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1) Define the terms Approach and method

refers to theories about the nature of language and language learning that
serve as the
source of practices and principles in language teaching.
An approach is axiomatic. It describes the nature of the subject matter to be
is an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material, no part of
which contradicts, and all of which is based upon the selected approach.
An approach is axiomatic, a method is procedural.
Within one approach there can be many methods
... is a systematic plan as to how language is to be taught, an overall plan for the
orderly presentation of language material, based on a particular approach,
... is procedural,
... consists of a set of required classroom procedures, which are based on
the theories of the methods associated approach.
... is that which actually taes place in the classroom,
... is a particular tric, strategem, or contrivance used to accomplish an
immediate objective,
... is a speci!c activity manifested in the classroom which is consistent
with a method and therefore in harmony with an approach as well,
... is implementational,
"he arrangement is hierarchical. "he organi#ational ey is that techniques carry out
method which is consistent with an approach
Anthony $%&'(&')*+
2) How are the terms approach, method and technique related?
3) Man models ha!e "een descri"ed and used in the histor of lan#ua#e teachin#$ %i!e a
"rief description of the followin# &
a$ %rammar translation
"$ Audio'lin#ualism
c$ (u##estiopedia
d$ )*+
e$ )he silent ,a
f$ -..
#$ -ommunicati!e .an#ua#e )eachin#
Principal characteristics
Principles o the Gra!!ar"Translation Metho#$
When you apply the ,rammar - "ranslation .ethod, a fundamental
purpose of learning a foreign language is to be able to read
literature written in the target language. "o do this, students need to
learn about the grammar rules and vocabulary of the target language.
It is believed that studying a foreign language provides
students with good mental exercise which helps develop their minds.
"he teacher is the authority in the classroom.
"he students have a passive role to play. "hey study grammar
deductively, i.e. they are given the grammar rules and examples
and then are ased to apply the rules to produce further examples.
"hey memori#e !rst language equivalents for
foreign language vocabulary.
"here is no student)student interaction.
/iterary language is considered superior to spoen language.
0ulture is viewed as consisting of literature and the !ne
1ronunciation is given little, if any, attention.
2tudents are evaluated through written tests in which they are ased to
translate from or into the target
3rros are serious problems, constantly discouraged and penali#ed.
Teacher's (oals
$. "eachers want the students to acquire a set of habits and 4overlearn5 the
language so that they can use it automatically6 as they believe language
learning is 4habits formation5 , they try to create those habits in their
students through choral repetition of drills.
Teacher's role
7. "he teacher is lie an orchestra conductor, the centre of attention, a good
model to imitate by the students
Characteristics o the teachin()learnin( process
'. 8ialogues are presented to the students and they have to learn them
through repetition, imitation and memori#ation. 8rills 9mechanical
repetition of models+ are used to practise the patterns presented in the
Nat*re o st*#ent&teacher interaction
:. .ost of the interaction that taes place is between the teacher and the
students, ) individually or in chorus) and is always initiated by the teacher.
When students practise chain drills, they interact with each other but this
does not constitute a central part of the lesson and they interact in a
mechanical way.
+hat a%o*t st*#ents'eelin(s
;. Audiolingualism does not provide a speci!c theory nor does it prescribe any
practice with respect to students feelings, so their treatment very much
depends on each individual teacher.
,ie-s on lan(*a(e an# c*lt*re
&. /anguage is a collection of structures and learning them is a question of
habit formation6 these structures are of three inds( phonological 9sounds+,
morphological 9word formation+ and syntactic 9how words are combined
into patterns to form sentences+. 0ulture is the everyday behaviour of the
/7 speaers.
E!phasis on lan(*a(e s.ills
*. 2tructures are more important than any other areas, therefore the syllabus
is structural. <ocabulary plays a secondary role, and is used mainly to
contextualise the structures. "he sills are presented strictly in the
following order( listening, speaing, reading and writing. "he last two are
only integrated after the !rst two have been mastered.
Role o st*#ent's nati/e lan(*a(e
=. "he students /$ is a source of interference with the /7 they are trying to
learn, so its use is prohibited in the classroom.
%. 2tudents are mainly evaluated through testing of the structures and
phonological features and each exercise tests a particular structure at a
time. "ests are structure)based, sometimes requiring that students
complete gaps with the correct tense or form of a verb which is generally
provided . 2tudents are expected to distinguish sounds in words presented
in minimal pairs.
