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PIPING DESIGN LAYOUT TRAINING

LESSON 10
COMPRESSORS
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10. COMPRESSORS
10.1 PREFACE
This lesson will cover the procedures required for compressor equipment studies, their supporting
equipment and the piping connected to them. Two things to keep in mind; first, use Fluor standards as
a guide, and second, the guidelines mentioned in this lesson may be different than jobs you may have
worked on in the past. Some clients have their own engineering standards.
10.1.1 Lesson Objectives
Lessons provide self-teaching piping layout training to designers who have basic piping design skills.
Training material can be applied to manual or electronic applications. Lesson objectives are:
To become familiar with the more commonly used compressors, how they operate and some of
their uses.
To know the types of compressors.
To know how to determine where compressors should be located.
To know how to make compressor studies avoiding major mistakes and costly changes.
To familiarize you with Fluor standard compressor design. (Fluor standards are a guide; the
standards used on your contract shall govern.
To know procedures for checking foreign prints of compressors.
10.1.2 Lesson Study Plan
Take the time to familiarize yourself with the lesson sections. The following information will be
required to support your self-study:
Previous lesson plans; e.g. Pipe Stress Lesson #1.
Your copy of the Reference Data Book (R.D.B.
Fluor Technical Practices. The following Practices (not included) support this lesson.
It should take you approximately 80 hours to read this lesson plan and be prepared to take the
lesson test.
If you have questions concerning this lesson your immediate supervisor is available to assist you.
If you have general questions about the lesson contact Piping Staff Group.
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Additional support information:
Your copy of the Piping Engineering Design Guide.
Previous lesson plans; e.g. Pipe Stress section, Lesson #1.
10.1.3 Study Aid
Videos on Piping Design Layout Practices supplement your layout training. It is suggested
that you view these videos prior to stating the layout training. You may check out a copy of the
videos from the Knowledge Centre (Library).
10.1.4 Proficiency Testing
A self-test on your comprehension of this lesson is provided at the back of the lesson.
A self-grading master immediately follows the test.
The test is divided into three separate test sections:
General introduction and administration activities of compressors
Plot Layout and Layout Guide
Compressor Specialty Items
Testing
Questions are manual fill-in and True / False.
The tests should take approximately one and one half hours.
You may use your layout training Reference Data Book and material from previous layout
training lessons during the testing.
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10.2 DEFINITIONS
Compressors provide a mechanical means of increasing vapor pressure by intaking the vapor at a
relatively low pressure, compressing it, and discharging it at a higher pressure. Essentially, there are
two classifications for compressors: Dynamic and Positive-Displacement.
Dynamic type compressors are continuous flow machines in which vapor is compressed by the
dynamic action of rotating impellers or vanes imparting velocity and pressure to the vapor flow. Two
common variations are: Centrifugal and Axial Compressors.
Centrifugal compressors impart velocity and pressure to the vapor in a radial direction by one or more
impeller diffuser combinations, of which, each represents one stage of compression.
Axial compressors impart velocity and pressure to the vapor in an axial direction through one or more
sets of moving and stationary rows of blades.
Positive Displacement (intermittent flow) type compressors successively confines a vapor-volume
within a closed space. The vapor-volume is compressed and the pressure is increased as the vapor-
volume is decreased. Four general variations are available as follows:
Reciprocating compressors utilize a piston as the compressing element moving in a back and forth
motion within a cylinder.
Rotary Sliding-Vane compressors employ longitudinal vanes that slide radially in a rotor mounted
eccentrically in a cylinder.
Rotary Lobe compressors use two mating lobed impellers which revolve within a cylinder. Timing
gears, mounted outside of the cylinder, prevent any contact between the lobes.
Rotary Liquid Piston compressors employ a liquid, usually in a single rotating, to displace the vapor
being compressed.
As a general rule, positive displacement compressors are used for small capacity requirements and
dynamic machines are employed for medium and large capacities, i.e., centrifugal and axial,
respectively.
Centrifugal and reciprocating compressors are available in single and multi-stage units. The number of
stages is dependent upon mechanical considerations and process requirements.
Every compressor is made up of one or more basic elements. A single element, or a group of elements
in parallel, comprises a single-stage compressor. A combination of elements or groups of elements in
series forms a multistage unit, in which there are two or more steps of compression. Note that each
stage is a basic individual compressor within itself.
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10.3 CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS
Centrifugal compressors are simple in construction and can be described by relatively simple means.
Essentially, a single-stage (Fig.#10-1) centrifugal compressor consists of the following basic elements:
(1) inlet or suction connection, (2) impeller, (3) diffuser, (4) casing (or volute), (5) shaft and
bearings, (6) shaft seals and (7) outlet or discharge connection.
The inlet or suction connection allows the air or gas entrance into the case. This connection is
proportioned so as to minimize shock from the fluid flow.
Figure #10-1
Typical overhung impeller single -stage centrifugal compressor
Figure #10-2
Cross-section of a typical multistage (5 stage) centrifugal compressor
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The fluid flows into the eye of the impeller that imparts velocity to the air or gas and delivers it to the
diffuser.
The diffuser gradually converts the velocity energy into pressure energy.
The casing (or volute) is a protective cover designed to confine the air or gas being compressed and
also serves as a support for the rotor.
The rotor is the rotating element consisting of a shaft about which the impeller is attached.
Seals are provided at both ends of the shaft to minimize gas leakage from the case and to prevent
introduction of outside air.
When the pressure level requirement exceeds the limit of a single-stage, a multistage compressor (Fig.
#10-2) must be used. This requires a return passage that transfers the gas from one stage (impeller)
to the next succeeding stage.
A single case is limited to twelve stages (12 impellers) of compression. When thirteen or more stages
is required two or more cases must be coupled together in single file, i.e. tandem as shown in Figure
#10-3.
Figure #10-3
Cross-section of two multistage units in tandem
10.3.1 Impeller and Nozzle Arrangements for Centrifugal Compressors
The multistage centrifugal compressor is a highly flexible machine. It can be easily adapted to suit
varied process and mechanical considerations. For example, depending on flow and head
requirements, the number of impellers may be as high as twelve. Suction and discharge nozzles may
be located up, up and down, down, or offset at an angle. In addition, nozzles for economizers, side
streams, or iso-cooling can easily be incorporated into the design.
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Several of the most common arrangements are shown schematically in Figures #10-4 through #10-8.
Down nozzles are shown exclusively for simplicity and because this location permits easy access to
internals without disturbing the major piping systems and is usually preferred for horizontally split
compressors.
Figure #10-4
Straight-through Flow
Figure #10-5
Double flow
Figure #10-6
Side Streams
Figure #10-7
Iso-cooling (cooling between stages)
Figure #10-8
Double Iso-Cooling (cooling between stages)
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Straight-Through Flow - Maximum of twelve stages of compression. Used primarily for low-pressure
process compression.
Double Flow - The maximum flow capability is doubled since the number of impellers assigned to each
inlet flow is one half that of a straight-through machine.
Side Streams - Side stream nozzles allow the introduction or extraction of gas at selected pressure
levels.
Iso-Cooling - In a compressor where the gas temperature has climbed to 200F to 400F, improved
efficiency and horsepower reduction is achieved by cooling the gas. Iso-cooling nozzles permit the hot
gas flow to be extracted and circulate through an external heat exchanger, then returned to the
successive impeller at reduced temperature for further compression.
Double Iso-Cooling - High mole weight gases such as chlorine heat much more rapidly during
compression than the low mole weight gases. This type of service may require the hot gases to be
removed at two interstages and circulated through two intercoolers, in order to maintain compressor
efficiency.
10.3.2 Case Types - Centrifugal Compressors
Centrifugal compressors (Figure #10-9) are available in two types: vertically split and horizontally split
cases. In general, vertically split (barrel case) machines are used for high-pressure applications and
horizontally split machines are used for low pressure and medium to high volume applications.
10.4 RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS
The basic reciprocating compressor consists of (1) frame, (2) crankshaft, (3) flywheel, (4) cross head
housing, (5) distance piece, (6) cylinder, (7) piston, (8) piston rod and (9) connecting rod. Their
principal functions are:
The frame is a protective cover that supports and houses the crankshaft
The crankshaft, with its offset(s), converts circular motion into a reciprocating, back and forth, motion.
The flywheel opposes and moderates by its inertia any fluctuation of speed in the compressor. It is
connected to the driver end of the crankshaft.
The crosshead housing supports the reciprocating action of the connecting rod that is attached to the
offset of the crankshaft.
Where the process gas must be oil free, a distance piece is used to prevent any part of the piston rod
from alternately entering the frame and the cylinder. It also supports the piston rod reciprocating action.
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The cylinder is the compression chamber. It is fastened to the crosshead housing or distance piece
and houses the piston.
The piston is the basic reciprocating compression element. The various steps in a reciprocating
compressor cycle are shown in Figure #10-10.
Figure 10-9
Basic case designs of centrifugal compressor
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Figure 10-10
Steps in a Reciprocating Compressor Cycle
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10.4.1 Cylinder Arrangements - Reciprocating Compressors
The reciprocating compressor is, essentially, a fixed capacity compressor with a variable capacity
accomplished by altering the speed of the driver or the clearance volume space. There are three
variations widely used in refinery and petrochemical installations.
Horizontal or Straight-Line (Fig. #10-11) compressor has only one cylinder. It is the most basic of all
reciprocating compressor designs.
Balanced Opposed (Fig.#10-12) design features one or more cylinders mounted on both sides of the
frame.
Angle Type (Fig.#10-13) is an engine driven unit with all cylinders mounted on one side of the frame.
10.5 COMPRESSOR DRIVERS
Compressors utilize electric motors, steam turbines, gas engines, and gas turbines as drivers, to name
a few. These drivers are basically a means of converting available energy into mechanical work.
Electric Motors - There are two types used in geared or non-geared applications.
(a) Induction Motor. (Fig.#10-14)
(b) Synchronous Motor. (Fig.#10-15)
Steam Turbines - There are two basic types of steam turbines, namely, condensing and noncondensing
(back pressure). Condensing turbines exhaust below atmospheric pressure to a surface condenser.
Noncondensing turbines exhaust at atmospheric pressure or higher into a steam piping system. Four
variations of the two basic types are briefly described in Figure #10-16.
Gas Turbines - In its simplest form, a gas turbine consists of a centrifugal compressor supplying air for
combustion, a combustion chamber with a fuel-injection system and a turbine wheel through which the
expansion of hot gases provides rotary power to the turbines. They have been classified as follows:
(a) Single or two-shaft.
(b) Simple or regenerative cycle.
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Figure #10-11
Typical Horizontal Straight-Line Compressor
Figure #10-12
Typical Multiple-Service Reciprocating Compressor Handling Six Service Streams in Twelve Cylinders
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Figure 10-13
Cross-Section of a Typical Turbo-Charged Engine Driven Compressor.
This arrangement is commonly known as an angle compressor.
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Figure #10-14
Induction Motor Driver
Figure #10-15
Synchronous Motor Driver
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Figure 10-16
Steam Turbine Types
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Expansion Turbines - Convert gas or vapor energy into mechanical work as the gas or vapor expands
through the turbine. There are two types: axial flow and radial flow.
(a) Axial flow expansion turbines are like conventional steam turbines.
(b) Radial flow expansion turbines are normally single stage with a rotor resembling that of a centrifugal
pump.
Gas Engines are simply internal combustion drivers similar to automobile engines.
Liquid Power Recovery Turbines - These are special pumps used to reduce a high pressure liquid
stream to a low pressure by pumping it backwards to drive another pump or compressor.
Drivers may be connected to compressors with or without speed increasing or reducing gears. The use
of this component creates a horizontal offset of the compressor shaft and the driver shaft; thus, it is a
very important layout consideration when required.
10.5.1 Auxiliaries for Compressors and Drivers
Lubrication requirements, shaft seal design, controls, instrumentation, and other specific items are
evaluated and determined by the mechanical and project engineers.
A complete lube oil system is required for each type of compressor to supply oil at suitable pressure to
vital parts of the machinery. For reciprocating machines, the lube oil system is usually mounted on the
compressor. Centrifugal compressors require a separate skid mounted console.
A separate oil system (seal oil) for shaft sealing is required for centrifugal compressors when the
process gas could leak from the case and enter the lube oil system and eventually cause mechanical
damage.
The lube and seal oil systems for centrifugal compressors are combined, when feasible, on one
console. When the seal oil system must be separate, two consoles are required.
Compressor control systems may be pneumatic, hydraulic, electrical, or electronic and may be
operated manually or automatically.
An instrument control panel is normally required to centrally locate instrumentation for monitoring
operating conditions of the compressor.
Other auxiliary equipment, such as condensers, intercoolers, aftercoolers, mufflers, air filters, special
relief valves, and pulsation suppression devices are used as required and will be discussed in more
detail later.
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10.6 GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Some of these definitions apply to specific compressors only, therefore, (C) or (R) that designates
centrifugal or reciprocating, respectively will precede those definitions.
AFTERCOOLER - a heat exchanger that cools a gas following the completion of compression to (1)
reduce the temperature and (2) to liquefy condensable vapors.
(C) BASE PLATE - a metal structure on which the compressor and possibly the driver are mounted
(see sole plate).
CAPACITY - the quantity of gas actually delivered when operating between a specified inlet and
discharge pressure.
(C) CASING - is the pressure containing stationary element that encloses the rotor and associated
internal components. It includes inlet and discharge connections, and a means for support and lifting.
(R) CLEARANCE - (reciprocating compressor cylinder) that volume contained in one end of the
cylinder which is not swept by the movement of the piston.
DEW POINT - the temperature of a gas at which the vapor in a space (at a given pressure) will start to
condense (form dew).
(C) DIFFUSER - a stationary passageway following an impeller in which velocity energy imparted to the
gas by the impeller is converted into static pressure.
(R) DISPLACEMENT - applies only to positive - displacement compressors. It is the net volume swept
by the moving parts in a unit of time, usually one minute.
(R) DOUBLE - ACTING - a cylinder where compression takes place on both of the piston strokes per
revolution.
HORSEPOWER - a unit of work equal to 33,000 foot - pounds per minute.
(C) IMPELLER - the part of the rotating element that imparts momentum to the gas by aerodynamic
forces.
INTERCOOLER - a heat exchanger which cools a gas between stages of compression to (1) reduce
the temperature, (2) reduce the volume to be compressed in succeeding stages, (3) to liquefy
condensable vapors, and (4) to save power.
(R) MANIFOLD - a volume bottle used to join the inlet or discharge connections of cylinders operating
in parallel.
PRIME MOVER - a generic term for any machinery used to drive a compressor.
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(R) PULSATION DAMPENER - a commercial, internally - baffled device.
PURGING - the act of replacing the atmosphere within piping by an inert fluid in such a manner as to
prevent the formation of explosive mixtures.
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR - a positive displacement machine in which the compressing and
displacing element is a piston having a reciprocating motion within a cylinder.
(C) ROTOR - the rotating element composed of impeller(s) and shaft, and may include shaft sleeves,
rotating seal parts, and thrust collar.
(C) SEALS - devices used between rotating and stationary parts to minimize gas leakage between
areas of unequal pressures.
SHAFT BEARINGS - lubricated stationary parts that support and radially locate the compressor shaft.
