level is immediately a!ove it,
including teac'ersH classroom (ractices, !e'aviors, and !elies t'at 'ave t'e greatest
im(act on student learning !ut are also inluenced !y eed!ac? received rom t'e
studentsH e)(eriences and outcomes.
C'ange is a com(licated (rocess. It is not reasona!le to e)(ect teac'ers to c'ange
overnig't !ecause o t'eir (artici(ation in a (roessional develo(ment (rogram. T'e
im(act on teac'ersH !elies and attitudes is muc' more (ro!a!le to !ecome a reality ater
t'ey notice an im(rovement in t'eir studentsH learning outcomes t'an !eore. 1o*ever,
t'at is oten not enoug'; intensive and e)tensive ollo* u( activities o t'e (roessional
develo(ment (rogram are anot'er essential re+uirement to nurture teac'er c'ange.
T'e teac'ersH domain ollo*s t'e model (resented !y Dus?ey 2"$EF-. Teac'erHs
!elies are included anc'ored in t'e t'eory o teac'er c'ange 2Dus?ey, "$EF; 1orsley, A
Louc?s:1orsley, "$$E-. Teac'ers may !egin c'anging t'eir (ractice as a conse+uence o
t'eir (artici(ation in a (roessional develo(ment (rogram. 1o*ever, t'e dee(er and
'arder to ac'ieve c'ange in !elies and attitudes is muc' more li?ely to occur only later
ater t'ey see and e)(erience t'e im(act o t'e ne* (ractices t'at t'ey 'ave im(lemented
on t'e learning o t'eir students.
One essential (oint in t'is line o reasoning is t'at c'ange or evolution o
teac'ersH (ractices and !elies is not a sim(le (rocess. Moreover, ostering c'ange is
never easy and re+uires 'uge investments o time and 'ard *or?. Considering t'e
Concerns:3ased 5do(tion Model 2C35M- 21orsley, A Louc?s:1orsley, "$$E; Louc?s:
1orsley, A >oody, "$$4- descri!ed in Ta!les 0 and B, one reali<es t'at moving teac'ers
to 'ig'er stages o concern and levels o use is indeed very c'allenging.
Ta!le 0, T'e Concerns:3ased 5do(tion Model 2C35M- 2ada(ted rom Louc?s:1orsley, "$$4; 1orsley and
Louc?s:1orsley, "$$E-
Stages of 'oncern (pressions of concern
F >eocusing I 'ave some ideas a!out somet'ing t'at *ould *or? even !etter.
% Colla!oration I am concerned a!out relating *'at I am doing *it' *'at ot'ers are doing/
# Conse+uence 1o* is my use aecting ?ids/
B Management I seem to !e s(ending all my time in getting materials ready.
0 &ersonal 1o* *ill using it aect me/
" Inormational I *ould li?e to ?no* more a!out.
4 5*areness I am not concerned a!out it.
Ta!le B, Levels o Use 21orsley A Louc?s:1orsley, "$$E-
'haracteristic )ehavior
F >ene*al 9ee?s more eective alternatives to t'e esta!lis'ed use o innovation,
% Integration Ma?es deli!erate eorts to coordinate *it' ot'ers in using t'e innovation.
#3 >einement 5ssesses im(act and ma?es c'anges to increase it.
#5 >outine 1as esta!lis'ed a (attern o use and is ma?ing e*, i any, c'anges.
B Mec'anical Is (oorly coordinated, ma?ing c'anges to !etter organi<e use o t'e
innovation.
0 &re(aration &re(ares to use t'e innovation
" Orientation 9ee?s inormation a!out t'e innovation
4 =onuse Ta?es no action *it' res(ect to t'e innovation
T'is researc'er, relecting on 'is t'in?ing a!out t'e goals and models o
(roessional develo(ment recogni<ed t'at only t'ree years ago, 'e *as only at t'e 9tage "
o t'e levels o use. 1e t'oug't (roessional develo(ment *as a very im(ortant as(ect o
t'e educational system and soug't all t'e inormation t'at 'e could o!tain a!out more
innovative (roessional develo(ment (roCects. Even no*, 'e !elieves t'at 'e still 'asnHt
ac'ieved t'e 'ig'est level o use; 'e vie* 'imsel more at level %, since 'e tends to
coordinate 'is eorts *it' ot'ers a!out innovations. Teac'er c'ange is oten an essential
ste( to (romote student learning, !ut it is deinitely a lengt'y and com(licated (rocess,
ma?ing t'e case or teac'er (roessional develo(ment and e)tensive ollo* u( activities.