Teacher's response to errors
$>. ?ollowing the belief that learning a language is a process of habit
formation, errors are to be prevented at all costs. "eachers mae sure they
do not leave the students much room for error, controlling their production
at the early stages. If during successive stages errors are committed, they
are pointed out immediately so that negative reinforcement taes place.
2uggestopedia, also nown as 8esuggestopedia, is a teaching method consisting of
a set of learning recommendations used to optimi#e the way in which students learn
a language.
8eveloped by the @ulgarian psychiatristAeducator ,eorgi /o#anov, 2uggestopedia
derived from 2uggestology6 a science focused on the systematic study of the nonA
conscious inBuences people permanently respond to.
2ome of the main characteristics proposed by this method to achieve successful
language learning concentrate on the arrangement, furniture and decoration of the
classroom, as well as on the authoritative behavior of the teacher and music
/o#anov claims 4memori#ation in learning by suggestopedic method seems to be
accelerated 7; times over that in learning by conventional methods5. In fact, he
sees such dramatic results in its use that he believes suggestology would be useful
in every sector of public life.
?rom yoga and 2oviet psychology, /o#anov has borrowed and modi!ed techniques
for altering states of consciousness and concentration, and the use of rhythmic
.ajor role of music and musical rhythm to learning complete this ind of therapy
woring method since music relaxes learners and introduces the presentation of
linguistic material.
"he emphasis on memori#ation of vocabulary pairs - a targetAlanguage item and its
native translation - suggests a view of language in which lexis is central and in
which lexical translation rather than contextuali#ation is stressed.
/o#anov does occasionally refer to the importance of experiencing language
material in 4whole meaningful texts5 and notes that a suggestopedic course directs
4the students not to vocabulary memori#ation and acquiring habits of speech, but
to the acts of communication5.
In describing course wor and text organi#ation /o#anov refers most often to the
language to be learned as 4the material5. 4"he new material that is to be learned is
read and recited by a wellAtrained teacher5.
2uggestion is at the heart of the theory of learning underlying 2uggestopedia.
/o#anov distinguishes his theory of suggestion from the narrow clinical concept of
hypnosis and other forms of mind control since these other forms lac 4a
dessugestiveAsuggestive sense5.
"here are six principal theoretical components through which dessugestion and
suggestion operate and that set up access to reserves.
1eople remember best and are most inBuenced by information coming from an
authoritative source. 0ommitment to the method, selfAcon!dence, personal
distance, acting ability, and a highly positive attitude give the teacher an
authoritative air.
Authority is also used to suggest a teacherAstudent relation lie that of parent to
child. In the childCs role the learner taes part in role playing, games, songs, and
gymnastic exercises that help 4the other student regain selfAcon!dence, spontaneity
and receptivity of the child5
"he learner learns not only from the eDect of direct instruction but from the
environment in which the instruction taes place. "he bright dEcor of the classroom,
the musical bacground, the shape of the chairs, and the personality of the teacher
are considered as important in instruction as the form of the institutional material
@oth intonation and rhythm are coordinated with a musical bacground. "he musical
bacground helps to induce a relaxed attitude, which /o#anov refers to as concert
pseudoApassiveness. "his state is said to be optimal for learning6 while anxieties and
tension are relieved, power of concentration for new material is raised.
"he main aim is to deliver advanced conversational pro!ciency quicly. /o#anov
said that Hthe main aim of teaching is not memori#ation, but the understanding and
creative solution to problemsH 9/o#anov $%*=(7;$+
"he course is held in '> days and contains $> units. It is organi#ed in : hours a day,
& days a wee.
3ach unit consists of a dialogue activity consisting of $,7>> words which has a
vocabulary list and a grammatical comment attached to it.
"here is a pattern of wor within each unit and for the whole course. 8ialogues are
graded by lexis and grammar.
In the middle of the course students use the target language in every day situations
and by the end of the course students are expected to perform a play based on the
material studied. Written tests are given throughout the course and are taen into
account at the end of it.
"here are a variety of activities such as imitation, question and answer and roleA
play. "he ones that are original to suggestopedia are the listening activities during
the lesson.
2tudents volunteer for a suggestopedic course. "hey have to be committed to the
class and its activities.
2moing and drining are prohibited or discouraged in class and around the school
during the course. "hese help students to maintain a mental state ready for
2tudents must focus on the material given.
/earners now the absolute authority of the teacher. In addition to this, they have to
tolerate and encourage their own Hinfantili#ationH
/earners are given a new name to use during the course. "hey are divided in groups
of learners ideally socially homogeneous. "welve in number, divided equally
between men and women.