(R) SINGLE - ACTING - a cylinder where compression takes place only on one of the two piston
strokes per revolution.
STAGE - a period or interval of development.
(C) SOLE PLATE - a mounted pad, usually embedded in concrete, on which the compressor is
mounted (see base plate).
(C) TANDEM - one behind another, close coupled.
(C) THRUST BALANCING DEVICE (DRUM, PISTON, OR DISC) - that part(s) utilizing gas pressure to
counteract the thrust developed by the impellers.
(R) VOLUME BOTTLE - a pressure vessel, unbaffled internally, mounted on a cylinder inlet or
discharge. May be used too as a condensate separator.
(C) VOLUTE - a stationary, spirally shaped passageway in the casing that collects the flow leaving an
impeller or diffuser and converts velocity energy into static pressure.
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10.7 SPECIFICATION - GENERAL CONTRACT DATA
Mechanical narrative specifications are very important contract documents useful in the layout and
design functions. These narratives originate from the compressor group of the Mechanical Engineering
department. Because they are contract wide documents they are general in nature. They are an
accepted overview of the various engineering and design requirements. These documents are used to
communicate to the prospective compressor Vendor the basic requirements of the compressor.
All narrative specifications pertinent to the compressor and its auxiliaries should be thoroughly
examined by the designer. It is suggested that marginal notation or "yellow-off" be used to emphasize
items that affect piping design. It is essential that all these notes be consistent with piping design
specifications. Any discrepancies should be brought to the attention of the piping design supervisor
and compressor engineer.
Often, a condition will exist where some facet of a particular compressor installation will require some
adjustment to the narrative specifications, specification sheets, flowsheets, etc. This is to be expected,
even desirable because it allows the engineer and designer the feasibility of making a "local"
adjustment for improvements. It is very important to document and track the exceptions to the basic
specifications. Obviously, the Vendor must be aware of these changes via the compressor engineer.
In summary, the narrative specifications relates to the Vendor, client, piping design, etc., brief
descriptions of the various design requirements. Obtain the latest complete copy of all pertinent
narrative specifications and:
1. Examine in detail for items relating to piping design "yellow-off" the portions so noted.
2. Compare the various items to piping design specifications, etc.
3. Compare results to copies of specifications previously issued to Vendors.
4. Report design inconsistencies to the design supervisor and compressor engineers.
5. Deposit a separate copy of the specifications in each compressor job-book, (see job-book section
for comments).
6. Mark-up, adjust and document exceptions to the specifications for each particular compressor
installation in the job-book copy.
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10.8 GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
The following information covers the specific portions that affect piping design. This information is
intended to serve as a guide by directing the piping designer to the specific sections and paragraphs of
each particular specification. The number preceding the following paragraphs corresponds with that
number which appears in the Fluor Mechanical and the API Standard Specifications.
10.9 GENERAL SPECIFICATION FOR PROCESS CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS
10.9.1 Scope
The specification covers the minimum requirements for process centrifugal compressors (of either
vertically or horizontally split construction) that are usually unspared and in critical services. Excluded
specifically from this specification are light duty centrifugal blowers (below 15 psi) and centrifugal plant
air compressors (125 psig and below).
This specification supplements the individual mechanical data sheets on which the operating conditions
and special requirements are listed in detail. Whenever the data included on the individual specification
sheet conflicts with a provision of this general specification, the former shall govern.
10.9.2 Basic Design (API Section 2)
Allowable force and moment diagrams shall be submitted to the Purchaser for review. The Vendor
shall also review piping and layout drawings, calculations, and design conditions for compatibility with
materials not provided by the Vendor.
Connections and nozzle arrangements shall be subject to approval and review by the Purchaser.
All flanged casing connections except for water and lube oil shall be the same ANSI rating as the major
casing nozzles.
Each casing drain shall be individually valved and manifolded to a single flanged outlet connection.
The number of drains will depend on the service as well as casing construction as noted on the
individual data sheets.
All oil drains shall be sized to operate no more than half full and shall be arranged to ensure good
drainage despite possible foaming. As a minimum, all oil drain lines shall be 1-1/2 inch NPS (flanged
with the exception of the inner seal oil drains which may be 1 inch NPS (flanged). Horizontal runs shall
slope continuously downward toward the reservoir; the angle of each slope shall be a minimum of 1/2
inch per foot. This may necessitate off-base mounted headers. The various elevation differences
necessary to comply with these requirements shall be considered when arranging the equipment, the
components, and the reservoir.
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The Vendor shall furnish all couplings for connecting shafts of compressor, gear (if any) and driver.
The Vendor shall completely machine all coupling halves and arrange for mounting of gear (if any) and
driver half couplings. Keyless shaft ends utilizing hydraulically fit coupling halves are, in general,
acceptable.
10.10 GENERAL SPECIFICATION FOR SPECIAL PURPOSE STEAM TURBINES
10.10.1 Scope
The specification covers the minimum requirements for horizontal steam turbines used to drive
equipment that is usually unspared and is in critical services such as centrifugal compressors and
generators.
This specification supplements the individual data sheets on which the operating conditions and special
requirements are listed in detail. Whenever the data included on the individual specification sheet
conflicts with a provision of this general specification, the former shall govern.
10.10.2 Basic Design (API Section 2)
All turbine case, trip and throttle valve (if required), steam chest and staging drains
(if required) shall be separately flanged, piped and valved. The number of drains will depend on the
service as well as construction as noted on the individual data sheets.
Allowable force and moment diagrams shall be submitted to the Purchaser for review. The Vendor
shall also review piping and layout drawings, calculations, and design conditions for compatibility with
materials not provided by the Vendor.
All flanged casing connections except for water and lube oil shall be the same ANSI rating as the major
casing nozzles.
Flanged connections shall conform to ANSI B16.1 or B16.5, as applicable, except that cast iron flanges
shall be flat faced. Face and drilling requirements shall also apply to studded connections for which
studs shall be furnished. Flat-faced flanges are acceptable on steel cases with the Purchaser's
approval. Flanges thicker or of a larger outside diameter (OD) than required by this standard are
acceptable. If the Vendor used flanges or connections other than those covered by ANSI, the Vendor
shall supply all required mating parts and the Purchaser shall approve details of the connections.
All oil drains shall be sized to operate no more than half full and shall be arranged to ensure good
drainage despite possible foaming. As a minimum, all oil drain lines shall be 1-1/2 inch NPS (flanged).
Horizontal runs shall slope continuously downward toward the reservoir; the angle to each slope shall
be a minimum of 1/2 inch per foot.
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This may necessitate off-base mounted headers. The various elevation differences necessary to
comply with these requirements shall be considered when arranging the equipment, the components,
and the reservoir.
The gland seal steam system shall be complete with automatic steam seal regulator (if required), all
piping, valves and fittings. A gland steam condenser of the shell and tube type and a suitable steam
ejector shall be provided and will be mounted and piped by the Purchaser.Refer to Purchaser's
specification data sheets for heat exchanger and ejector design requirements.
If so specified on the individual data sheets, the Vendor shall furnish the insulation for the turbine, do
the insulation in the shop and supply a readily removable painted metal jacket that is to cover the steam
chest and/or high pressure casing. The insulation shall keep the jacket skin temperature below 165F.
Insulation containing asbestos is unacceptable.
10.11 GENERAL SPECIFICATION FOR PROCESS RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS (400 HP
AND ABOVE)
10.11.1 Scope
This specification covers the general requirements for process reciprocating compressors, 400 hp and
above, to be purchased for refinery services in handling air or gas. Such services are normally
considered critical in nature and may or may not be spared.
Excluded specifically from these requirements are single acting (water or air-cooled) compressors,
portable air compressors and utility plant and instrument air compressors at 125 psig and below.
This specification supplements the individual data sheets on which the operating conditions and special
requirements are listed in detail. Whenever the data included on the individual specification sheet
conflicts with a provision of this general specification, the former shall govern.
10.11.2 Basic Design (API Section 2)
In some instances, a self-contained closed coolant system is required. If such a system is specified, it
shall meet the following criteria and design requirements.
A means shall be provided to permit supplying coolant to the cylinder jackets at an entering jacket
temperature 15 degrees (unless otherwise accepted) above inlet gas temperature. To accomplish this,
a packaged jacket coolant system as described herewith, or as mutually agreed, shall be furnished.
The suction of dual centrifugal motor driven circulating pumps shall be taken directly from a self
venting, vertical stand pipe reservoir (capable of steam heating) and discharge through a suitable
coolant-to-water heat exchanger with automatic bypass temperature control to the compressor jacket
piping system.
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The quantity of coolant circulated to each pump shall be sufficient to maintain a 10F temperature rise
across any individual cylinder.
The system shall be pre-piped and factory skid mounted, and be complete with the various pressure
and temperature indicators, alarms, and other instrumentation as specified on the individual data
sheets.
Cooling water jackets shall be of cored or bolted construction and designed for not less than 75 psig
operating pressure. The jackets shall be accessible for thorough cleaning. Piping drains shall be
provided at the lowest points.
A minimum of one drain connection with a plugged valve shall be provided on each distance piece
compartment including those with internal reinforcing ribs. A separate vent connection shall be
included for each distance piece compartment. All external connections on distance pieces shall be 3/4
inch NPT minimum (including the packing vent connection). Internal packing vent tubing shall be 304
stainless.
Frame lubrication system for each unit shall also include a thermostatically controlled valve to control oil
bypassing of the oil cooler in order to maintain desired oil temperature. Suction and discharge block
valves, relief valve, discharge check valve, and discharge pressure gauge shall be furnished for each
pump, except that suction and discharge block valves are not required for shaft driven pumps. The
complete system must be shop mounted and match-marked for field assembly.
In some instances, a self-contained, separately packaged lube system is required. If such a system is
specified, it shall meet the following criteria and design requirements.
A complete pre-piped and base mounted packaged frame oil system shall be furnished by the Vendor
and shipped as a packaged assembly.
The suction of the dual motor driven gear pumps shall be taken directly from the compressor crankcase
sump and discharged through an oil-to-water heat exchanger with an automatic temperature controlled
bypass, a set of twin oil filters with a suitable transfer valve into the internal frame lubrication system.
The system shall be complete with the proper valving, pressure and temperature indicators, various
alarms and other instrumentation, etc., as specified on the individual data sheets.
A barring-over device is required for field use at startup and during maintenance. See the individual
data sheets for type (manual or pneumatic) required. In either case, the barring wheel shall be
statically balanced and marked on the frame side for proper installation.
10.11.3 Piping and Appurtenances (API Section 3)
The Vendor shall conduct an active electrical analog review to determine the acoustical response of the
piping system based on isometric drawings (provided by the Purchaser) of all piping and
appurtenances.
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A mechanical response analysis of the piping support system is required only if specifically noted on
the individual data sheets and/or the formal purchase order.
A sight flow indicator, temperature indicator and globe valve shall be installed in cooling water outlet
piping for each cylinder whether single or multistage. Similar configuration is also required for rod
coolant and intercoolers if furnished by the Vendor.
Refer to Purchase Specification covering Pulsation Suppression Devices. This specification shall apply
specifically if machine mounted terminal pulsation devices and/or interstage equipment is to be
furnished by the compressor Vendor.
Refer to the individual data sheets for specific intercooler and/or aftercooler requirements. In general,
all coolers will be the shell and tube type of the water through tube design. Finned tubes and U-tubes
are not acceptable unless specifically approved by the Purchaser.
The individual data sheets delineate whether the Vendor or the Purchaser will furnish the coolers as
well as their mounting configuration.
10.11.4 Controls and Instrumentation (API Section 4)
The Purchaser will furnish a freestanding local control and instrument panel. The Purchaser with
reference to the Vendor's requirements and in accordance with the Purchaser's specifications will
purchase instruments mounted on the panel.
10.12 GENERAL SPECIFICATION FOR PULSATION SUPPRESSION DEVICES ON
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS
10.12.1 Scope
The specification covers the basic minimum requirements for inlet and discharge pulsation suppression
devices for reciprocating compressors of either single or multistage designs intended for process air or
gas service.
This specification supplements the individual data sheets on which the construction details and special
requirements are listed in detail. Whenever the data included on the individual specification sheet
conflicts with a provision of this general specification, the former shall govern.
This specification applies to all process reciprocating compressors with discharge pressures of 5000
psig and below and with brake horsepower requirements of 75 and above. Discharge pressures above
5000 psig are normally considered "special" and will be treated separately if so noted on the individual
data sheets.
Units below 75 BHP will apply if so determined by the Purchaser as influenced by compression ratio
and pressure level.
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10.12.2 Design Approach
When specified on the individual data sheets, volume bottles may be supplied as an alternate pulsation
suppression device. A volume bottle is defined as an empty vessel with, at least twice the diameter of
the line connection utilizing volume as a mass slug dissipater to accomplish acoustical suppression. A
minimum mass slug-ratio of twelve (12) shall be used.
For interstage systems furnished by the compressor Vendor, the maximum allowable peak-to-peak
residual pulsation levels (P
N
) at the line side of all types of interstage suppression devices shall be
limited to 5 percent as qualified by an active analog study. The compressor Vendor shall guarantee that
interstage equipment vibration in any plane, with respect to the compressor cylinders, shall not exceed
8 mils (peak-to-peak).
The compressor Vendor shall be responsible for proper fit without interference (valve and unloader
removal, as an example) and shall furnish all supports necessary for both acoustical and mechanical
stability.
The compressor Vendor shall also meet the design criteria previously outlined above unless otherwise
mutually agreed.
The suppressor Vendor shall perform a manual mechanical - acoustical response analysis of the Fluor
piping isometric drawings to review holddown and resonant length characteristics as well as possible
acoustical resonances and to suggest solutions to problem areas.
In all cases, the compressor Vendor shall conduct an active electrical analog review that simulates the
entire compressor, pulsation devices, piping and other system equipment, and considers the dynamic
interaction of these elements.
Each suppression device of commercial design shall be provided with maximum size drain openings
through each baffle. In no case shall they be less than 1 inch. Where drains are impracticable, circular
notched openings in the bulkheads extending to the vessel wall may be used with approval. The effect
of such drain openings on pulsation suppressor performance should be considered.
Arrangement of internals shall insure that liquids will flow to drain connections under all operating
conditions.
The nozzle length from the pulsation suppressor shell to the cylinder flange shall be held to a minimum
consistent with thermal flexibility and alignment limitations. The nozzle area shall be at least equal to
the area of the compressor opening. Adequate space shall be allowed for full access to and
maintenance of cylinder working parts such as valves and unloader assemblies.
All pulsation suppressers shall be hydrotested to 1-1/2 times the design pressure.
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Vendor shall furnish the tie-in structure for attachment of supports if required. Purchaser will supply
supports, holddowns and anchors.
The Purchaser will supply installation of companion flanges, gaskets, bolts, and nuts. The Vendor shall
supply all blind flanges complete with gaskets (suitable for the process involved), nuts, and bolts.
Fabrication drawings, including specific weld details, external drain details, and the like shall be
submitted to Purchaser for review and approval.
10.13 SPECIFICATION SHEETS
Engineering specification sheets, commonly called "data sheets," unlike narrative specifications,
provide both general and detail information on a specific compressor, driver and/or its auxiliaries. They
are a great asset to the layout designer during preliminary stages of a contract; therefore, greater
emphasis is placed on their use rather than the narrative specification.