It must !e remem!ered t'at t'e 6teac'ers are learners and t'e (rinci(les o
learning and transer or student learners a((ly to teac'ers8 2=>C, "$$$; (g 0B"-. I *e
*ant teac'ers to develo( t'eir ?no*ledge to !etter teac' c'ildren *e must remem!er t'at
t'ey *ill need valua!le learning e)(eriences t'emselves as learners in order to !e a!le to
successully im(rove t'eir ?no*ledge. 9ome o t'e im(ortant t'emes related to 'o*
teac'ers learn include t'e ollo*ing 2Louc?s:1orsley A Matsumoto, "$$$, ada(ted-,
To gain meaning and dee( understanding, learners must !uild co'erent
structures o inormation organi<ed around core conce(ts or !ig ideas o a
disci(line, rat'er t'an collect acts and (rinci(les t'roug' memori<ation. T'us,
teac'ers need a sound oundation in t'e maCor ideas o t'e disci(lines t'ey teac'
and a dee( understanding o 'o* students come to learn t'ose disci(lines.
9tudies o e)(ert (erormance illustrate *'at successul learning loo?s li?e.
E)(erts use (ro!lem solving tec'ni+ues uni+ue to t'eir disci(lines to access
relevant (ieces o t'eir store o inormation. T'us teac'ers need to !e s?illed in
'o* to ma?e decisions a!out *'at students ?no*, *'at t'ey need to ?no*, and
'o* t'ey can !e 'el(ed to gain t'at ?no*ledge J and t'e ?no*ledge to 'el( t'eir
students to do so.
Learners need to understand maCor conce(ts and generali<ed (rinci(les, (lus
*'en and 'o* to a((ly *'at t'ey 'ave learned. T'us teac'ers need to ?no* *'at
?no*ledge to a((ly in *'at learning and teac'ing situations.
T'e o((ortunities and t'e tools or sel:assessment and t'e dis(osition to act on
inormation t'ey gat'er en'ance teac'ersH learning.
Learning is inluenced !y (artici(ation in a community, !y its norms, its
constraints and resources, and its limits and (ossi!ilities. T'us teac'er learning is
en'anced !y interactions t'at encourage t'em to articulate t'eir vie*s, c'allenge
t'ose o ot'ers, and come to !etter understandings as a community.
T'e (rocess o c'ange descri!ed !y t'e researc'er is *ell illustrated in Ta!le #
ada(ted rom t'e *or? o Louc?s:1orsley 2"$$%-,
Ta!le #, 5 &aradigm or &roessional .evelo(ment in Learner Centered 9c'ools 2ada(ted rom Louc?s:
1orsley, "$$%-
From Too *uch To *ore
Focus on teac'ers need s Focus on students learning outcomes
Focus on individual develo(ment Focus on individual and system develo(ment
Transmission o ?no*ledge, s?ills, and strategies In+uiry into teac'ing and learning
6&ull:out8 training Ko!:em!edded learning
Deneric teac'ing s?ills Content and content:s(eciic teac'ing s?ills
Fragmented, (iecemeal, one:s'ot e)(eriences .riven !y clear, co'erent, long:term strategic (lan
.istrict direction and decision ma?ing 9c'ool direction and decision ma?ing
&roessional develo(ment as some (eo(leHs Co!s &roessional develo(ment as everyoneHs Co!
&roessional develo(ment or teac'ers &roessional develo(ment or everyone
&roessional develo(ment as a 6rill8 &roessional develo(ment as essential
In order to acilitate t'e im(lementation o all t'ese c'anges, several as(ects
s'ould !e considered. 9(ar?s 2"$E$- 'as identiied ive necessary com(onents,
9c'ools (ossessing norms t'at su((ort collegiality and e)(erimentation
.istrict and !uilding administrators *'o *or? *it' sta to clariy goals and
e)(ectations, and actively commit to and su((ort teac'ersH eorts to c'ange t'eir
(ractice
Eorts t'at are strongly ocused on c'anges in curricular, instructional, and
classroom management (ractices *it' im(roved student learning as t'e goal.
5de+uate, a((ro(riate sta develo(ment e)(eriences *it' ollo*:u(
assistance t'at continues long enoug' or ne* !e'aviors to !e incor(orated into
ongoing (ractice.
Colla!oration is also regarded as a very (o*erul tool to oster teac'er c'ange
t'roug' (roessional develo(ment 23arualdi A >ein'art<, 044"-. In t'eir descri(tion o
t'e dynamics o colla!orations in a state:*ide (roessional develo(ment (rogram or
science teac'ers across Te)as, 3arualdi and >ein'art< 2044"- e)(lore t'e im(act and t'e
nature o colla!oration in 04 sites across t'e state. T'eir indings are summari<ed in Ta!le
%.