"hey sit in a circle in order to let them have a faceAtoAface exchange and activity
/o#anov lists several expected teacher behaviors(
$. 2how absolute con!dence in the method.
7. 8isplay fastidious conduct in manners and dress.
'. Frgani#e properly and strictly observe the initial stages of the teaching
process 9I+
:. .aintain a solemn attitude towards the session.
;. ,ive tests and respond tactfully to poor papers.
&. 2tress global 9I+ attitudes towards material.
*. .aintain a modest enthusiasm.
9/o#anov $%*=( 7*;A&+
"here are two inds of instructional materials( direct support materials 9primarily
text and tape+ and indirect support materials 9classroom !xtures and music+.
"ext boos should have emotional force, literary quality, and interesting characters.
H"raumatic themes and distasteful lexical materials should be avoidedH 9/o#anov
"he learning environment plays a central role in 2uggestopedia. "hat is, the
appearance of the classroom 9bright and cheery+, the furniture 9reclining chairs
arranged in a circle+ and the music 9@aroque largo+.
"he procedure of a typical class of 2uggestopedia might consist of several parts(
Fral review section or 1relude( In this phase a review of the previous contents
that have been learned taes place. A discussion is made between the teacher
and the students. "he teacher then proceeds to pre teach what is going to be
?irst concert reading( Jew material is introduced. "he teacher plays classical
music 9@aroque music+ and reads the text boo as the students follow himKher
on theirs. It is very important to use appropriate pronunciation and intonation
in order to generate the right climax for the class.
8ecoding( Acquisition of the language presented on the text is propitiating.
"he teacher is supposed to give explanations in this phase. Goes are very
important also, in order to mae the students feel more comfortable.
Activation( ,ames phase, including ball games, body movement,
competitions, etc. "hose reinforce what they have learned before. 3.g.6 Wor
on pronunciation.
Lelaxation concert( ?inal part of the 2uggestopedia class. 1laying the @aroque
music again, students tae their time to relax, breath and stretch in order to
retain all the information. ?inally they leave the class slowly. "his is what
2uggestopedia is best nown for.
"o learn a second language using the 2uggestopedia method requires an
atmosphere that is comfortable and relaxing. 2tudents learn best when techniques
such as art and music are added to the learning process. "his method focuses on
the environment and the development of the brain capacity.
"he main characteristics of this method are( how to believe in the power of the
brain, playing soft music to mae students relax, maing classrooms as comfortable
as possible for students, decorate the classroom with peripheral aids. Another
important characteristic of 2uggestopedia is to encourage learners to assume new
target language identities, employing roleAplaying activities.
2uggestopedia has had its critics. An important one we should mention is that for
maing use of this method, teachers face some troubles6 music and comfortable
chairs are not available at times...
.oreover, this method is an attempt to teach memori#ation techniques and does
not aim at comprehensive sills.
Jevertheless, we consider that this method is a very good one, the use of it
combined with some others such as "1L could have great and eMcient results.
"1L is a method developed by 8r. Games Asher to aid learning second languages.
"his method became popular in the $%*>s.
"1L relies on the assumption that when learning a second or additional language,
language is internali#ed through a process of code breaing similar to !rst language
development and that the process allows for a long period of listening and
developing comprehension prior to production.
"he method is based on the premise that the human brain has a biological program
for acquiring any natural language on earth.
"he process is visible when we observe how infants internali#e their !rst language.
0ommunication between parents and their children combines both verbal and
physical aspects. "he child responds physically to the speech of his or her parents.
"he responses of the child are in turn positively reinforced by the speech of the
parent. ?or many months the child absorbs the language without being able to
spea. It is during this period that the internali#ation and code breaing occurs.
After this stage the child is able to reproduce the language spontaneously. With "1L
the language teacher tries to mimic this process in class.
In the classroom the teacher and students tae on roles similar to that of the parent
and child respectively. 2tudents must respond physically to the words of the
teacher. "he activity may be a simple game such as Simon Says or may involve
more complex grammar and more detailed scenarios.
"1L can be used to practice and teach various things. It is well suited to teaching
classroom language 94Fpen your boos5+, and other vocabulary connected with
It can be used to teach imperatives and various tenses. It is also useful for storyA
telling and to give instructions 942tand up5, 42it down5+.
A#/anta(es o TPR
"1L may be a useful alternative teaching strategy for students
with dyslexia or related learning disabilities, who typically experience
diMculty learning foreign languages with traditional classroom instruction.
2tudents will enjoy getting up out of their chairs and moving around.