All specification sheets related to the compressor and its auxiliaries should be filed in the appropriate
section of the compressor job book and must be carefully examined by the layout designer. It is
suggested that "yellow-off or some other suitable means be used to "pinpoint" items that would affect
piping.
If conflicting requirements should be found, for example, between the specification sheets and the
narrative specification, generally, the specification sheet will take precedence. However, such a
situation must be presented to the piping design supervisor and mechanical (compressor) engineer.
The discussion of certain major pieces of equipment in this guide material is supplemented in this
section by a copy of the specification sheet with notes indicating items that are directly useful to piping
design functions, therefore, greater emphasis is placed on their use rather than the narrative
specification.
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10.13.1 Specification sheet notes for centrifugal compressors.
1. It is important to note the job number and item number, especially when handling several
items.
2. Verify that the latest revision is being used.
3. Inlet and discharge conditions are helpful in preliminary stress analysis.
4. Information provided under location will predicate shelter requirements and basic
elevation of the compressor.
5. Model number is useful for obtaining catalog information. Casing type will be indicated as
vertical or horizontal split.
6. Seal system type.
7. Provided is the main process connection design information.
8. Limiting criteria for forces and moments.
9. Auxiliary piping connections.
10. Using make and model number, obtain information for coupling which will establish the
distance between shaft ends of compressor and drive system.
11. Use this section to determine heaviest maintenance lift requirement.
12. Preliminary space requirements for developing plot layout.
13. Straight run requirement for suction piping.
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10.13.2 Specification sheet notes for reciprocating compressors.
1. It is important to note job number and item number especially when handling several
items.
2. Verify that the latest revision is being used.
3. Inlet and discharge conditions are helpful in preliminary stress analysis.
4. Listed are auxiliaries to be furnished by compressor manufacturer.
5. This section provides heaviest maintenance lift, approximate floor space, and rod removal
requirements.
6. The important items to note are suction and discharge connections, single or double
acting cylinder, and cylinder bore and stroke which are required for calculating the forcing
frequency and volumes for dampening devices.
7. The distance piece vent requirement is provided here and basic construction features.
8. Manufacturer and model number will be useful in obtaining preliminary catalog
information.
9. Shelter requirements.
10. Cooling water requirements for cylinders, lube oil cooler, intercoolers and rod packing.
10.13.3 Specification sheet notes for electric motors.
1. It is important to note the job number and item number especially when handling several
items.
2. Verify that the latest revision is being used.
3. If a gear is required in the drive system, it will affect floor layout.
4. Baseplate or soleplate will affect foundation design. Investigate conduit box requirements.
5. Type of motor required; induction or synchronous.
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10.13.4 Specification sheet notes for special purpose steam turbines.
1. It is important to note the job number and item number especially when handling several
items.
2. Verify that the latest revision is being used.
3. Steam inlet and exhaust conditions are needed for preliminary stress analysis.
4. Shelter requirements are provided under location.
5. Casing type is indicated as horizontal or vertical split.
6. Baseplate or soleplate will affect foundation design.
7. Requirements for gland condenser and/or ejectors are provided.
8. Design of main connections are given.
9. This section provides limiting criteria for forces and moments.
10. Maintenance lifting requirements and approximate floor space required is shown.
11. Lube oil system requirements.
12. Coupling requirement will affect spacing of compressor and driver.
13. Gear, when required, will also affect spacing of compressor and driver.
14. Contact instrument engineer for control panel size when vendor does not furnish it.
10.13.5 Specification sheet notes for surface condensers.
1. It is important to note the item and job numbers, especially when handling several items.
Verify that the latest revision is being used.
2. Inlet and outlet pressure/temperature conditions are provided and are helpful in
preliminary stress analysis.
3. The size and rating of the main process nozzles are given. In addition, auxiliary
equipment vendors are listed.
4. Air removal equipment - usually 2 stage - is specified.
5. Ejector shell sizes and weights are provided.
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10.14 VENDOR' S DRAWING AND DATA COMMITMENT
This document is extremely important for many reasons. It lists all the drawings the vendor is required
to submit for Fluor approval. It gives the listing of the priority status of each drawing. That is the
sequence of delivery and scheduled delivery date of each drawing. The designer must verify the
priority according to his needs. Also, using the scheduled delivery dates, the Unit Piping Supervisor
should update and revise the piping activities on the Control Level Schedule accordingly. This
document is the schedule the vendor will maintain.
Completed Vendor's Drawing and Data Commitment forms are not formally issued to piping. Copies
must be obtained by request to Equipment Engineer or Vendor Information Control group.
10.15 CATALOG INFORMATION
During the early stages of a contract, the compressor engineer will furnish catalog drawings of the
compressor and driver to be used for preliminary layout. The possibilities for compressor driver
combinations vary in many ways; manufacturer, size, type, to name a few. In view of this fact, sufficient
space is not available here to satisfy the varied possibilities that are available.
The layout designer must obtain the correct catalog sheets from either the unit piping supervisor or the
compressor engineer.
10.16 CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR PLOT LAYOUT
The location of the compressor installation must be influenced by physical size, process consideration,
fire and safety hazards, economic pipe runs, accessibility, stress requirements and maintenance and
operation requirements.
Research all pertinent preliminary flow diagrams to determine the physical affect on the plot plan. The
compressor must be located as close as possible to its suction source. An excessively long suction line
will increase costs by consuming extra driver horsepower. The suction line must be short and direct. If
interstage equipment is required, make a detailed flow transposition for proving the best arrangement.
Other important items to be considered include, operating valves, meter runs, N.P.S.H. for surface
condenser condensate pumps, vertical vs. horizontal K.O. drums unusually large lube and seal oil
consoles, and interstage separators.
The interrelationships of all major components should be determined through discussion with Process
and Mechanical Engineering. Color code and make free-hand sketches of physical requirements such
as mezzanines, or heat exchanger structures. "Look at it as a system" and lay it out accordingly.
The compressor installation must be located close to a service road so that it is readily accessible by
mobile equipment.
Research past contract estimates and model photos for similar installations.
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At this stage, very preliminary information is OK, but allow for at least 20% more workable area.
Compressors sometimes have the luxury of "growing".
Before final release of location, review for following:
1. Access for large lifts
2. Feasibility of structural requirements.
3. Power source for motor drivers.
4. Piping support requirements for large lines. Electrical rack requirements and control panel
requirements.
5. Distance from heaters, boilers and high frequency roads.
6. Conformance with all equipment narrative specifications and individual specification sheets.
Several typical plot arrangements are provided in Figure #10-17 & #10-18. After the location of the
compressor is finalized, select a plot arrangement and modify it to suit known contract requirements.
For simplicity, single compressor arrangements have been shown exclusively, however, these
arrangements may be applied to multicompressor installations also. For example, a given contract
might have the following compression requirements: 1) air compressor, 2) feed gas compressor and 3)
synthesis gas compressors to be installed in an ammonia plant. Regardless of the type of drivers used,
it would be most economical to place the compressors in single file parallel to the pipeway on a
common support structure. An arrangement (similar to Case 3) would evolve as shown in Figure #10-
19.
Maintenance and operation requirements must be provided for in the placement of each major
component. In general, allow for access on all sides of equipment.
The immediate overhead area for horizontally split compressors must be clear for lifting off the top half
of the case and rotor removal (Figure #10-20). If the compressor suction, interstage, and discharge
connections are top oriented, then the piping must be designed for easy disassembly. The vertically
split case requires absolutely no obstructions in front of the machine which would impede removal of
the inner casing (Figure #10-20).
Motor drivers require clearance for rotor removal. Check for location and size of the conduit boxes,
motor starter (push button), and vibration sensors.
Steam turbine drivers, like centrifugal compressors, may be horizontally or vertically split for rotor
access. Be sure adequate clearance is incorporated into the design concept for the execution of these
maintenance requirements. One of the functions of the Trip and Throttle valve is throttling during start-
up. For this reason it must be reachable from a platform and easily accessible for operation.
Allow adequate space for the removal of tube bundles from oil coolers, surface condensers and other
heat exchangers in the system. If the oil reservoir has steam coils, space must be provided for its
removal. Access requirements for oil consoles is depicted in Figure #10-21.
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In summary, all equipment must be arranged so that access for maintenance and operation is possible
without great difficulty. Adequate space must be provided for removing parts for cleaning and
servicing.
The Oil Insurance Association has published material on fire and safety precautions. Some of the
material is reprinted here.
Figure 10-17
Typical Plot Arrangements for Centrifugal Compressors
with Motor or Back Pressure Noncondensing Turbine Driver.
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Figure 10-18
Typical Plot Arrangements for Centrifugal Compressors
with Condensing Turbine Driver.
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Figure 10-19
Multi-Compressor Arrangement
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Figure 10-20
Two Basic Casing Designs for Centrifugal Compressors,
Horizontally split and Vertically Split
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Figure 10-21
Access Requirements for Oil Consoles
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10.17 PIPING DESIGN: CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS
The piping designer must be keenly aware of the principles of both piping and equipment arrangement,
for these are two inseparable facets of the overall problem of piping design. The approach to
compressor piping design can be simplified by breaking down the big problem (design concept) into a
number of smaller ones (individual systems). However, the intent here is only to make the designer
aware of the possible extent of a given conceptual design effort. The employment of certain
components and systems is dependent upon individual contract requirements. The three major
categories are (l) process systems, (2) auxiliary systems, and (3) driver systems.
Process System - The process piping system consists of the suction piping, interstage piping, when
required, and the discharge piping.
The aerodynamic performance of centrifugal compressors can be adversely affected by a number of
variables, one being the distribution of flow at the suction flange. The quality of flow distribution is a
direct function of the suction piping configuration adjacent to the compressor.
1. The ASME Power Test Code requires a minimum of three (3) diameters of straight pipe
between an elbow, in a plane parallel to the shaft, and the compressor suction flange
(Figure #10-22).
2. The normal-oriented inlet elbow, 90 to the compressor shaft, creates irregular gas
distribution to the impeller. Therefore, for best performance, suction piping must be laid out
for a uniform velocity profile over the entire area of any compressor inlet. The minimum
requirement is a long sweep elbow (3 diameter). The preferred method is a straight (no
branches) run of pipe after a long radius elbow. If the above guidelines are applied, the
velocity profile entering the suction nozzle will be nearly uniform as shown in Figure #10-23.
3. A space is provided in the specification sheet, under the heading Miscellaneous, for the
compressor engineer to indicate "recommended straight run of pipe diameters before
suction."
Figure #10-23
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Figure 10-22
ASME Power Test Code
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It is suggested that temporary suction strainers be placed in piping with the small diameter or the point
of the cone down stream of the retaining flange. The principle reason being greater bursting strength.
The alternative of placing the small diameter or cone point upstream offers the advantage of easier
cleaning since particles are not trapped in less accessible areas of the strainer but even slight
pressures can generate tremendous compression forces on the exterior and cause collapse.
It is imperative that a removable spool, flanged both ends, be provided in the suction piping to allow
installation and removal of the temporary start-up strainer. The length of the spool is based on the
strainer requirements. In addition, on top nozzle oriented compressors, a larger removable spool must
be provided in both suction and discharge piping for maintenance lifts.
Centrifugal compressor manufacturers have standard case designs. Suction nozzles are sometimes
much larger or smaller than the piping line size. For example, a 30-inch suction nozzle may be
furnished for 20-inch suction line. The designer's first reaction might be to ask the vendor to change
the compressor nozzle to 20 inch. But since this is a stock design case, the vendor cannot make such
a change without a complete, costly redesign. Therefore, it becomes the piping designer's problem to
make the transition. Line-size changes at compressor suction nozzles must be made smoothly as
possible, i.e. use a concentric reducer or transition reducer. Never use a reducing flange. This would
introduce full velocity to the rotor at a turbulent condition that would hinder performance.
Some compressor vendors require a transition reducer of not more than 6 (Figure 10-24).
Figure #10-24
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When interstage cooling is required, the fluid being compressed is discharged to an intercooler and an
interstage K.O. Drum.
1. Intercoolers are, typically, shell and tube heat exchangers which cool the fluid between
stages to (1) reduce the temperature, (2) reduce the volume to be compressed in
succeeding stages, (3) to liquefy condensable vapors, and (4) to save power.
2. Intercoolers should be located close to the compressor with consideration for access,
maintenance and operation, process conditions, supports and anchors, and economic,
uniform piping arrangements.
3. The discharged fluid, especially when cooled, may contain entrained liquid that is
undesirable to retain. The interstage K.O. drum is installed downstream of the intercooler
so that any entrained liquids are removed before further compression.
4. The interstage K.O drum may be either a vertical or horizontal vessel. It should be
located as close as possible to the compressor allowing for the traditional considerations.
(Figure #10-25, Figure #10-26.)
The compressor discharge line should be routed close to the suction line so that a common support
may be used and platform requirements for such items as block valves, and instruments can be
simplified.
An aftercooler is normally required for iso-cooled arrangements. It is usually a shell and tube heat
exchanger which cools the fluid following the completion of compression to (1) reduce the temperature
and (2) to liquefy condensable vapors. (Figure #10-27 for reference.)
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Figure 10-25
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Figure 10-26
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10.17.1 Auxiliary Piping Systems
NOTE: This section was missing from package
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10.18 PROCEDURES FOR ESTABLISHING COMPRESSOR ELEVATION
10.18.1 Centrifugal Compressors With Bottom Oriented Connections:
Normally, the compressor elevation is determined from process, mechanical and support
requirements of the suction line. (Figure #10-37).
1. Bottom of pipe will be set by clearance established for support and process drain
requirements.
2. Larger lines will require miters (check radius and weld requirements).
3. Process straight run requirements on suction lines, plus clearance of any instrumentation,
flushing or special support requirements.
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Figure 10-37
Centrifugal Compressors with Bottom Oriented Connections
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10.18.2 Centrifugal Compressors With Top Connections (Figure #10-38):
Normally, the height of this unit will be established by a combination of:
1. The height of the lube oil reservoir inlet.
2. Maintaining a minimum slope of 1/4" (use 1/2" for layout) per foot from the compressor
casing drain to the reservoir inlet connection.
3. Clearance of oil return line from structural steel.
Figure 10-38
Centrifugal Compressors with Top Connections
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10.18.3 Centrifugal Compressors (Top Connections) With Non-Condensing Turbine Driver
(Bottom Connections):
Normally, the compressor elevation is set by the oil drain requirements. (Figure #10-39).
1. Elevation of oil return connection at reservoir located on console.
2. Slope requirement of oil drain line (normally 1/2" per foot).
3. Elevation of oil drain connection at compressor.
4. Check location and orientation of oil drain at compressor and oil return at reservoir to
assure shortest possible routing of drain line.
5. The elevation of the compressor must be high enough to accommodate Items 1, 2 and 3.
See Figure #10-39 below.
Figure 10-39
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6. Another item for consideration in setting the compressor elevation is clearance of the exhaust line
out of the bottom of the turbine.
(a) Exhaust line must clear foundation and be high enough to allow for a boot, drain and trap. See
Figures #10-40, 10-41 and 10-42 below.
