Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 4

**not to be included sa powerpoint kay ako nang sultion.

;)
A HELLISH CLOUD AND A VERY CLEAR AIR: INDUSTRY, NATURE, AND WEATHER IN EARLY EIGHTEENTH
CENTURY ENGLAND
**This chapter examines Houghton hall and Holkham Hall and the relationship between culture and
nature in Eighteenth Century England
Houghton Hall owned by Britains first Prime Minister, Robert Walpole

Holkham Hall owned by Walpoles relative and neighbor, Thomas Coke


During the early 18
th
century, there were frequent reports of the citys polluted skies, when coal
replaced wood as a principal source of domestic fuel. Early coals produced twice sulfur level as the coals
used centuries later.

ON combustion, sulfur in coal oxidized to introduce sulfur dioxide into the air and a secondary oxidation
created sulfuric acid, which was detrimental to human health and building materials. Fog, coal smoke
and industrial fumes combined to turn the air into a darkly odorous smog, making streets and square
unbearable. A new building had a shadow of soot even before the end of its construction.

John Evelyn writer of Fumifugium or The Inconvenience of the Aer and Smoak of London Dissipated
(1661)
- he was convinced that the Londons air is unhealthy, and offered a remedy for the problem
- a) relocation of coal-burning trades to the east of the cuty so that the prevailing westerly wind
would carry the smoke away from London
- b) the areas around the city are to be planted with fragrant shrubs so that the city would smell
of the sweet and ravishing varieties of the perfumes instead of the odorous smoke

**Evelyns Fumigium, however, had no practical effect and there was no significant demand for a
reduction in urban pollution

This Monstrous City
Coal consumption doubled from 800,00 tons 1.5 M tons in 50 years.
Mortality rate was high, most are immigrants from English countries.

**Londons coal consumption continued to increase. There was a high mortality rate during this time,
which meant that there were more deaths than births in the city.


Daniel Defoe writer of A Tour through the Whole Island of Great Britain (1724-1726)
- described London as this monstrous city:
- Most industries were focused along the south bank of the river
- Poorer housing dominated the east and south of the city
- Elegant squares were created to the west, away from the port to suit the prevailing winds
**Thomas Coke and Robert Walpole were among the people who built their houses away from the
smoke the countryside north of London, Norfolk.
William Kent an English architect, landscape architect, and furniture designer of the early 18
th
century
- Was not a member, but a number of his clients belonged to the Kit-Cat club, including Walpole
and others, and later, Coke.
The Kit-Cat Club
- A group of people, mostly aristocratic but also included writers, dramatists and architects.
- Its purpose was political influence and cultural patronage.
- The polluted air affected the club as it did other aspects of London life
- So in 1702, the club considered moving their meetings to enjoy the better climate of the higher
ground to the north of London
Because many of the clubs members are wealthy landowners, the westerly location of a London
residence was accompanied by the clearer air of a country estate.

Four Days North
**As said, Walpole and Coke were Norfolk neighbors:
Houghton Hall residence of Robert Walpole, was in the northwest of the country
Holkham Hall Cokes coastal estate was ten miles to the northeast

London was a hundred miles distant. Even a simple journey can be dangerous and uncomfortable. The
travel is divided to daytime travel and overnight rest. Covering just about 25 mi/day, the journey took
four days.

Похожие интересы