0lass si#e need not be a problem.
It wors eDectively for children and adults.
Disa#/anta(es o TPR
It does not give students the opportunity to express their own thoughts in a
creative way.
It is repetitive.
"he nature of "1L places an unnaturally heavy emphasis on the use of
the imperative mood, that is to say commands such as Nsit downN and Nstand
upN. "hese features are of limited utility to the learner, and can lead to a
learner appearing rude when attempting to use his new language.
it is easy to overuse.
It can be a challenge for shy students.
90aleb ,attegno+
4I donCt teach, I let them learn.5
"heory of /anguage
"raditional lexicoAgrammatical syllabuses.
2trong emphasis on grammar and grammatical accuracy.
3xplicit ,rammar rules may never be supplied.
"he syllabus develops according to learning needs.
/$ can be used if necessary to give instructions, to help a student improve
pronunciation. Also used in feedbac sessions.
"heory of /earning
2ilence, is an aid to alertness, concentration, and mental organi#ation.
/earners need to feel secure about learning and to assume conscious control
of learning.
3mploys problem solving activities that involve the use of special chart and
colored rods.
Jear native Buency.
0orrect pronunciation.
.astery of the prosodic elements of the target language (prosody is the
rhythm, stress, and intonation of speech+
1rovide the learner with a basic practical nowledge of the grammar.
2s should be able to use the language for selfAexpression.
"eacherCs Lole
teacher is responsible for creating an environment that encourages student ris
taing and that facilitates learning through the use of gestures,
Is silent.
,ive help if necessary.
?orce students awareness.
"o lead students to mae discoveries through their own insights 9"heory of
2ubordination of "eaching to /earning+
Jo formal correction.
2tudents Lole
.ae use of what they now.
?ree themselves from obstacles that interfere in focusing their attention.
Actively engage in exploring the language.
2tudents verbal interaction is desirable O encouraged.
2elfAcorrection 9innerAcriteria+
"he role of instructional materials
"he 2ilent Way is as well now for the silence of its teachers as for the
unique nature of its teaching materials which are designed for manipulation
by the students as well as by the teacher, independently and cooperatively,
in promoting language learning by direct association.
0uisenaire rods
0olor charts( "he 2oundA0olor 0hart is used for wor on pronunciation of
sounds and words. 3ach color represents a sound, so rectangles with two
colors are a blend of two sounds. "his chart helps with pronunciation
because students are not distracted by the shape of a letter, and perhaps
how that letter is read in their own language.
?idel chart
Word 0harts
2ounds are introduced through a speci!c soundAcolor chart.
"s lead ss to associate the "/, sounds with colors.
2ame colours help ss learn spelling and how to read O pronounce properly.
"s set up situations.
22 express how they felt.
"eacherCs silence.
1eer correction.
2elfAcorrection gestures.
Word chart.
?idel charts.
2tructured feedbac.
?ive minutes sample /esson
"opic ( 8ays of the wee
"eaching ,oal ( /et students now days of the wee .
"eaching .ethods ( "he 2ilent Way
Fbjectives ( "o learn the days of the wee. 9recogni#e and pronounce+
1rocedures( warm up 9' min.+
$. 2how the calendar to 2s. /et them now what they will learn today.
1resentation(I 9* min+
8ays of the wee
90harles 0urran+
0ommunity /anguage /earning
Approach to language learning
8eveloped by 0harles 0urran
40ommunity5 refers to the purpose of maing students feel as part of a
group and not just students learning a language.
@acground information(
0ounseling /earning, 0harles 0urran.
Pumanistic approach 94whole person5+.
Logerian 0ounseling( 0ounselorA0lient relationship 9"eacherAstudent+.
Theory of language:
/anguage as a social process.
7 inds of interaction(
Qnower - learner
/earner - learner
Interest in being part of the community grows in order to avoid isolation.
Theory of learning:
Polistic approach to language. 0ognition and aDection.
; psychological stages of the learning process 9reAborn+(
2eparate existence
1sychological requirements for successful learning( 2AL8
2( 2ecurity.
A( Attention and Agression.
L( Letention and LeBection.
8( 8iscrimination.
A Objectives:
2peci!c objectives are not addressed.
B Syllabus:
0// doesnCt have a conventional language syllabus.
"he 0// syllabus emerges from the interaction between learner and teacher.
"he course progression is topic based.
3ach 0// course would elaborate its own syllabus.
C !earning and teaching activities:
,roup Wor
LeBection and Fbservation
?ree conversation
" !earner#s role:
/earning( through interaction with members of the community.