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10.18.4 Centrifugal Compressors With Condensing Turbine Driver (Bottom Exhaust):
Normally, the compressor elevation is set by the requirements of the surface condenser.
(Figure #10-43).
1. Diameter of surface condenser (largest) clearance from structures.
2. Suction requirements (NPSH), elevation (support) requirements of condensate pumps and hotwell
nozzle orientation and clearance requirements.
3. Exhaust inlet connection size and projection and clearance from structure.
4. The requirements of an expansion joint and clearance from structure. The expansion joint is
supplied by Purchaser or by the condenser manufacturer.
5. Transition piece may be required between exhaust connection expansion joint at turbine and inlet
connection at surface condenser, and should be supplied by the surface condenser manufacturer.
6. Clearance of exhaust connection at turbine from oil piping and clearance from structure and access
for installing transition piece and expansion joint.
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Figure 10-43
Centrifugal Compressors with Condensing Turbine Driver
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10.19 BASIC STRESS CONSIDERATIONS
Centrifugal compressors present the same basic problems that are encountered at pumps, turbines and
blowers. Alignment of the shaft connecting the compressor and the compressor driver is critical to the
operation of the machine. The external forces on both machines must be limited to avoid distortion of
casings, base plate or any other part of the assembly which would cause shaft misalignment or would
impede the impeller. Compressor manufacturers have, consequently, devised a method of limiting
loads on equipment that is nearly infallible from their point of view, but impractical for piping layout.
NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) developed the basic formula for use on turbines.
There is no analytical basis for the formula nor is there any test data to substantiate the use of the
NEMA-SM20 criteria for any equipment. In fact, the criteria is so limiting that the compressor
manufacturers generally accept NEMA allowable loads multiplied by a factor of 1.85 which is better but
still extremely low. Without delving into the actual mathematics, the formula is arranged so that with a
force of any nominal magnitude the allowable bending moment is zero and vice versa. The piping
layout must then be made flexible to a ridiculous extent by addition of "doglegs", loops, tie rods, struts,
directional anchors, etc. to protect the equipment nozzle.
The solution to the problem is in the handling of the vendor prior to and after purchase of the
compressor. When the standard specifications are drafted by the mechanical engineering group there
can be no statement regarding forces moments and stresses which would discourage a vendor from
bidding. However, there should not be a blind acceptance of NEMA-SM20 as a limiting criteria in either
its original or modified form. The specification should state that limiting forces and moments are
subject to review by the purchaser. In the event that the purchaser presents the vendor with
calculations which he judged to be within reason, the vendor would be obligated to review the
calculations for possible acceptance and present changes along with a cost analysis to modify the
compressor to handle the forces and moments as or if necessary. The analysis would be at the
vendor's cost and the modifications at Purchasers cost.
There are precedents to justify this type of arrangement as itemized below:
1. Three compressors in a normal refinery (B.P.O.C. in Philadelphia, Penna.) were modified
for a total cost of $1000.00 to withstand forces and moments above vendor's limitations.
Aesthetic appearance and economics in piping layout by far compensated the nominal cost.
2. Several compressors in an LNG plant (Pacific Alaska) were overloaded by a large margin
but, because of line size and critical nature of the system, calculations were sent to the
vendor for review. The vendor reviewed the calculations at $4000.00 per system and with
no modifications to the machine, approved the loads in less then a week's time. This
averted using expansion joints in a highly critical system where rupture could easily have
caused a catastrophe.
3. Compressors in high temperature service 600F - 700F at a normal refinery (Exxon,
Baytown) were overloaded by a high percentage compared to vendor limitations in three
separate instances. Calculations were reviewed and accepted by the vendor at no
additional cost to the purchaser.
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Another device that frequently helps in acquiring approval is delivering forces and moments to the
vendor before he is awarded the contract to provide the compressor. Frequently the vendor will accept
the loads as presented at that time with no further effort on the purchasers' part.
One aspect of the layout that has caused problems in the past with regard to dead weight loading is the
position taken by vendor representatives in the field. Whenever there is a problem in shaft alignment
the piping arrangement is subject to question by the vendor representative. He is generally convinced
that the misalignment is caused by the dead weight of the pipe whether it is or not. The initial step he
makes is to check to determine if all the dead weight has been removed from the nozzle. If it has not
been removed, he will invariably insist that additional supports be provided in the piping system to
handle the dead weight. In most cases the field will accommodate this request regardless of the actual
cause of misalignment. There are many cases where the piping system is bent into position to fit
because of dimensional discrepancies or over-under loading of springs exists in the system or slight
machine imbalances are present which are the real causes of misalignment. By removing the dead
load from the nozzle the overall distortion is relieved to the extent that misalignment problem is solved.
All too frequently this operation is undertaken even though the vendor has agreed to the loading on the
compressor. For this reason, the piping at the compressor nozzles should be supported so that there is
no dead load on the nozzle. The designer than can accomplish these supports in a more orderly
fashion if it is designed as an after thought in the field.
Recommended procedure is to support the piping at the nozzle. The additional steel can also be used
for anchors, guides, or struts to control the forces on the compressor nozzle and meet Fluor or Vendor
limitations.
Piping flexibility requirements are difficult to determine because of the wide variety of limitations from
various vendors, types of machines and casing materials. Cast iron nozzles and casings can take
about 1/4 of the strain of a steel casing, consequently, the piping arrangement at a compressor of cast
iron construction will require considerably more flexibility (piping) than at identical compressor
constructed from steel.
Using standard criteria, the cast iron nozzle can take 50 x IPS of force in lbs. with 500 lbs. maximum
and steel can take 200 x IPS of force in lbs. with 2000 lbs. maximum.
To facilitate layout to satisfy stress requirements, a nomogram has been developed which minimizes
the designers work. An example problem (Figure #10-46) best demonstrates the use of the
nomograph. The inlet line as shown in Figures #10-46 and 10-47 requires analysis. Figure #10-48
represents the isometric stress sketch as it should be presented to the stress analyst in an early layout
stage. It is recommended to submit all lines connecting to the compressor simultaneously. Before
submitting, the designer should check the flexibility with the nomogram as follows:
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Figure #10-44
FS-2s Caused Walkway Problems on Platform and Looked Terrible
Figure 10-45
Operating Room below Compressors Hampered
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Figure 10-46
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Figure 10-47
Section A-A
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Figure 10-48
Example Problem for Use of Nomograph
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Step 1. Enter the nomograph at Column II on the steel (nozzle size) side and mark the line at the
10" nozzle - Point A.
Step 2. Calculate the total expansion in the East-West direction. (6'-0") + (35'-0") .027 =
1.107" - mark Column V (thermal expansion) at 1.107" Point B.
Step 3. Draw a line between Point A and Point B.
Step 4. Where the line between Point A and Point B intersects Column IV mark the
intersection Point C.
Step 5. Locate the pipe line size (18") on Column I (pipe size) and mark it Point D.
Step 6. Draw a line between Point D and Point C.
Step 7. Where the line between Point D and Point C intersects Column III (pipe length)
read the required length (39').
Step 8. The sum of all the pipe lengths perpendicular to the East-West expansion must
be greater than 39'.
(5'-0") + (10'-0") + (9'-0") + (5'-0") + (3'-0") = 32'-0" 7'-0" additional pipe
is required either in the North-South or Vertical direction.
The same procedure is followed for the expansion in the remaining two directions.
Step 1. Same as before.
Step 2. North-South expansion
= (5'-0") + (10'-0") .027 = .405" Locate in Column V mark Point B.
Step 3. Same instruction.
Step 4. Same instruction.
Step 5. Same instruction.
Step 6. Same instruction
Step 7. Read approximately 28' on Column III.
Step 8. Sum of the East-West and vertical lengths must be greater than 28', (5'-0") +
(35'-0") + (9'-0") = 49'= O.K.
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Finally the vertical expansion.
Step 1. Same as before.
Step 2. Calculate the vertical expansion.
(15.0 x .0316) + (3 x .027) - (9-0" + 5-0" + 4-0") .027 = .483"
Step 3. Same instruction.
Step 4 Same instruction.
Step 5 Same instruction.
Step 6 Same instruction.
Step 7. Read approximately 29' on Column III.
Step 8. The sum of all the pipe lengths in the East-West and North-South direction which
can bend without hitting a support is (10'-0") + (35'-0") = 45' - 0"
The only flexibility requirement for the entire problem then is an additional 7'-0" in either the East-West
or Vertical direction. Drop off the North side of the vessel. If pressure drop is critical, both the shorter
configuration as well as the more flexible one (satisfying the nomogram) should be submitted for
analysis.
Consultation with the process engineer is recommended.
To satisfy the requirement of no weight load on the compressor flange, careful consideration must be
given to the location and type of supports. For the configuration in the example (Figure #10-46),
springs at 1 and 2 will minimize the load at the nozzle, while offering a practical solution.
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There are a number of configurations that satisfy the nomogram but are not acceptable when
thoroughly analyzed. The designer should be aware of this fact so that he is not overly alarmed by
changes.
Close cooperation between the layout designer, stress analyst and process engineer is extremely
important when routing compressor piping.
10.20 STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS
Compressors may be installed indoors, outdoors, or under a shelter. They may be mounted on a
foundation at "grade" or on a mezzanine. The basic shelter requirements are provided in the
specification sheet under LOCATION. Where climate conditions demand a permanently housed
compressor, two basic building types are common; the fully enclosed building and the tropical type
shelter. However, whether the compressor is installed in a building, outdoors, or in a shelter, the
operating floor layout should be based upon specific considerations (Figure #10-49).
The height of the operating floor, of course, is established by applying the procedures provided in this
manual. Floor size will be dependent upon clearance for compressor and driver periphery - including
furnished appurtenances - and maintenance and operation considerations. The instrument control
panel requires both front and rear access. A preliminary size may be obtained from the control systems
engineer.
In areas of heavy snow where blowing winds create tail drifts, the fully enclosed building becomes a
necessity; however, in mild climate areas a tropical type shelter is adequate. This provides a roof with
drop curtains; i.e. building walls extending from the eaves to within 8' of the operating floor line. (Verify
that the "drop curtains" do not alter the wind direction to air coolers mounted over the pipeway). When
a permanent shelter is specified, normally a traveling crane is required capable of handling the heaviest
maintenance removable piece refer to specification sheet for weights) of the compressor or drive
assembly.
Figure #10-50 shows the two basic types of foundations common to centrifugal compressor
installations. The layout designer must work closely with the structural group during the design phase
of the foundation, especially on mezzanine installations where usually the compressor and driver are
provided with down connections that require large openings in the top of the foundation. It is important
to note that these openings must be of sufficient area to accommodate large flange connections and
some of the auxiliary piping. Verify clearance for lines passing beneath the horizontal beam, especially
oil return piping which must slope 1/2" per foot.
All special pipe supports and platforms must be sketched and submitted to the structural group as soon
as possible for preliminary design. For example, gland condensers may be supported from the
compressor foundation; the overhead seal oil tank requires a platform. The sketches must include both
the method of support and loads the support will be required to withstand.
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Figure 10-49
Basic Platform Considerations for
Centrifugal Compressors Mounted at "Grade"
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Figure 10-50
Typical Foundation for Centrifugal Compressors
10.21 RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR PLOT LAYOUT
The location of the compressor installation must be influenced by size, process consideration, fire and
safety hazards, economic pipe runs, accessibility, stress requirements and maintenance and operation
requirements.
To determine the physical affect on the plot plan, research all pertinent preliminary flow diagrams,
especially for gas engine driven compressors, as these installations have many and varied auxiliaries.
The compressor must be located as close as possible to its suction source. An excessively long
suction line will increase costs by consuming extra driver horsepower. The suction line should be short
and direct. If interstage equipment is required, make a detailed flow transposition for proving the best
arrangement. Other important items to be considered include, operating valves, elevation
requirements, remote lubrication requirements, vertical vs. horizontal K.O. drums, interstage
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separators, and cylinder jacket water equipment.
The interrelationships of all major components should be determined through discussion with Process
and Mechanical Engineering. Color code and make freehand sketches of physical requirements such
as heat exchanger structures. "Look at it as a system" and lay it out accordingly.
The compressor installation must be located close to a service road so that it is readily accessible by
mobile equipment.
Research past contract estimates and model photos for similar installations.
At this stage, very preliminary information is OK, but allow for at least 30% more workable area.
Compressors sometimes have the luxury of "growing".
Before final release of location, review for following:
1. Access for large lifts. Type of handling equipment.
2. Access for maintenance, i.e., piston pull, cylinder removal, lubrication equipment; drop
area requirements.
3. Power source for motor drivers.
4. Area for headers and laterals.
5. Distance from control rooms, heaters, boilers and high frequency roads.
6. Conformance with all equipment narrative specifications and individual specification
sheets.
7. Auxiliary equipment requirements
After the location of the compressor installation is finalized, the plot arrangement for the compression
equipment must be planned.
The major factor at the installation is orientation of the compressor relative to the headers. Orientation
is, primarily, predicated by area available and the size of the compressor and driver. The prime
consideration is the piping, especially on multi-stage units. An arrangement with the compressor piston
rod perpendicular to the headers causes short piping runs for horizontal straight line and gas engine
driven units (Figure #10-51), but will necessitate some long piping runs and limited access for balance
opposed machines (Figure #10-52). An arrangement with the piston rod parallel to the headers causes
long piping runs for multi-horizontal straight line compressors and gas engine driven units (Figure #10-
53) but shorter piping runs are possible with balanced opposed machines (Figure #10-54). Therefore,
orientation of the compressor will be dependent, primarily, upon type of compressor, economic pipe
runs, and available plot space.
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Specific clearance considerations must be applied during plot arrangement so that piping systems,
equipment installation, maintenance and operation can be effectively executed without unnecessary
difficulties.
Sufficient unobstructed space must be provided for piston and piston rod removal. During preliminary
layout stages, use 6'-0" as the minimum requirement (Figure #10-55). After vendor outline and cylinder
specification sheets are available for size, weights, and removal distances, then final clearances can be
established.
Figure 10-55
Basic Clearance Considerations
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Figure #10-51
Preferred Orientation for Piping Economy and Optimum Access
Figure #10-53
Alternate Orientation for Gas Engine Driven Compressors and Horizontal Straight-Line Compressors
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Figure #10-52
Alternate Orientation Produces Longer Laterals and Limited Access
Figure #10-54
Preferred Orientation for Balance-Opposed Compressors
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Motor drivers require clearance for rotor removal. Check for location and size of the conduit boxes,
motor starter (push button), and vibration sensors.
Steam turbine drivers, like centrifugal compressors, may be horizontally or vertically split for rotor
access. Be sure adequate clearance is incorporated into the design concept for the execution of these
maintenance requirements. One of the functions of the Trip and Throttle valve is throttling during start-
up. For this reason it must be reachable from a platform and easily accessible for operation.
Allow adequate space for the removal of tube bundles from oil coolers and other heat exchanger in the
system.
Clearance pocket valves are frequently required for compressor cylinders. The handwheel will be at
the center of the cylinder and project horizontally from the end of the cylinder (Figure #10-56). The
walkway must be outside the extremity of these handwheels.
In summary, all equipment must be arranged so that access for maintenance and operation is possible.