Ta!le %, Colla!oration 23arualdi and >ein'art< , 044" ((. "40,"4B-
". Colla!oration, *or?ing toget'er, rat'er t'an alone, can (roduce !eneicial results
0. Colla!oration is a learned (rocess
B. Incentives and re*ards are im(erative to sustain meaningul colla!oration
#. T'e degree or intensity o colla!oration *it'in a system is a multi:tiered (rocess
%. T'e interconnectivity o t'e system must !e *ell articulated
F. 9u((ort and encouragement are necessary to create lin?ages among t'e (artners, and to 'el( t'em
reali<e t'at t'ey can all learn orm ot'ers
The Students& Domain
5t t'e center o t'e rame*or? develo(ed or t'is study is t'e student learning
domain, t'e ultimate goal o t'e (roessional develo(ment rame*or?. Leading to t'e
goal o student learning is a c'ange or im(rovement in teac'ersH classroom (ractices,
essential to t'e im(rovement o student learning.
In+uiry and student ac'ievement 'ave received t'e least systematic attention in
t'e (roessional develo(ment literature 2Dus?ey, "$$G; Dus?ey A 9(ar?s, "$$F; 9aa!,
9teel, A 9'ive, "$$G; Teitel, "$$F; Valli, Coo(er, A Fran?s, "$$G-. T'ere is clearly a need
to identiy and conce(tuali<e (roessional develo(ment (rogramsH interactions *it'
student learning. Traditionally, (roessional develo(ment (rograms 'ave 'ad as t'eir
o!Cective *'at used to !e called t'e in:service education o L:"0 teac'ers. 1o*ever,
learning, not teac'ing is t'e issue and ultimate o!Cective. Teac'ing is one o our met'ods
o attem(ting to (romote learning *it'in our c'ildren.
Dus?ey 2"$$E- suggested ive dierent levels o (roessional develo(ment
evaluation. T'e levels are 'ierarc'ically arranged, rom sim(le to more com(le), *it'
success at a lo*er level !eing necessary to ac'ieve success at t'e levels t'at ollo*. T'e
suggested levels are,
": &artici(antsH reactions
0: &artici(antsH learning
B: Organi<ational su((ort and c'ange
#: &artici(antHs use o ne* ?no*ledge and s?ills
%: 9tudent learning outcomes
=aturally, t'e !ottom line in education is addressed in Level %, T'e im(act on
students 2Dus?ey, "$$E-. T'e actors res(onsi!le or t'e im(act on student learning must
!e identiied.
#esearch +uestions
T'e (ur(ose o t'is study is to investigate t'e eects o a Masters (rogram or
science teac'ers in t'eir (ractice and t'eir students learning. It is usually e)(ected t'at
(roessional develo(ment (rograms 'ave a (ositive im(act on student learning; 'o*ever
t'is dimension is not commonly incor(orated in t'e (rograms evaluation. T'e ollo*ing
are t'e researc' +uestions, "- 5re (roessional develo(ment (rograms eective in
en'ancing student learning in science/ 0- 1o* does teac'er (ractice c'ange as a
conse+uence o t'eir (artici(ation on t'e (roessional develo(ment (rogram/ B- 1o* do
t'e teac'ers (erceive t'eir o*n c'ange as a conse+uence o t'e (rogram/
*ethodolog,
9ince t'is study investigates t'e im(act o a (rogram on students, and teac'ers,
t'e c'oice o t'e (rogram to *or? *it' *as crucial. T'ereore, *e 'ave a c'osen a
(rogram *it' t'e c'aracteristics identiied in t'e literature as more relevant to im(act
student learning 2Tinoca and 3arualdi, 044#-. 5 (rogram ocused on curriculum
develo(ment, re(lacement, or im(lementation, scientiic in+uiry, (edagogical content
?no*ledge, lasting over F mont' and *it' a total duration o at least "44 'ours. T'e
c'osen (rogram *as t'e Masters degree or science teac'ers at t'e University o Lis!on,
&ortugal. T'is is a re(resentative (rogram o t'e (roessional develo(ment (racticed in
&ortugal, and c'osen !y a large num!er o teac'ers every year.
T'e (ro(osed met'odology accom(anies t'e teac'ers during B years. 9ince !eore
t'ey start on t'e (rogram until ater t'ey inis' it. 5ll t'e (artici(ating teac'ers 2"%- 'ave
!een intervie*ed t'roug'out t'e sc'ool year as *ell as "4 o t'eir students. Moreover
teac'ers and students 'ave com(leted surveys descri!ing t'eir classroom environment
and (ractices.
Figure #, Time Frame
Data Anal,sis and 'onclusions
T'e (resent results are only reerent to t'e irst year and a 'al o t'is (roCect.