/earning( achieved collaboratively.
/earners are supposed to(
listen attentively
express themselves
repeat the counselorCs utterances
support other members
express their feelings
become counselor to others
$ Teacher#s role:
@e supportive 9early stages of learning+
1rovide the language.
As learning progresses( be a monitor 9assistance+, provide correction.
1rovide a safe environment.
% &aterials:
8eveloped by the teacher as the course progresses
tape recorder
"i'erent stages(
)ros and Cons of C!!
Autonomy oDered to students.
,ood for lower levels.
2ense of community, cooperation.
It wors on aDective aspects.
8issociation of language learning and ris taing.
8epends on an Inductive strategy.
Jot much teacher control.
8epends on translation and counselorCs expertise.
Jot recommended for compulsory education.
Rear $%*> due to changes in the @ritish language teaching tradition dating
from the late $%&>s 9situational approach had run its course+
need to return to the traditional concept that utterances carried meaning in
themselves and expressed the meanings and intentions of the spea ers and
writers who created them.
InBuence of 0homsyCs belief that structural theories of language were
incapable of accounting for its fundamental characteristics -i.e. creativity
and uniqueness of individual sentencesA.
Increasing interdependance of 3uropean countries brought the need for
greater eDorts to teach adults the major languages of the 3uropean common
Wilins described two types of meanings( notional cate(ories 9concepts such as
time, sequence, quantity, location, frequency+ and *nctional cate(ories
9requests, denials, oDers, complaints+.
.eaning is paramount.
0ontextuali #ation is a basic premise.
?rom Approaches and .ethods in /anguage "eaching. Lichards and Logers
/anguage learning is learning to communicate.
3Dective communication is sought.
8rilling may occur, but peripherally.
0omprehensible pronunciation is sought.
Any device which helps the learners is acceptedA varying according to their
age, interest, etc.
Attempts to communicate may be encouraged from the very beginning.
Gudicious use of native language is accepted where feasible.
"ranslation may be used where students need or bene!t from it.
Leading and writing can start from the !rst day, if desired.
"he target linguistic system will be learned best through the process of
struggling to communicate.
0ommunicative competence is the desired goal 9i.e. the ability to use the
linguistic system eDectively and appropriately+.
/inguistic variation is a central concept in materials and methodology.
2equencing is determined by any consideration of content, function or
meaning which maintains interest.
"eachers help learners in any way that motivates them to wor with the
/anguage is created by the indi vidual often through trial and error.
?luency and acceptable language is the primary goal( accuracy is judged not
in the abstract but in context.
2tudents are expected to interact with other people, either in the Besh,
through pair and group wor, or in their writings.
"he teacher cannot now exactly what language the students will use.
Intrinsic motivation will spring from an interest in what is being
communicated by the language.
Theor8 o lan(*a(e
/anguage is a system for the expression of meaning.
"he primary function of language is for interaction and communication.
"he structure of language reBects its functional and communicative uses.
"he primary units of language are not merely its grammatical and structural
features, but categories of functional and communicative meaning as exempli!ed in
8eveloping communicative competence implies being aware of whether something
is formally possible, available, appropriate and actually performed
"here are se/en %asic *nctions that language performs
instrumental( using language to get things6
regulatory( using language to control the behavior of others6
interactional( using language to create interaction with others
personal( using language to express feelings and meaning
heuristic( using language to learn and to discover
imaginative( using language to create a world of the imagination
representational( using language to communicate information.
0anale and 2wain
2o*r #i!ensions o co!!*nicati/e co!petence$
*rammatical competence: the domain of grammatical and lexical capacity
Sociolinguistic competence refers to an understanding of the social context in which
communication taes place
"iscourse competence refers to how meaning is represented in relationship to the
entire discourse or text.
Strategic competence coping strategies that communicators employ to initiate,
terminate, maintain, repair, and redirect communication.
Theor8 o learnin(
0ommunication principle( Activities that involve real communication promote
"as principle(
Activities in which language is used for carryi ng out meaningful tass promote
.eaningful principle(
/anguage that is meaningful to the lea rner supports the learning process
2illAlearning model

acquisition of communicative competence in a language is an example of sill
development, which involves both a cognitive and a behavioral aspect.
cognitive( internalisation of plans for creating appropriate behaviour
behavioural( automatisation of these plans so that they can be converted -through
practiceA into Buent performance in real time
5applica%le to an8 CLT sit*ation6
/anguage as a means of expression
/anguage as a semiotic system and an object of learning
/anguage as a means of expressing values about oneself and others
Lemedial learning based on error analysis
/anguage learning within the school curriculum
Inferred from 0/" practices yet not actually stated
Gohnson and /ittlewood. $%=:
1iepho 9$%=$+
"hey mostly included descriptions of the objectives of foreign language courses for
3uropean adults.