Adequate space must be provided for removing parts for cleaning and servicing. Investigate drop area
requirements; type of equipment to be used for maintenance (Austin-Western, bridge crane, etc.).
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Figure 10-56
Two Typical Clearance Valve
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10.22 PIPING DESIGN: RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS
A reciprocating compressor alternately withdraws gas from and delivers it to a piping system in a series
of pulses. Vibration is introduced into the piping system as a direct result of these pressure pulses
and/or mechanical natural frequencies. Piping system design may be resolved into two categories: (1)
applied measures for the prevention of vibration of the piping, and (2) system design that will provide
the maximum compressor efficiency. These two categories are closely related. For instance, it is
sometimes necessary to install flow resistance devices at specific points to reduce pressure pulsations,
thereby minimizing the vibration problem. The efficiency may be reduced by such a step, but vibration
that could lead to possible failure would be averted. The piping designer must be keenly aware of the
principles of both piping and equipment arrangement, for these are two inseparable facets of the overall
problem of piping design. The approach to compressor piping design can be simplified by breaking
down the big problem (design concept) into a number of smaller ones (individual systems). However,
the intent here is only to make the designer aware of the possible extent of a given conceptual design
effort. The employment of certain components and systems is dependent upon individual contract
requirements. The three major categories are (1) process systems, (2) auxiliary systems, and (3) driver
systems.
The process piping system consists of the suction piping, interstage piping, when required, and the
discharge piping. Common system equipment requirements include pulsation suppression devices,
K.O. (knockout) drums, separators, intercoolers, and aftercoolers. All of the process piping which
accommodates these systems must be routed close to "grade" on sleepers to facilitate the application
of suitable hold-downs for the prevention of vibration of the piping.
One of the prime considerations during layout of suction piping is to ensure that absolutely no liquid
may enter the compression cylinder; liquids do not compress and cannot be tolerated in a reciprocating
cycle. Many times the gas temperature is higher than ambient, especially at night. The gas may slowly
condense on the pipe wall and accumulate in low spots in the piping. Given sufficient time, it fills the
line to the point where it can "slug" and cause severe mechanical damage.
The suction K.O. Drum is used to remove entrained liquid from the gas before introduction into the
compressor. It should be located as close as possible to the compressor cylinder to keep suction lines
relatively short.
The preferred takeoff point from the suction header to the compressor cylinder is from the top. This
arrangement provides maximum protection from liquid that might collect and be carried into the
cylinder. A bottom takeoff may be used only when approved by process and equipment engineers.
Suction piping may sometimes be insulated and steam traced to help prevent condensation, but there
can be no substitution for good drains.
All headers, and lateral pipe runs between the headers and compressor, are routed as close as
possible to the high point of finished surface to permit easy installation of restraints. The elevation of
the headers will be determined from drainage requirements.
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Operational requirements for valving will be predicated by contract narrative specification and/or Client
instructions.
A temporary suction strainer is required in the suction piping for all reciprocating compressors. For
optimum protection of the compressor, it should be located in the outlet nozzle of the suction pulsation
suppression device (Figure #10-58). However, since this is only a recommendation that may be
challenged and/or rejected by some Clients, actual strainer location must be reviewed early in the job in
order to avoid problems in the design of pulsation suppression devices and the piping system.
10.22.1 Pulsation Suppression Devices
All large reciprocating process compressors require "pulsation suppression devices" immediately
adjacent to the suction and discharge flanges of each compression cylinder. These "devices" serve
two purposes: (1) they help reduce the transmission of pressure pulsations into the piping system, and
(2) provide sufficient surge capacity, resulting in more efficient compressor operation. Basically, all
pulsation suppression devices may be categorized as either a volume bottle or dampener, an empty
vessel or one with internals, respectively. Volumes and basic dimensions are the responsibility of the
mechanical engineer, but the piping designer predicates orientation and location of the nozzles. The
required connections and other design information are tabulated and furnished with the "pulsation
suppression device" narrative specification. A typical "device" has the following connections:
1. Inlet connection
2. Outlet connection
3. Vent connections (flg'd w/blind)
4. Drain connections (flg'd w/blind)
5. Pressure test connections
6. Temperature connections
7. Inspection openings
In addition to the above connections, a suction pulsation dampener may require a sump for liquid
collection and control. The mechanical engineer will specify the need (Figure #10-57).
The effective layout of pulsation suppression devices requires the application of varied considerations
by the layout designer.
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Figure 10-57
Internals for a Typical Pulsation Dampener
The cylinder connections (outlet of suction device, inlet of discharge device) must be of sufficient length
to allow unobstructed removal of cylinder valves, clearance from platforms, structural steel and
instruments, as shown in Figure #10-58 and 10-59. Figure #10-60 depicts a simple method for location
of these nozzles.
Vents and drains are required for each compartment of dampening devices with internals. Verify that
structural steel or foundations do not obstruct these connections.
Instrument connections must be easily accessible and visible.
When the temporary strainer is to be installed in the outlet nozzle of the suction pulsation suppression
device, the strainer length, or the nozzle length may require adjusting so that clearance of any internals
is realized.
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Figure 10-58
Typical Suction Pulsation Dampener and Elevation Requirements
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Figure 10-59
Typical Discharge Pulsation Dampener and Elevation Requirements
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Another important aspect to be considered during layout is the position and support of pulsation
suppression devices and filters. Spherical pulsation suppression devices are sometimes used and
should be given certain considerations. This subject is discussed later in this section.
During preliminary layout, the layout designer may use the following formulae for estimating basic
volumes and dimensions of pulsation devices. It is recommended that 24 inches be considered the
maximum diameter size. Essentially, the estimate is based on piston displacement.
(a) SV = .7854 B
2
S
(b) PV
min
= 12 SV
(c)
2
7854 . D
PV
H =
(d) Definitions:
SV = slug volume
PV = estimated pulsation device volume
B = cylinder bore - inches (from equip. spec. sheet)
S = stroke - inches (from equip. spec. sheet)
H = length of pulsation device
D = diameter of pulsation device - inches
(e) Sample problem: To find "H"
Given data:
B = 21" S = 9" D = 24" (max.)
(1) SV = .7854 B
2
S
= 3117.25
3
in.
(2) PV = 3117.25 x 12
= 37407
3
in.
(3) .
20 7854 .
37407
24 7854 .
37407
7854 .
2 2 2
etc or
D
PV
H

= =
=82.68" =119.07"
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Figure 10-60
An interstage piping system is required when fluid compression must be accomplished in two or more
stages before final discharge.
1. Normally, valves should be located so that they are accessible from the operating platform level.
However, the piping and valve requirements may be quite complex on some multistage units in
which case a stile may be employed to obtain adequate accessibility to valves.
2. The location of interstage equipment, K.O. drums, intercoolers, and aftercoolers will be dependent
upon type, size, available space, and piping requirements. For instance, a contract might require
the use of air coolers as intercoolers. Since the piping system is a potential vibration source, it
would not be practical to follow the traditional practice of locating the air coolers over the pipeway.
It is, by far, easier to control the system which is close to "grade." Therefore, it would be more
feasible to minimize elevation and support requirements by locating the air coolers as shown in
Figure #10-61.
If more than one compressor is required, be sure to leave adequate space between the air coolers
for access.
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Figure 10-61
Relationship of Air Cooler (Intercooler) to Compressor
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3. Intercoolers are, typically, shell and tube heat exchangers (air coolers may be used also) which cool
the fluid between stages to (1) reduce the temperature, (2) reduce the volume to be compressed in
succeeding stages, (3) to liquefy condensable vapors, and (4) to save power.
4. Intercoolers should be located close to the compressor with consideration for access, maintenance
and operation, process conditions, supports and anchors, and economic, uniform piping
arrangements.
5. The discharged fluid, especially when cooled, may contain entrained liquid that is undesirable to
retain. The interstage K.O. drum is installed downstream of the intercooler so that any entrained
liquids are removed before further compression.
6. The interstage K.O. drum may be either a vertical or horizontal vessel. It should be located as
close as possible to the compressor allowing for the traditional considerations.
10.22.2 Discharge Piping
The last stage discharge piping, generally, should be held down about 25 feet from the compressor mat
before rising into the pipeway. Machinery-mass excited frequencies have little or no transmission 20 to
50 feet from the mat; as lines extend from the compressor, pulsation usually decreases due to the
greater volume of gas serving as a "cushion."
All compressor process piping in the pipeway will not be provided with hold-downs or supports on a
frequency basis. Normal pipe support spacing will be used. However, the piping will be routed so that
it is in close proximity to other larger diameter piping which is not subject to temperatures over 180F or
it shall be routed next to pipe support struts. This procedure should be followed so that strapping the
vibrating line to either the larger diameter piping or the pipe support struts can control vibration induced
after startup.
An aftercooler is normally required for multistage arrangements. It is usually a shell and tube heat
exchanger (air coolers may be used also) which cools the fluid following the completion of compression
to (1) reduce the temperature and (2) to liquefy condensable vapors.
Vibration of the compressor piping system is minimized through the proper application of supports,
hold-downs, and wedges. Figure #10-62 shows how these measures help prevent excessive vibration
in the system.
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Figure 10-62
How Natural Frequency Should Match Supports
Line spacing should be based on the dimensional chart line spacing found in Piping Engineering
Design Guide, 000 250 9815. However, the dimension given in the chart may require adjusting if the
laterals tie in at a 45 angle. For example, line spacing for two 16-inch headers is 2'-0". If the lateral is
16 inches also, this dimension must be greater (Figure #10-63), because the lateral will interfere with
one header.
Figure 10-63
Line Spacing Problem
Pipe Support and hold-down spacing should be based on Piping Engineering Design Guide 000 250
2481.
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The last stage discharge piping will always have a check valve installed in it to prevent flow-reversal.
This particular check valve is frequently a specialty item, i.e., silent in operation; it is especially
designed for installation in the discharge line of reciprocating compressors. Because of normal
pulsations in a gas system, ordinary check valves installed in this service in the past usually hammered
and pounded themselves to destruction.
Be sure to direct inquires to Piping Material Engineering to ascertain the type of check valve that will be
used.
The location of this check valve is important. For example, if a condenser, downstream of the check
valve, is installed considerably higher (in a structure) than the compressors, then the check valve
should be located as close as possible to the condenser so condensed gases cannot fill the line and
drain back to the compressor. In addition, the line should slope toward the condenser.
10.22.3 Auxiliary Piping Systems
Auxiliary piping systems include all necessary lube oil, drains, vents, steam and water lines that are
attendant to the compressor, the driver, and the auxiliary equipment. These systems are shown on the
auxiliary flow diagram(s). A solid line designates piping and components furnished by the vendor,
piping and components furnished by Purchaser are designated by a dashed line.
Compressor frame lubrication system is a pressure system that consists of an oil pump with suction
strainer, a supply-and-return system, an oil cooler (when required), a full flow filter, and other
necessary instruments.
1. The main oil pump is driven from the crankshaft and shall be accessible for maintenance.
2. An oil cooler is provided to maintain lube oil supply temperature at or below 150F. The
cooler is normally a shell-and-tube type, heat exchanger, water-cooled (tube side).
3. When specified, a removable steam heating element external to the oil reservoir is
provided for heating the charge capacity of oil prior to start up in cold weather.
Forced-feed mechanical lubricators separate from the frame lubrication pump accomplish lubrication to
the cylinder and packing. The Vendor supplies all the necessary hardware.
Distance pieces are available in four basic designs (Figure #10-64) with connections for venting,
draining, and cooling water (when required to cool packing gland). Access openings are provided to
permit removal of the packing case. All connections shall be 1-inch pipe size, minimum. The auxiliary
flow diagram(s) will indicate where vents and drains are to be piped.
The compressor lube oil system is normally piped and located by the Vendor at the front of the frame
and supported at the same elevation as the distance piece. However, it should be lowered and
supported from the "basement floor". Since the Vendor furnishes the piping, the squad check should
be marked-up to reflect this modification.
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1. Some reciprocating compressors are furnished with a separate lube oil console in which
case Purchaser furnishes the interconnecting.
2. Some Clients may reject the standard practice of locating the lube oil equipment beneath
the operating platform. Therefore, it would advantageous to ask early if such a preference
exists.
Elevation of the compressor is normally established by a combination of the following:
1. Elevation of headers set by B.O.P clearance from grade and drain requirements.
2. Lateral takeoffs from top of headers and clearance for crossing headers.
3. Discharge pulsation suppression device inlet nozzle requirements and support methods.
4. Maintenance and operational requirements for equipment, valving, instruments, etc. below
the floor.
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Figure 10-64
Distance Piece Basic Designs
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10.23 VIBRATION: PREVENTION AND CONTROL
The aim of this chapter is to summarize the essentials of vibration as applied to reciprocating
compressor piping systems that will minimize the occurrence of objectionable or damaging piping
vibration.
10.23.1 Types and Causes of Vibration
The most important facet in the design of piping to and from compressors is the vibration problem.
Vibration is introduced into the piping system by pressure pulses into the lines from the compressor
piston. The lines are also subject to vibration from the elongation of the compressor cylinder at the
compressor stroke of the piston and the vibration of the foundation as the driver and flywheel of the
compressor operate. Three main types of oscillation (vibration) must be carefully distinguished: free,
forced, and self-excited.
In free vibration, the system is excited by an external transient impulse (persisting for only a short time)
and the system vibrates under no external force. The frequencies at which the system vibrates are
called natural frequencies. The lowest natural frequency is the fundamental frequency.
In forced vibration, the system oscillates under the external or internal excitation by a periodic
disturbing force. The forcing vibrations that are of primary concern are mechanical and acoustical.
Mechanical vibration - A vibration which can be attributed to the mechanical imbalance of rotating and
reciprocating equipment, or elongation of a high pressure cylinder or some mechanical action which
can generally be confined to the immediate vicinity of its source. Normally the foundation or mat is
designed to dampen this vibration; however, the pulse is transmitted to everything on the mat and
within a certain radius depending upon the effectiveness of dampening.
Acoustic vibration - This vibration is a function of the power stroke on piston and plunger type pumps,
compressors and the general configuration of the line with respect to length, directional changes,
volume changes and dampening devices. This phenomenon will exist for the entire length of the line
up to a significant volume or area change. It is directly related to pressure surge and sonic velocity.
Self-exciting vibration - The source of this type of vibration is an internal energy in the form of
combustion, flashing, or unstable flow. Vibration of this type is nearly impossible to predict accurately
and is normally handled only as it occurs in the field.
10.23.2 Forcing Frequency
The forcing frequency is the number of times (cycles per second) a reciprocating compressor
introduces (forces) a pressure pulse into a piping system.
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The primary prerequisite of vibration prevention and control is the determination of the forcing
frequency. Knowing the possible forcing frequency (e.g. from specification sheets or calculations) an
attempt can then be made to prevent resonance of the piping system. Resonance occurs when a
system (mechanical or acoustic) is excited periodically with a frequency at or near the natural frequency
of the system. This may result in excessive deflection (amplitude magnification) causing high repeated
stresses and ultimate fatigue failure.
The vibrations that can be calculated or estimated are mechanical and acoustic. Investigation of
acoustic vibration can be divided into (a) an overall investigation which is made with an analog
computer to determine the need for further dampening devices or additional line length to prevent
unstable flow and large pressure surges and (b) a segmental investigation which is identical to the
mechanical vibration in frequency but caused by the pressure peaks due to the reciprocating action of
the compressing cylinder.