1 year after
Post-eval.
1st year 2nd year
The Masters Program
Year 0
Pre-season
We are here
2 years after
Post-eval.
1 year after
Post-eval.
1st year 2nd year
The Masters Program
2 years after
Post-eval.
3 years after
Post-eval.
1 year after
Post-eval.
2nd year
M. Program
T'e classroom environment descri(tion 'as !een ac'ieved triangulating t'e data
availa!le rom t'e teac'ers and students surveys, teac'ers and students intervie*s and
classroom o!servations. T'e +ualitative descri(tion o t'e teac'ers classroom (ractice
clearly s'o*s a tendency to c'ange in t'eir (ractices, rom a lecture style to a more
student directed environment. Moreover, *'en relecting on t'e classroom environment,
students and teac'ers are a!le to identiy t'e ne* (ractices (resent in t'eir classroom.
T'e &roessional .evelo(ment structure o!served in t'is (rogram enactment,
o!serves most o t'e c'aracteristics recommended in t'e literature. It creates a learning
community *it' t'e teac'ers and (roessors; it models meaningul teac'ing strategies in
t'e classroom (roviding teac'ers an o((ortunity to !uild t'eir ?no*ledge. T'ese
c'aracteristics are not only identiied !y t'e (roessors in c'arge o t'e (rogram, !ut also
!y t'e enrolled teac'ers.
T'e c'ange (rocess t'at t'e teac'ers are e)(eriencing is !eing trac?ed using t'e
teac'er c'ange models (resented !y Fuller 2"$F$- and Louc?s:1orsley 2"$$"- 2Ta!le F-.
T'e act t'at *e are still only in t'e second year o t'e (rogram is relected !y t'e act
t'at most teac'ers are still in early stages o t'eir c'anging (rocesses, still revealing a
relection centered around t'eir (ractices, and t'e need to !ecome a !etter teac'er. 5lso in
accordance *it' t'e (resented models, more e)(erienced teac'ers already reveal some
degree o concern centered on t'e im(act o t'eir c'ange on t'e students.
Ta!le F, 7'ere are t'e teac'ers, =um!er o teac'ers in eac' stage o t'e C35M model
9tages o
Concern
&ercentage o teac'ers in eac' level
Mear 4 2nN"%- Mear " 2nN"B- Mear 0 2nN$-
F >eocusing 4 4 4
% Colla!oration 4 4 "
# Conse+uence 4 4 B
B Management 4 0 #
0 &ersonal 0 G "
" Inormational "0 # 4
4 5*areness " 4 4
Furt'ermore, t'e teac'er intervie*s and surveys *ere also used to e)(lore t'e
reasons identiied !y t'e teac'ers or t'eir c'ange. T'e teac'ers *'en relecting on t'e
conse+uences o t'eir c'ange 'ave identiied some o t'e c'aracteristics o t'e
(roessional develo(ment (rogram identiied 'as more relevant in t'e literature. T'ey
ocused on t'e im(ortance o t'e continuous su((ort t'roug'out t'e sc'ool year, t'e
ocus on (edagogical content ?no*ledge, curriculum develo(ment, and im(lementation,
and scientiic in+uiry.
Finally, ot'er t'emes emerged rom t'e intervie*s. One o t'e most (reeminent
ones is t'e reason or t'e Masters (rogram in t'e irst (lace. Teac'ers (erceive t'e degree
as a *ay to im(rove t'eir (ractice. In t'eir *ords,
a space of reflection for teachers, theoretically framed, and bridging the way to our
school practice
an opportunity to update my knowledge, and learn about the research that has been
done in the last years after I left college, specifically in science education
improve my practice and curriculum knowledge
On t'e ot'er 'and, &roessors *'o are t'e instructors or t'e courses see t'e (rogram as
an academic endeavor to create ne* ?no*ledge, a new generation of teachers
One ot'er emerging t'eme is t'e lac? o time (erceived !y t'e teac'ers as an
'andica( to*ards t'eir im(rovement in t'e classroom, this is a very busy year with all
the classes here and at school! I hope ne"t year I will have more time to implement more
of these ideas
Implications
&roessional develo(ment s'ould !e careully designed considering its im(act on
student learning and t'e *ay to (romote c'ange in t'e teac'ers to ac'ieve it. C'ange is a
very com(licated (rocess; a (rogram t'at ta?es t'at into consideration is recogni<ed !y
t'e teac'ers. Teac'ers are *illing to im(rove t'eir (ractice and e)(ect t'e (rogram to
'el( t'em do so. T'ey are critical o it, and identiy s(eciic c'aracteristic o t'e
(rograms t'at t'ey eel are t'e most relevant.
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