2ituations( "ravel, business
"opics( 1ersonal identi!cation, education, shopping
?unctions( 8escribing something, requesting information, expressing agreement
Jotions( "ime, frequency, duration
Teachin( an# learnin( acti/ities
3xercises should
enable learners to attain the communicative objectives of the
engage learners in communication
require the use of such communicative processes as information
sharing, negotiation of meaning, and interaction.
0lassroom activities are often designed to focus on completing tass that are
mediated through language or involve negotiation of information and information
sharing( in most cases they operate by providing information to some and
withholding it from others.
A. showing outofAfocus slides which the students attempt to identify
@. Incomplete plans and diagrams which students have to complete by asing
for information
0. 1lace a screen between students and gets one to place objects in a certain
pattern( this pattern is then communicated to students behind the screen.
4GigsawN listening in which students listen to diDerent taped materials and then
communicate their content to others in the class.
/ittlewood 9$%=$+ distinguishes between
2*nctional co!!*nication acti/ities$
/earners comparing sets of pictures and noting similarities and diDerences
Woring out a liely sequence of events in a set of pictures
8iscovering missing features in a map or picture
Fne learner communicating behind a screen to another learner and giving
instructions on how to draw a picture or shape or how to complete a map
?ollowing directions
2olving problems from shared clues.
Social interaction acti/ities
0onversation and discussion sessions
8ialogues and role plays
St*#ents role
The role of learner as negotiator bet+een the self, the learning process, and
the object of learningemerges from and interacts +ith the role of joint negotiator
+ithin the group and +ithin the classroom procedures and activities
+hich the group underta-es( The implication for the learner is that he should
contribute as much as he gains, and thereby learn in an interdependent +ay(
2tudents are expected to interact primarily with each other rather than with
the teacher
0orrection of errors may be absent or infrequent.
/earners learn to see that
failed communication is a joint responsibility and not the fault of speaer or
successful communication is an accomplishment jointly achieved and acnowledged
Teachers< role
Loles are determined by the view of 0/" adopted.
1rimary roles
facilitate the communication process between
Aparticipants in the classroom
Aparticipants and activities and texts.
act as an independent participant within the learningAteaching group
organi#er of resources and as a resource himself guide within the classroom
procedures and activities
researcher and learner
Fther roles assumed by teachers
Jeeds analyst(
"eacher determining and responding to learner language needs.
A. Informally and personally 9oneAtoAone sessions+ taling about issues as the
studentSs perception of his or her learning style, assets, and learning goals.
@. ?ormally through administering a needs assessment instrument
Fn the basis of such needs assessments, teachers are expected to plan group and
individual instruction that responds to the learnersS needs.
3Dective communicator seeing to maximi#e the meshing of speaer intention
and hearer interpretation, through the use of paraphrase, con!rmation, and
. @reen and 0andlin
,roup process manager
8uring an activity the teacher monitors, encourages, and suppresses the inclination
to supply gaps in lexis, grammar, and strategy but notes such gaps for later
communicative practice
At the conclusion of group activities, the teacher leads in the debrie!ng of the
activity, pointing out alternatives and extensions and assisting groups in selfA
correction discussion
The focus on /uency and comprehensibility in Communicative !anguage Teaching
may cause an0iety among teachers accustomed to seeing error suppression and
correction as the major instructional responsibility, and +ho see their primary
function as preparing learners to ta-e standardi1ed or other -inds of tests(
Role o !aterials
"extA @ased .aterials(
"extboos whose tables of contents sometimes suggest a ind of grading and
sequencing of language practice not unlie those found in structurally organi#ed
2ome of these are in fact written around a largely structural syllabus, with slight
reformatting to justify their 0/" claims whereas others consist of two diDerent
texts for pairwor, each conta ining diDerent information needed to enact role
plays and carry out other pair wor activities
"ypical lessons
a theme 9e.g., relaying information+
a tas analysis for thematic development
understanding the message
asing questions to obtain clari!cation
asing for more information
taing notes
ordering and presenting information,
a practice situation description 9e.g., NA caller ass to see your manager. Pe
does not have an appointment. ,ather the necessary
information from him and relay the message to your manager.N+
a stimulus presentation 9in the preceding case, the beginning of an oMce
conversation scripted and on tape+
comprehension questions 9e.g., NWhy is the caller in the oMceT N +
and paraphrase exercises.