10.23.3 Explanation of Symbols
ff
1
= fundamental forcing frequency (cycles per second)
RPM = Maximum machine speed in revolutions per minute
N
c
= Number of compressor cylinders connected to a common manifold
F
c
= 1.0 for single acting cylinder (or double acting cylinder unloaded one end)
F
c
= 2.0 for double acting cylinder
f
n
= natural frequency
ff
4
= Fourth harmonic of forcing frequency. (Response to the forcing frequency has
been found to be dangerous up to its fourth harmonic. Therefore, the natural frequency
of the piping segment - dependent on distance between hold-downs and/or supports -
should be higher than the fourth harmonic of the forcing frequency.)
10.23.4 Calculation of Fundamental and Fourth Harmonic Frequencies
RPM N F
RPM
ff
C C
01667 .
60
) (
1
= = x
C
F x
C
N
Therefore
4
4
= ff x
1
ff = 4 x .01667 RPM x
C
F x
C
N
= .667 RPM x
C
F x
C
N
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To avoid resonance the natural frequency of the piping system should be higher than the fourth
harmonic (ff
4
) of the forcing frequency.
f
n
> ff
4
n
f > .0667 RPM x
C
F
C
N
or
n
f > .07 RPM x
C
F
C
N
The following examples illustrate how the forcing frequency and natural frequency calculations may be
applied to reciprocating compressor piping systems.
Referring to Figure #10-65, if the pulse from compressor A is introduced into the piping system so that it
is diametrically opposed to the pressure pulse from compressor B then, assuming the two compressors
to be identical, the pulses are introduced into the piping system at twice the rate as they would be if
only compressor A were operating. The number of cylinders attached to a common manifold is noted
as "Nc" in the formula.

60
) (
1
RPM
ff = x
C
F x
C
N = .01667 (RPM) ) (
C
F ) (
C
N
a. If compressor A and B operate at 420 RPM and are single acting, the forcing
frequency is:

60
420
1
= ff x 1 x 2 = 14
b. If compressors A and B had double-acting (D.A.) cylinders, "ff
1
" or the forcing
frequency would change.

60
420
1
= ff x 2 x 2 = 28
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Figure 10-65
Identical Compressors Operating at 420 RPM with Single-Acting
Cylinders Discharging into a Common Manifold
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10.23.5 Hold-Downs and Supports
The natural frequency of the pipe is a function of the dead weight deflection of the pipe, the end
conditions at the supports (Hold-down = fixed end, simple support = pinned end) and distance between
supports and hold-downs. These distances are illustrated in the Pipe Stress Analysis Design Guide,
the Piping Engineering Design Guide (000 250 2480).
This approach to setting distance between hold-downs and supports is conservative because it allows
the compressors to be operated at any speed up to and including its rated RPM with no danger of
failure in the piping system.
If the compressor operation (RPM) is not subject to change, then a range of frequencies can be
predicted and a series of lengths to be avoided can be calculated with piping laid out to avoid these
lengths between supports. However, this would be a large number of lengths and they would vary for
each piping system and size. Another point to remember when considering this less conservative
approach is that all piping systems have at least three natural frequencies corresponding to the three
major axis. North-South, East-West, and vertical.
More complex systems require more complex calculations to determine frequencies. Consequently we
do not design our piping system in this manner.
Although a great deal of the material presented so far sounds as if it is based on strictly hypothetical
and theoretical possibilities, there are sufficient historical records of failure to justify the use of these
parameters.
10.23.6 Orientation and Support of Pulsation Suppression Devices
One of the most important areas to consider in the layout of piping systems is the position and support
of pulsation suppression devices and filters. In hydrogen service, the filter is usually placed as close as
possible to the cylinder so that the pulsation bottle is installed as a fitting makeup item (Figure #10-73)
connecting the filter with the compressor cylinder.
Figure 10-73
Preferred Location of Filters, especially in Hydrogen Service
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The support point on the cylinder should be within a foot up or down of the tangent line of the filter. If
the filter has supports on the shell, then the cylinder support point should be within a foot up or down of
the bottom of the filter support to equalize vertical expansion.
The nozzle neck length between the cylinder head and the pulsation device must be kept to a
minimum. The mass of the pulsation device mounted on an excessively long nozzle neck will have a
low natural frequency and will more than likely vibrate. In addition to pulse vibration and machine
vibration, the cylinder of the compressor tends to elongate and even if this is infinitesimal at the
cylinder, it becomes magnified at the end of the distance piece. The action on the pipe system can be
related to whiplash in an automobile accident (only with a continuous impact based on the compression
stroke of the cylinder). There have been several cases where the movement of the pulsation device
has necessitated use of additional dampers and supports to rectify the problem. In at least one
instance, the problem could not be resolved without shortening the nozzle neck.
However, the normal solution to a vibration problem of this nature is to first add adjustable spring
wedge supports to one or both ends of the pulsation suppression device, brace the bottle back to the
frame of the compressor (Figure #10-74) and as a last resort cut the distance piece shorter and reroute
the pipe.
Figure 10-74
A Solution to Pulsation Bottle Vibration
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If the cylinder stretch is too much (average is about 10 mils), the nozzle neck may be overstressed
when the brace is added. Analysis will be necessary before the brace is added.
The layout with piping and the pulsation suppression device in a straight (Figure #10-73) line between
the compressor cylinder and the filter is a good arrangement considering vibration. However, if the
spool piece between flanges is in error or if the foundation of either the filter or compressor is slightly off
in any direction, field fit up is nearly impossible without moving the filter or refabricating the spool. For
this reason, construction prefers an arrangement with at least one elbow to help them fit the piping
system in the field (Figure #10-75).
Figure 10-75
Straight-Line Layout is Good for Vibration but Poor for Erection
This arrangement (Figure #10-76) does present several problems that are not as serious as in the
direct hookup. The weight of the pulsation suppression device in the first case is distributed between
the filter nozzle and the compressor nozzle. In the second case, nearly all of the weight of the "device"
is on the compressor nozzle along with a large bending moment caused by the overhanging position.
Most "devices" are relatively heavy, 6000 pounds is not unusual, so the support of the system must be
considered because of weight loading on the nozzle in addition to the natural frequency which is much
lower on "L" shape pipe configurations. Frequently, the compressor manufacturer can stand larger
loads on the cylinder than is normally recommended, because of the location of the cylinder support.
However, if the natural frequency of the piping and the "device" nearly coincides with the forcing
frequency of the compressor or its harmonics, then additional support will be required regardless of the
allowable load on the nozzle. The supports and hold-downs on the "device" must be adjustable to
accommodate the vertical expansion while holding the weight of the pipe; usually a column from grade
or the compressor structure is required.
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Figure 10-76
Support Method for Pulsation Suppression Devices
A more efficient method of supporting pulsation suppression devices is to use the compressor frame as
a support point (Figure #10-77). The structure to grade can often be eliminated through use of this
method.
Figure 10-77
Support Method for Pulsation Suppression Device
Using Compressor Frame
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The support can be placed directly on the pulsation suppression device on the pipe or on a dummy
provided as an integral attachment to the bottle by the manufacturer. A wide variety of arrangements
are available.
Figure 10-78
Support of Pulsation Suppression Devices
When the pulsation suppression device is not connected to the filter and the piping descends close to
grade, arrangements must be provided to carry its weight and to hold down the piping. Additional care
must be taken to avoid restriction of thermal expansion of the pipe. This is accomplished through the
use of adjustable spring wedges or side mounted hold-downs on the line and/or "device" (Figure #10-
78).
If the line drops down from the bottom of the pulsation device and the thermal expansion vertically is
less than 1/8" down; the line may be used to support the pulsation suppression device. Guides are
required for stability (Figure #10-79).
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Figure 10-79
Utilization of the Piping to Help Support the Pulsation Device
Figure 10-80
Support Methods for Large and Small Pulsation Devices
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The pulsation suppression device on the lower cylinder nozzle also presents unique problems related to
support, expansion and vibration. A horizontal application can normally be handled by supports on
piers from grade. Hold-downs must be positioned so that movement of the "device" can accommodate
any cylinder stretch. This is true of vertical applications as well. Never position hold-downs so that the
holddown bolts run parallel to the motion of the piston.
Small pulsation suppression devices will probably only require a single adjustable spring wedge if
positioned correctly. Large varieties will require two adjustable spring wedges and a hold-down (Figure
#10-80) and cylinder stretch is parallel to the motion of the piston.
Another arrangement is the vertical pulsation suppression device, used primarily when the lower
cylinder nozzle is elevated. There are two basic methods for supporting these "devices." The most
preferable is the attachment of a permanent skirt to the "device" and using an adjustable spring wedge
to hold its weight. If the "device" is sufficiently long, one or more hold-downs may be required to
dampen vibration. That requirement will depend on the forcing frequency of the compressor and the
natural frequency of the device between supports.
If cylinder stretch is into pier, the pier will break. Cylinder stretch is parallel to the motion of the piston.
Hold-downs on pulsation suppression devices and pipes must be positioned for expansion or motion
(Figure #10-81).
The alternate support method is to rely on the friction of two hold-downs on the vertical "device" for
support. This is not advisable unless some type of safety device is used to limit the movement through
the hold-downs and insure a positive support.
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Figure 10-81
Example of Vertical Mounted Pulsation Suppression Device
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Figure 10-82
Example of Vertical Pulsation Suppression Device
at Vertical or Angle Compressor
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10.24 ANALOG AND COMPRESSOR PIPING SYSTEM DESIGN
The analog approach to compressor piping systems began when several members of the Southern
Gas Association (SGA) formed the Pipeline Compressor Research Council within the SGA to improve
techniques in compressor system design. The Council developed the first electro-acoustical analog of
a compressor system that subsequently evolved into a highly sophisticated "tool" for design of
reciprocating and rotating machinery systems.
Certain elements within a reciprocating compressor piping system can combine to form resonant
pulsations with the compressor and thereby alter its normal compression cycle. These pulsations
frequently create severe vibratory motion of the system and sometimes cause rupture. The analog, by
accurately predicting total system response, has proved to be a highly successful "tool" in the
elimination of potentially hazardous natural frequencies of pulsation.
A reciprocating compressor alternately withdraws gas from and delivers it to a piping system in a series
of pulses created by the action of the piston and valves. This action produces oscillations in the gas
pressure that travels through the system like sound waves.
A simple explanation of pulsation: On the suction stroke of the piston all the little gas molecules rush
toward the cylinder. They beat on each other and the walls of the pipe in their anxiety to get in through
the open cylinder suction valves. Then for an instant the suction valves close on the compression
stroke and the gas molecules are squeezed to a point that they are ready to explode. Now on the
discharge stroke the discharge valves open for an instant, a given volume of these gas molecules rush
down the pipe pushing whatever is in front of them until their push is exhausted; because the discharge
valves have closed, they have lost their (pressure) source.
Now what they were pushing starts pushing them back (pressure) toward the compressor and into the
successive discharged volumes of gas. These actions of the piston, gas molecules, and cylinder
valves causes the gas molecules to collide with each other producing (pressure) shocks. These
collisions are pulsations and if transmitted back to the cylinder, can be destructive. To reduce the
shocks a pulsation suppression device is installed in the system providing a "ballroom" where the
shocks are spread out and minimized.
The analog is actually an electrical model of the compressor and the piping system. It provides a
means of determining pressure, frequency and other values related to a compressor piping system by
measuring their electrical equivalents. The sets of analogies relating the characteristics of one system
to the other are as follows:
Actual Quantity Electrical Quantity
Pressure Voltage
Mass flow Current
Acoustic frequency Electric frequency
Acoustic wave velocity Electric wave velocity
Acoustic impedance Electric impedance
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10.25 MANUAL REVIEW AND ANALOG STUDY PROCEDURE FOR RECIPROCATING
COMPRESSOR PIPING SYSTEMS
This recommended procedure outlines the requirements for planning, developing, and issuing data
required to conduct a manual piping review and analog study of a reciprocating compressor installation.
The objective of the manual piping review is to evaluate hold-down locations through a segmental
analysis to insure optimum prevention of mechanical vibration.
The objective of the analog study is evaluate the acoustic characteristics of a compressor piping
system, including the pulsation suppression devices, to determine if these systems meet with
predetermined pulsation requirements.
This procedure applies to the design of piping systems that will control the amplitudes of pulsations
generated by the compressor. Most reciprocating compressor piping systems are analyzed first by
means of manual calculations performed by the pulsation suppression device supplier and secondly on
an electric analog simulator. These analyses are required to avoid potentially hazardous natural
frequencies of pulsation.
Responsible Parties
Project Engineer
Mechanical Engineer
Piping Stress Engineer
Piping Design Engineer
Process Engineer
Vessel Engineer
Control Systems Engineer
Structural Engineer
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Each individual is responsible for supplying the information and data required for the manual review
and analog study as indicated below. It is suggested that this information be retained in "ANALOG
DATA BOOK".
Suggested Table of Contents for "Analog Data Book"
Table of Contents
SECTION I - COMPRESSOR DATA
Analog Specification
Compressor Identification & Basic Data
Compressor Cylinder Data
Compressor Operational Data
Compressor Drawings including cylinder drawings (list all compressor and cylinder drawings by
drawing number and title)
SECTION II - COMPRESSOR AREA PLAN DRAWINGS
(List all piping layout plan drawings by drawing number and title)
SECTION III - COMPRESSOR SUCTION & DISCHARGE ISOMETRICS
(List all suction and discharge isometrics by drawing number and title)
SECTION IV - EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATIONS & DRAWINGS
(List all equipment specifications and drawings by drawing number and title - include all suction
and discharge bottles, scrubbers, intercoolers, K.O. drums, filters, control valves, strainers, etc.)
SECTION V - FLOW DIAGRAMS
(For multiple service operations, it may be necessary to provide flow diagrams for the various
alternate or multiple flow arrangements. This may be accomplished by using color coded
mechanical flow diagrams or drawing simplified individual flow schematics for each case. List by
drawing number and title. Limits of the study should be defined on a mechanical flow diagram(s).
NOTE: Additional sections covering other items or data may be included as required for
individual contract requirements. Step by step activities by responsible parties are
covered in the Interface Practices practice 090.200.0744.
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For Supplier Drawing and Data Review - Reciprocating Compressor see Piping Engineering Design
Guide, Practice 000.250.1063.
10.26 INTERNAL CLEANING AND PROTECTION OF PIPING
The suction piping to compressors should be thoroughly cleaned prior to the machine being first put
into operation. This precautionary measure is used to assure the removal of accumulations of pipe mill
scale, sand, grit, rust, weld splatter, oil, grease or any other foreign objects which would cause
mechanical damage if retained in the piping.
Fluor Engineering Practices (000.250.50001) recommends internal cleaning. Internal cleaning of
Piping Systems is covered in Master Specification 000.250.50028.
The Piping Design Supervisor should determine the use and verify the applications of this document to
suit each individual contract.
Since only a portion of the compressor piping system requires internal cleaning, a note must be
included on those spools where cleaning is required. Such a note might read as follows:
THIS LINE IS TO BE CLEANED PER SP-50-2, PAGE 6, PARA. 13.2, REV. 4.
In general, internal cleaning is limited to the piping from the inlet of the compressor to the outlet of first
major vessel (suction source). However, the mechanical commodity (compressor) engineer should be
consulted to ascertain the correct requirements.
It is important to clarify, early in the job, any special Client requirements such as headers having to be
blinded at each end to allow access for inspection and/or cleaning after installation.
A temporary strainer is installed in the suction line as a final measure to protect the integrity of the
compressor.
10.27 PIPING DESIGN DRIVERS FOR COMPRESSORS
A driver (together with any connecting medium between it and the compressor such as a gear) must do
more than just drive the unit at rated condition. It must first start the compressor from rest, accelerate it
to full speed, and then maintain operation of the unit under any design condition of capacity and power.
There are many types of machinery available for driving compressors; electric motors, steam turbines,
gas turbines, expansion turbines, gas engines, and liquid power recovery turbines among others.
At times, the type of power most readily available determines the economic reasoning for the selection
of a particular driver. At other times, relative cost provides the answer.
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The Table below shows typical driver systems that are used with compressors. Not all combinations
are shown.
Compressor Type Reciprocating Vane Rotary
Helical-Lobe
Rotary Dynamic
Driver Type
Induction Motor B-C-F-G B-C B-C-B C-G
Synchronous Motor C-E-F-G Seldom C-G C-G
Steam Engine I ......... ........ ........
Steam Turbine G G C-G C-G
Gas Turbine ........ ........ G C-G
Hydraulic Turbine G ........ C-G ........
Gas Engine (Heavy-Duty) C-I ........ G G
Diesel Engine (Heavy-Duty) C-I ......... G G
Industrial Engine B-C B-C C-G B-G
Expander I-G ......... C-G C
Key--B--Belted
C--Coupled
E--Engine-Type Direct-Connected
F--Flange-Mounted
G--Geared
I--Integral
Some of the basic available drivers and several variations of each were discussed. This writing will
focus on the specific piping requirements and accepted applications of systems design for steam
turbines (special purpose), gas turbines and gas engines.
10.27.1 STEAM TURBINES present the same basic problems that are encountered at pumps,
compressors and blowers, i.e., alignment of the shaft connecting the turbine and the driven
equipment is critical to the operation of the assembly. The external forces on the assembly
must be limited to avoid distortion of casings, base plate or any other part of assembly which
would cause shaft misalignment or would impede the rotating assembly.
Typical inlet and exhaust steam piping for noncondensing (backpressure) turbines is shown in Figure
#10-83.
Inlet and exhaust block valves should be located close to the steam headers. This greatly reduces the
possibility of accidental closing.
The trip and throttle valve must be reachable from a permanent platform, usually the operating platform.
However, on some of the large varieties the trip and throttle valve may be mounted on the turbine at a
height that would necessitate constructing a small platform and ladder arrangement above the normal
operating level to make this valve accessible.
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Figure 10-83
Typical Steam Piping
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10.27.2 Condensing turbines require a surface condenser that is mounted beneath the turbine
with bottom exhaust or adjacent to the turbine with top exhaust. Figure #10-84 shows a typical
surface condenser used for condensing turbines that drive compressors; there are many other
designs.
An expansion joint is utilized in all exhaust systems to minimize forces and stresses on the turbine
nozzle. In addition, where the turbine exhaust flange differs from the surface condenser inlet flange, a
transition piece is required. The Stress Engineer usually designs this item.
Be sure to consult with the Stress Engineer during layout as these requirements have a direct effect on
the turbine elevation (Figure #10-85).
Surface condensers are equipped with an atmospheric relief valve of which there are three types
commonly used (Figure #10-84). Selection should be based on piping layout requirements. The
exhaust steam system and surface condenser operate on a vacuum and the relief valve is designed to
open at the slightest positive pressure above atmospheric pressure.
Note that each relief valve has a water seal, a continuous water supply, and an overflow that is routed
to a drain funnel.
Figure #10-86 diagrammatically describes how vacuum is maintained in the surface condenser by
continuous removal of air by ejectors.
Common auxiliary connections that are found on special purpose steam turbines are indicated below.
Where a down orientation has been specified for the exhaust, be sure all auxiliary connections not
requiring valves, be extended to a common face of flange elevation and all connections requiring valves
be accessible at operating level.
Steam chest drains.
Casing drains.
Shaft packing leakoff.
Trip valve or trip and throttle valve above seat drains.
Trip valve or trip and throttle valve and governor valve steam leakoffs.
Steam seal (condensing turbines only).
Lube oil piping for the turbine and gear (when required) is manifolded and combined with the compress
lube oil piping. (Figure #10-87).
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Figure 10-84
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Figure 10-85
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Figure 10-86
Figure 10-87
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10.28 PIPING DESIGN: PACKAGE COMPRESSOR UNITS
10.28.1 Open End Intake Piping
10.28.2 Discharge Piping
NOTE: Not included in package
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10.29 COMPRESSOR INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROLS
10.29.1 Instrumentation
10.29.2 Summary
Note: Not included in package
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10.30 COMPRESSOR BUILDINGS AND MAINTENANCE EQUIPMENT
General
Where equipment is specified by the Specification Sheets as being designed for outdoor installation, no
building or shelter is required.
Where equipment is specified by the Specification Sheets as being designed for indoor installation, the
extent of the building or shelter and type of maintenance facilities to be used will be determined for the
individual contract.
Normal maintenance equipment that may be used includes mobile cranes, overhead bridge cranes and
monorails.
The identification of basic building and maintenance requirements should be effected early in the
contract during the job conference.
The length and width of the building is established by clearance for compressor and driver including
furnished appurtenances, maintenance requirements, control panel(s), and an office or wash room, if
required.
A laydown area or drop area should be provided. Traveling crane rails should extend past the floor
perimeter to allow trucks to enter, load and unload parts. Since some repairs may be performed locally,
ample space must be provided.
10.30.1 Accessibility
The compressor building should be readily accessible from a roadway to allow transport of major
pieces of equipment. Stairways, from "grade" to the operating level, should be provided on both the
front and rear of the building (diagonally opposed). Of course, for fully enclosed buildings, a door
must be included at the stairways. Open and tropical shelters may require removable wall or roof
panels to allow access by a mobile crane.
Platform elevations are designed to fit standard stair risers (Figure #10-105).
Where it is deemed feasible, a roll-up door may be used as a mode of access for maintenance
operations.
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10.31 TYPES OF COMPRESSOR BUILDINGS
10.31.1 Tropical Shelter
In mild climate areas a tropical shelter is usually adequate protection. This type of shelter provides a
roof with drop curtains, i.e. walls that extend from building eaves to approximately 8' above the
operating floor line (Figure #10-94). Verify that the drop curtains do not adversely alter the wind
direction to air coolers mounted over the pipeway.
Figure 10-94
Elevation of a Typical Tropical Shelter
PIPING DESIGN LAYOUT TRAINING
LESSON 10
COMPRESSORS
Page 107 of 123
15/11/2002 REV 0
10.31.2 Open Shelter
Open shelters consist of a roof only with steel support columns.
10.31.3 Fully-Enclosed Building
The fully enclosed building is used in areas of heavy snow where blowing winds create tail drifts. This
type of building is used to not only house and protect the machinery, but most importantly, to protect
the maintenance personnel.
10.32 ESTABLISHMENT OF BUILDING HEIGHT
The prime considerations in establishing the building heights are maintenance equipment to be used,
clearance of other equipment during removal and removal path. The following material deals with
overhead bridge cranes, mobile equipment and monorails.
10.32.1 Overhead Bridge Cranes
An overhead traveling crane provides full accessibility to all points within a definite area (Figure #10-
95). There are two basic types of overhead traveling cranes; underhung and top running.
Underhung Cranes are used if the crane and its load are to be supported from the roof truss as shown
in Figure #10-96. Single beam cranes are available hand operated or motorized. Hand chain operated
is recommended for short travel distances and infrequent use; for long travel distances or more
frequent use, a motorized single beam crane is recommended.
Top Running Cranes are used if the crane and its load are to be supported from the building columns
(Figure #10-97). There are two types of top running cranes; single beam and double beam.
The single beam type may be used where maximum height of vertical load travel is not
important and low initial cost is desirable (Figure #10-97).
The double beam crane allows maximum height of vertical load travel. This type crane
requires a top running trolley hoist (Figure #10-98).
The crane railways may extend through the end of building for loading and unloading pieces of
equipment onto trucks (Figure #10-99). Building height with overhead crane facilities as a basis may be
derived in the following manner (refer to Figure #10-100 and 10-101). This procedure is applicable to
either underhung or top running bridge cranes with underhung or top running trolley hoist.
1. Outline the largest obstruction which must be cleared (usually the compressor or driver).
2. Determine and outline the largest piece of equipment to be removed for a maintenance
procedure.
PIPING DESIGN LAYOUT TRAINING
LESSON 10
COMPRESSORS
Page 108 of 123
15/11/2002 REV 0
Figure 10-95
General Handling Capabilities of
Overhead Traveling Cranes
PIPING DESIGN LAYOUT TRAINING
LESSON 10
COMPRESSORS
Page 109 of 123
15/11/2002 REV 0
Figure 10-96
Typical Underhung Traveling Crane with an
Underhung Trolley Hoist
Figure 10-97
Typical Top-Running Traveling Crane with an
Underhung Trolley Hoist
PIPING DESIGN LAYOUT TRAINING
LESSON 10
COMPRESSORS
Page 110 of 123
15/11/2002 REV 0
Figure 10-98
Typical Top-Running Double Beam Crane with a
Top-Running Trolley Hoist.
(Handling Capabilities of 5 to 10 Tons
with Spans up to 60 Feet)
PIPING DESIGN LAYOUT TRAINING
LESSON 10
COMPRESSORS
Page 111 of 123
15/11/2002 REV 0
3. Determine the equipment's removal path, i.e. "overhead" or "floor level". (It may be
necessary to make a study of each of the aforementioned cases to illustrate the affect it has
on the building height).
4. Establish the required hook height for unobstructed removal of equipment.
5. Using vendor dimensional outlines, establish crane beam elevation and transmit to
Structural Engineer.
Hook height should be set early because the hook height will determine crane elevation which will set
the building eave height; a necessary dimension for obtaining building estimates.
10.32.2 Mobile Handling Equipment
Mobile handling equipment is normally used for handling electric motor drivers and large parts of other
drivers. Driver piece weights should be investigated in order to determine if it is not within the
overhead crane's lifting capacity and type of mobile crane required. Figures 10-102 and 10-103
indicate an outline drawing of a typical mobile crane and its lifting range diagram.
The type and capacity of mobiles will be determined for the individual contract. The project engineer
should provide this information.
Removable wall or roof panels will be required for access.
Establish an acceptable position for crane operations.
Determine the crane's pivot point and make a "motion study" indicating equipment removal
requirements (Figure #10-104). This will help determine building height.
10.33 MONO-RAILS
Monorails cover a very limited area in comparison to an overhead bridge crane. In general, their
effective usefulness is confined to the vertical area directly beneath the rail.
PIPING DESIGN LAYOUT TRAINING
LESSON 10
COMPRESSORS
Page 112 of 123
15/11/2002 REV 0
Figure 10-99
Crane Extension Beyond Building for
Loading and Unloading of Equipment
PIPING DESIGN LAYOUT TRAINING
LESSON 10
COMPRESSORS
Page 113 of 123
15/11/2002 REV 0
Figure 10-100
Building Height Considerations for Overhead Traveling Cranes.
Equipment Removal at "Floor Level".
PIPING DESIGN LAYOUT TRAINING
LESSON 10
COMPRESSORS
Page 114 of 123
15/11/2002 REV 0
Figure 10-101
Building Height Considerations for Overhead Traveling Cranes.
Equipment Removal by "Overhead" Method.
PIPING DESIGN LAYOUT TRAINING
LESSON 10
COMPRESSORS
Page 115 of 123
15/11/2002 REV 0
Figure 10-102
Typical Mobile Crane
PIPING DESIGN LAYOUT TRAINING
LESSON 10
COMPRESSORS
Page 116 of 123
15/11/2002 REV 0
Figure 10-103
Typical Lifting Range Diagram for a Mobile Crane
PIPING DESIGN LAYOUT TRAINING
LESSON 10
COMPRESSORS
Page 117 of 123
15/11/2002 REV 0
Figure 10-104
"Motion Study" for Equipment Removal
Using a Mobile Crane
PIPING DESIGN LAYOUT TRAINING
LESSON 10
COMPRESSORS
Page 118 of 123
15/11/2002 REV 0
Figure 10-105
Stair Details (Reference)
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
PURPOSE
This practice establishes guidelines, required interfaces and the assignment of primary
responsibilities in the development of design requirements, specifications, layouts, and
procurement steps for compressors and associated drivers.
SCOPE
This practice defines the sequence of activities, functions, and responsibilities of the
participants involved in technical development, procurement processes, and engineering
follow-up for compressors and drivers.
APPLICATION
This practice is apply in the execution of all projects. In the event that Project Management
deems it necessary to alter this practice on an exception basis, a project bulletin will be issued
to all concerned parties and will provide details of the specific deviations.
RESPONSIBILITY
The responsibility for the review, approval, and sign-off of Interface Practices and their
communication to task force personnel rests with the Lead Engineer or Supervisor from the
following groups/disciplines:
Project/Engineering Mgr. Sign/___________________ Date/____________
Process Sign/___________________ Date/____________
Mechanical Sign/___________________ Date/____________
Piping Sign/___________________ Date/____________
Procurement Sign/___________________ Date/____________
Additionally, involvement by other project, engineering or design groups, and TDC is as noted
in this practice.
The following materials must be available prior to beginning the sequence of activities:
Preliminary Flow Diagrams
Preliminary Plot Plan/Plant Layout
Client Specifications and Requirements
Fluor Daniel Guideline Specifications and Practices
Project Design Basis
Project Procedure Manual
REFERENCES
Practice 000.200.0752: Flow Diagram Production - Project
Discipline Interface.
Practice 000.200.0759: Supplier Flow Diagram Utilization Project Discipline
Interface.
Practice 000 200 0744
Publication Date 17Apr00
Page 1 of 2
FLUOR DANIEL
COMPRESSORS AND DRIVERS
PROJECT DISCIPLINE INTERFACE
General Engineering
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
Practice 000.200.0831: Procurement Practice for Engineered Equipment Project
Discipline Interface.
ATTACHMENTS
Attachment 01: (17Apr00)
Compressors and Drives Project Discipline Interface
Practice 000 200 0744
Publication Date 17Apr00
Page 2 of 2
FLUOR DANIEL
COMPRESSORS AND DRIVERS
PROJECT DISCIPLINE INTERFACE
General Engineering
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
SEQ ACTIVITY RESPONSIBILITY ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
01 Job Planning
Meeting
(as required)
Rotating Equipment
Engineer
Calls and chairs a meeting attended by:
Project Engineer and/or Engineering Manager
Process Engineer
Piping Engineer
Control Systems Engineer
Structural Engineer
Electrical Engineer
Quality Assurance Engineer
Stress Engineer
Environmental Engineering
Project Controls
Project Procurement
Materials required:
Design Criteria - As Available
Client Specifications - As Available
Preliminary Flow Diagrams
Preliminary Plot Plan
Preliminary Data Sheets
Process Front-End Schedule
Fluor Daniel Narrative Compressor and Systems
Specifications
Agenda:
1. Project presents a brief description of the scope of
work, job philosophy, unusual job requirements or
restrictions, and schedules.