"asA @ased .aterials
A variety of games, role plays, simulations, and tasAbased communication
activities have been prepared to support 0ommunicative /anguage "eaching
"hese typically are in the form of oneAofAaAind items(
exercise handboos
cue cards
activity cards
pairAcommunication practice materials
studentAinteraction practice boolets
In pair communication materials there are typically two sets of material for a
pair of students, each set containing diDerent inds of information.
2ometimes the information is complementary, and partners must !t their
respective parts of the NjigsawN into a composite whole.
Fthers assume diDerent role relationships for the partners 9e.g., an
interviewer and an
2till others provide drills and practice material in interactional formats.
NAuthentic,N NfromAlifeN materials in the classroom around which
communicative activities can be built
"hese might include languageAbased realia
graphs and chart
$. 1resentation of a brief dialog or several miniAdialogs, preceded by a motivation
9relating the dialog situation9s+ to the learnersS probable community experiences+
and a discussion of the function and situationApeople, roles, setting, topic, and the
informality or formality of the language which the function and situation demand.
9At beginning levels, where all the learners understand the same native language,
the motivation can well be given in their native tongue+.
7. Fral practice of each utterance of the dialog segment to be presented that day
9entire class repetition, halfAclass, groups, individuals+ generally preceded by your
model. If miniAdialogs are used, engage in similar practice.
'. Uuestions and answers based on the dialog topic9s+ and situation itself. 9Inverted
wh, or or questions+
:. Uuestions and answers related to the studentsS personal experiences but
centered around the dialog theme.
S( 2tudy one of the basic communicative expressions in the dialog or one of the
structures which exemplify the function. Rou will wish to give several additional
examples of the communicative use of the expression or structure with familiar
vocabulary in unambiguous utterances or minidialogs
9using pictures, simple real objects, or dramati#ation+ to clarify the meaning of the
expression or structure
&. /earner discovery of generali#ations or rules underlying the functional expression
or structure. "his should include at least four points( its oral and written forms 9the
elements of which it is composed, e.g. NPow about V verb V ingTN+6 its position in
the utterance6 its formality or informality in the utterance6 and in the case of a
structure, its grammatical function and meaning ....
*. Fral recognition, interpretative activities 9two to !ve depending on the learning
level, the language nowledge of the students, and related factors+.
P. Fral production activitiesAproceeding from guided to freer communication
activities. Assess NPow would you as your friend toT And how would you as me
to TN
0ommunicative /anguage "eaching is best considered an approach rather than a
method6 although a reasonable degree of theoretical consistency can be discerned
at the levels of language and learning theory at the levels of design and procedure
there is much greater room for individual interpretation and variation than most
methods permit.
0/" appealed to those who sought a more humanistic approach to teaching, one in
which the interactive processes of communication received priority. "he rapid
adoption and implementation of the communicative approach also resulted from the
fact that it quicly assumed the status of orthodoxy in @ritish language teaching
circles, receiving the sanction and support of leading @ritish applied linguists,
language specialists, publishers, as well as institutions, such as Ihe @ritish 0ouncil
9Lichards $%=;+.
Jow that the initial wave of enthusiasm has passed, however, some of the claims of
0/" are being looed at more critically 92wan $%=;+. "he adoption of a
communicative approach raises important issues for
teacher training, materials development, testing and evaluation.
Uuestions that have been raised include whether a communicative approach can be
applicable. whether it requires existing grammarAbased syllabuses to be abandoned
or merely revised.
/) ,hat0s the #oal of forei#n lan#ua#e stud accordin# to the %rammar')ranslation Method?
The goal of foreign language study is to learn a language in order to read its literature or in order to
benefit from the mental discipline and intellectual development that results from foreign language study.
"o do this, students need to learn about the grammar rules and vocabulary of the
target language.
It is believed that studying a foreign language provides students with good mental exercise which helps
develop their minds.
1) Descri"e the theor of lan#ua#e and the theor of learnin# in Audiolin#ualism
2) ,hat were the main reasons for the decline in Audiolin#ualism
3) -ompare and contrast the Audiolin#ual Method with -.)$
AW8IF/IJ,WA/I2. 0F..WJI0A"I<3 /AJ,WA,3
2tructure and form are more
important than meaning. .eaning is crucial
8ialogues have to be memorised. If used, dialogues are
and are not normally memorised.
/anguage does not need to be
contextualised. 0ontextualisation is a basic
/anguage learning is learning
structures, sounds and words. /anguage learning is learning
.astery is sought. 3Dective communication is sought.
8rilling is a central technique. 8rilling may occur, but it is not
central technique.
Jative)speaer)lie pronunciation is
sought. 0omprehensible pronunciation
,rammatical explanation is avoided. If grammatical explanations
help the
learners, they are used.
"he use of the students /$ is
forbidden. Gudicious use of students /$ is
"ranslation is forbidden. "ranslation may be used, if students
bene!t from it.
Leading and writing are deferred until
speech is mastered. "he four sills are dealt with
/inguistic competence is the goal. 0ommunicative competence is
<arieties of language are not
emphasised. <arieties of language are a central
"he sequence of units is determined
only by linguistic complexity. 2equencing is determined by
function or meaning.
/anguage is 4habit5, so errors must be
avoided at all costs. 3rrors are seen as part of the
Accuracy is a primary goal. ?luency and acceptable
language is
the primary goal.
"he teacher is expected to specify the
language the students will use. "he students can decide what
language they want to use, according
to their needs and interests.
"he teacher is the centre, coordinating
the students responses to her. "he learner is the centre and teachers
facilitate sAs interaction
4) *** Descri"e$
5) ,hat0s an information'#ap acti!it?
1! "hat are the components of communicative competence#
"o be communicative competent means, roughly speaing, to be able to
communicate that which you wish to communicate.
*rammatical competence
the ability to use the rules of the language to understand and produce the
language correctly
"iscourse competence
the ability to understand and produce coherent texts 9written and oral+
within various genres
)ragmatic 2 Sociolinguistic competence
the ability to understand and produce utterances that are suitable for the
context in which they are uttered
Strategic competence
the ability to eMciently use the sills available to you to get your message
A strategies
A %luency
A 3nterrelation bet+een the elements of communicative competence
pro!ciencies within and nowledge of the
competences described above
metaAcommunicative nowledge 9nowing a%o*t+(
language and language usage and elements which
aDect various communication situations
*rammatical competence
X the linguistic code
1ronunciation and prosody
Word function and inBection
2tructure of language
<ocabulary and semantics
What does it mean to now a wordT
2emantic networs
Wsing context to process input 9current lang.acq. theory+
"eaching grammar
/anguage acquisition view vs. teaching methods
Why grammarT
"he rules of the game
,rammar in practice
0ommunicative need - relate form to content
0orrection or reparationT
3rrors are natural
3nterlanguage de4nitions
4A learnerCs developing second language nowledge. It
may have characteristics of the learnerCs !rst language,
characteristics of the second language, and some
characteristics that seem to be very general and tend to
occur in all or most interlanguage systems.
Interlanguages are systematic, but they are also
dynamic. "hey change as learners receive more input
and revise their hypotheses about the second
4"hus interlanguage consists of both the rules about the target language that
have become automatic and of the language which is still being developed.5
9"ornberg p.&& min overs5ttelse+
43xtensive empirical research suggests that grammar teaching has no direct
eDect on the pupilCs interlanguage.
Interlanguage rather seems to develop in sequences that follow certain rules
independent of grammar teaching.5 9"ornberg p.&* min overs5ttelse+
"iscourse competence
Ga!%its)sa!tale!ar.=rer X tools to organi#e who
says sth. in a conversation Kwhose turn it is to spea
coherence$ to do with the content and structure of the
text 9global+
cohesion$ more formal, linguistic context 9local+
content related
logicalK structure related
)ragmatic competence
1ragmatics( the social context in which the language is
2peech acts
how speech acts are realised in the target language
factors in the social context which inBuences the linguistic
Strategic competence
A3&: to ma-e available problem solving strategies on
all levels of the communicative competence
(communication strategies6
Why importantT 9in 3?/ teaching+
2trategic competence as problem solving strategies
e/asi/e approach
creati/e *tili>ation approach
Wtili#ation strategies as learning strategies
0ommunication strategies 9utilisation strategies+
based on native language
based on interlanguage
based on interaction
Intercultural competence
*rammatical competence( direct translations are
not always possible 9i.e. Ysmall pi##aC vs. Ypersonal pi##aC+6
connotations 9the owl( wisdom - stupidity+
"iscourse competence( genre manifestations6
gambits6 pause between utterances
)ragmatic competence( speech acts in
communication contexts6 politeness6
Strategic competence( might vary which are most eDective