2. Process gives a detailed process description together
with what is known of utilities to date.
3. Rotating Equipment Engineer gives a description of
the machinery involved with as much information as
is available to date. Pay particular attention to
Client specifications relating to vibration amplitude
limits, frequency ranges, and dampening restrictions
as these influence foundation design.
Practice 000 200 0744
Publication Date 17Apr00
Attachment 01 Page 1 of 8
FLUOR DANIEL
COMPRESSORS AND DRIVERS
PROJECT DISCIPLINE INTERFACE
General Engineering
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
SEQ ACTIVITY RESPONSIBILITY ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
4. Participants review design criteria, draw up a needs
list, and agree on any required revisions to the
project milestone schedule.
5. Rotating Equipment Engineer prepares a summary
of needs list and open questions and issue it to all
disciplines.
6. Process submits a detailed schedule for issuance of
compressor process data sheets.
7. Environmental advises limitations imposed by noise
and emission restrictions.
8. Structural Engineer advises seismic, grouting and
anchor bolt requirements. Preliminary information
required from the equipment supplier regarding
anchoring, support and foundation design shall be
discussed.
9. Piping advises any special preferences for nozzle
orientation. Plot plan is reviewed for equipment
access and maintenance requirements.
10. Discuss equipment criticality ratings.
02 Development of
Narrative
Specifications
Rotating Equipment
Engineer
Uses Fluor Daniel standard compressor and driver
narrative specifications as a basis. Client and Project
requirements are to be added to specifications or
engineering notes in the Request for Quotation (RFQ) or
used to amend the Fluor Daniel specification depending
upon the task force requirements.
03 Mechanical Control
Level Schedule
Rotating Equipment
Engineer
The Rotating Equipment Engineer prepares the Control
Level Schedule based on the Master Schedule. The
Control Level schedule is distributed per project
procedures and continually reviewed and updated during
the course of the job. This input shall be used by all
disciplines in scheduling their work. In addition
procurement shall use this as input for developing
material milestones.
04 Issue of Narrative
Specifications
Rotating Equipment
Engineer
Issue narrative specifications per Project procedures.
05 Process Data Sheets Process Engineer Process prepares and issue process data sheets per project
procedures.
Practice 000 200 0744
Publication Date 17Apr00
Attachment 01 Page 2 of 8
FLUOR DANIEL
COMPRESSORS AND DRIVERS
PROJECT DISCIPLINE INTERFACE
General Engineering
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
SEQ ACTIVITY RESPONSIBILITY ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
06 Equipment Data
Sheet
Rotating Equipment
Engineer
Obtains needed information as well as answers to open
questions from participants of the Job Conference.
Rotating Equipment Engineer will confirm this
information to all participants. (See Sequence01, Items
4, 5 and 6.)
Completes the compressor data sheets and issues to the
Process Engineer for immediate approval. Original data
sheets are initialed by process. Copies are issued through
TDC after RFQ issuance per project procedure.
07 Estimate Equipment Rotating Equipment
Engineer
Based on data sheets, estimates as closely as possible the
compressor type, configuration, weights, dimensions and
cost. Provide information to Piping, Project Controls,
Structural, and Project.
08 Nozzle Loading
Requirements
Stress Engineer Arranges meeting with Rotating Equipment Engineer to
determine special nozzle loading requirements which
exceed API/NEMA or Fluor Daniel standards.
09 Preliminary Layout
and/or Plot Location
Piping Supervisor
Piping Designer
Stress Engineer
Process Engineer
Using data sheets and information received from the
Rotating Equipment Engineer, the Piping Supervisor
makes preliminary estimates of the following:
1. Location and orientation of compressor installation.
2. Overall space requirements (including maintenance
space).
3. Structural and Piping requirements:
Grade Mount Hold-Downs
Mezzanine Liquid Knockout
walk-in Basement Supports
Shelter Line Slopes
Expansion Joints
4. Location of related equipment such as lube and seal
systems, pulsation dampers, local control panels,
conduit boxes, etc.
The Piping Supervisor may call a compressor installation
planning conference to establish required information.
The Rotating Equipment Engineer shall provide the other
disciplines with information that is as accurate as possible
at this early stage. He will continue to update this
information as more accurate data is received.
Practice 000 200 0744
Publication Date 17Apr00
Attachment 01 Page 3 of 8
FLUOR DANIEL
COMPRESSORS AND DRIVERS
PROJECT DISCIPLINE INTERFACE
General Engineering
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
SEQ ACTIVITY RESPONSIBILITY ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
10 Review of
Preliminary Layout
and/or Plot Location
Piping Supervisor Upon completion of the preliminary layout(s), Project,
Piping Supervisor, Structural Engineer, Electrical
Engineer, Control Systems, Process, Stress and Rotating
Equipment Engineer will review the drawings and will
mutually agree upon the layout including pipeway utility
locations, foundation requirements and all auxiliary
equipment.
11 Auxiliary Flow
Diagram
Rotating Equipment
Engineer
Prepares a schedule of auxiliary flow diagrams if required
and identifies the standard to be used. Refer to Project
Discipline Interface 000.200.0752/0759 and the
Mechanical Engineering Desktop Procedure Manual for
squad check procedures for these diagrams.
12 Prepares and Issues
Auxiliary Flow
Diagram
Rotating Equipment
Engineer
Prepares auxiliary flow diagram and issues per Project
procedures.
13 Preparation of
Bidders List
Rotating Equipment,
Project Engineer,
Project Procurement
Manager
Jointly discuss general equipment requirements, Client
needs, etc., and establish a list of qualified bidders.
Project shall obtain Client approval.
14. Preparation and
Issue of RFQ
Package
Rotating Equipment, Project
Procurement Manager
Prepare and issue to procurement the Request for
Quotation in accordance with Mechanical Desktop
Reference Manual and Project Discipline Interface
000.200.0831.
15 Bid Evaluation Rotating Equipment
Engineer, Buyer
Evaluates economics, schedule, layouts, configurations,
specification compliance and design offered by Suppliers.
Involves other disciplines as required.
Prepares quotation summary of the compressor and
drivers and makes a recommendation per Project
Discipline Practice Interface 000.200.0831.
Recommends Suppliers and follows project procedures to
obtain Fluor Daniel approval. This is given to
Procurement after the Rotating Equipment Project Lead
or Group Leader/Section Supervisor's approval.
While reviewing the quotations, the Rotating Equipment
Engineer notes anything that will affect the decisions
reached in prior sequences and immediately brings it to
the attention of the disciplines affected.
16 Bid Conditioning
Meeting
Rotating Equipment
Engineer, Buyer
For selected supplier(s), Rotating Equipment Engineer
and Buyer shall initiate and co-chair conferences to
resolve all commercial, technical, and supply details.
Purchasing will contact Supplier(s) and arrange
conferences.
Practice 000 200 0744
Publication Date 17Apr00
Attachment 01 Page 4 of 8
FLUOR DANIEL
COMPRESSORS AND DRIVERS
PROJECT DISCIPLINE INTERFACE
General Engineering
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
SEQ ACTIVITY RESPONSIBILITY ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
Participants:
Client Environmental Engineer*
Supplier Representa- Quality Assurance*
tion for the Com- Driver Structural
pressor and Engineer*
Buyer Electrical Engineer*
Project Procurement Control Systems
Project Engineer* Engineer*
Process Engineer* Technical Document
Piping Supervisor* Control*
Stress Engineer* Rotating Equipment
Engineer
*As Needed
Review nozzle loading and suction/discharge piping
design.
During review of inspection activities the extent of
Control Systems/Electrical supply should be used to
evaluate the necessity for source inspection of packaged
systems by the Control Systems/Electrical Engineering
personnel.
Upon completion of the meeting, the Rotating Equipment
Engineer and Buyer will issue conference notes per
project procedures.
17 Purchase Request Rotating Equipment
Engineer
The Rotating Equipment Engineer updates and/or
prepares the Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams
(P&IDs), Auxiliary Flow Diagrams, Equipment Data
Sheets, Narrative Specifications, Signed Suppliers Data
Commitment Forms and Engineering Notes to an as
purchase condition. Rotating Equipment Engineer
obtains Process initials on As-Purchased Equipment Data
Sheets. Rotating Equipment Engineer completes the
purchase request and issues to Procurement. TDC issues
revised equipment data sheets per project distribution.
18 Update Control
Level Schedule
Rotating Equipment
Engineer
Updates Control Level Schedule to current Supplier
Drawing and Delivery Schedules per Coordination
Meeting and issue to Project Controls for update and
issue to all disciplines.
Practice 000 200 0744
Publication Date 17Apr00
Attachment 01 Page 5 of 8
FLUOR DANIEL
COMPRESSORS AND DRIVERS
PROJECT DISCIPLINE INTERFACE
General Engineering
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
SEQ ACTIVITY RESPONSIBILITY ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
19 Seller's Plant
Coordination
Meeting
Rotating Equipment
Engineer
Prior to Supplier drawing issuance, a meeting is held at
the Supplier's plant to resolve all outstanding engineering
details and review the scope of supply with Supplier's
engineering department. Drawings shall be checked for
completeness to avoid future reissue.
Inspection typical schedules the pre-inspection
coordination meeting at this time to include the Engineer
and mutually resolve any conflicting requirements.
20 Seller Drawings Technical Document Control Supplier submits drawings per the Supplier's data
commitment form. Technical Document Control (TDC)
implements the project Squad Check Procedure. TDC
also issues advance prints if requested by the design
disciplines. The Piping Supervisor will receive an
advance copy of all outline drawings.
21 Update P&IDs and
AFDs
Rotating Equipment
Engineer
Continue to update flow diagrams per standard
procedures.
22 Specify and Rate
Fluor Daniel
Interconnecting
Piping on AFD
Process Engineer
Rotating Equipment
Engineer
On receipt of Supplier's data, the Process Engineer, with
the assistance of the Rotating Equipment Engineer, will
rate Fluor Daniel 's interconnecting piping as to size,
service, material, pressure and temperature in order to
permit Fluor Daniel line numbers and specifications to be
added to the P&IDs and AFDs by Piping Materials
Engineer.
23 Design Data Stress Engineer Determine extent of hold-downs, frequencies, etc., with
the assistance of Piping Supervisor and Rotating
Equipment Engineer.
24 Acoustic Analysis
Isometric Piping
Drawings
Rotating Equipment
Engineer
The Rotating Equipment Engineer together with the
Process, Insulation and Coatings, and Piping Engineers
determine the extent of piping to be cleaned and this
information added to the Master P&IDs and Auxiliary
Flow Diagrams.
25 Temporary and/or
Permanent Inlet
Strainers, Check
Valves
Piping Material Engineer Piping Material Engineer reviews P&IDs for non-slam
check valves and strainers and initiates Inlet Strainer
Information Request Form. Rotating Equipment Engineer
receives form, completes pertinent data and returns to
Piping Material Control for preparation of Request for
Quote. Mechanical Engineer is to review final design
before purchase.
26 Extent of Piping
Cleaning
Specifications
Piping Material Engineer
Process Engineer Insulation
and Coating Engineer
The Rotating Equipment Engineer together with the
Process, Insulation and Coatings, and Piping Engineers
determine the extent of piping to be cleaned and this
information added to the Master P&IDs and Auxiliary
Flow Diagrams.
27 Acoustic Analysis Rotating Equipment The Rotating Equipment Engineer if necessary
Practice 000 200 0744
Publication Date 17Apr00
Attachment 01 Page 6 of 8
FLUOR DANIEL
COMPRESSORS AND DRIVERS
PROJECT DISCIPLINE INTERFACE
General Engineering
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
SEQ ACTIVITY RESPONSIBILITY ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
Engineer, Piping Supervisor participates in Supplier Acoustic Analysis Simulations,
Piping participation is optional.
28 Preparation of
Specifications and
Methods for
Cleaning
Insulation and Coating
Engineer
Establishes method, reviews with Piping and Mechanical
Engineers and prepares specification.
29 Model Review Lead Piping Supervisor Calls a conference to approve final layout design and
resolve all outstanding problems. The discipline Guide
Book checklist shall be utilized during this review.
Material Required:
Final Layouts
Plot Plan
Job Standard and Specifications
Supplier Outlines
Applicable Vessel, Structural, Electrical Drawings
P&IDs and Auxiliary Flow Diagrams
(to yellow off)
Acoustic Analysis Results
Contract assigned personnel present:
Rotating Equipment Engineer
Unit Supervisor and Layout Designer
Process Engineer
Structural Engineer
Control Systems Engineer
Stress Engineer
Electrical Engineer
30 Revisions All disciplines No revisions will be allowed to a Supplier's drawing once
an "A" instruction review distribution has been made.
The equipment shall be considered to be in accordance
with the specification and purchase order. All shall
"make do," rather than attempt to optimize designs.
Exceptions to this will only be considered by the Rotating
Equipment Engineer when:
1. The process conditions change.
2. The equipment is found not to meet safety codes.
3. The equipment is impossible to operate or maintain.
4. The Client requests the change.
Practice 000 200 0744
Publication Date 17Apr00
Attachment 01 Page 7 of 8
FLUOR DANIEL
COMPRESSORS AND DRIVERS
PROJECT DISCIPLINE INTERFACE
General Engineering
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
SEQ ACTIVITY RESPONSIBILITY ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
The project shall be alerted by the Rotating Equipment
Engineer of any revision that may impact cost or
schedules of any Fluor Daniel discipline.
31 Shop Testing Rotating Equipment
Engineer
Witnesses performance and mechanical tests conducted
by Suppliers, as required. Rotating Equipment Engineer
interprets results, and reports all data tot he Project
Manager and other interested parties.
Practice 000 200 0744
Publication Date 17Apr00
Attachment 01 Page 8 of 8
FLUOR DANIEL
COMPRESSORS AND DRIVERS
PROJECT DISCIPLINE INTERFACE
General Engineering
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
PURPOSE
This practice provides a general guide for squad checking seller drawings of reciprocating
compressors and associated drawings.
SCOPE
This practice includes the following major sections:
RESPONSIBILITY
SELLER DRAWING LIST
GENERAL SQUAD CHECKLIST
ADDITIONAL SQUAD CHECK ITEMS
GENERAL NOTES
REFERENCES
APPLICATION
The primary function of squad checking seller drawings for reciprocating compressors is to
convey any required changes to the seller, and to ensure that design criteria are met and that
data are correctly documented. Seller drawings should show all required information to allow
for accurate piping design and layout. Refer to Piping Engineering Practice 000.250.1060:
Supplier Drawing And Data Review for guidelines in reviewing and handling of seller
drawings.
RESPONSIBILITY
Design Supervisor and Area Lead Designer will enforce the utilization of this standard. Piping
Designer/Checker who is responsible for squad checking the applicable drawings will ensure
that seller data and drawings are carefully reviewed.
SELLER DRAWING LIST
The following is a list of seller drawings that Piping Designer may be required to squad check:
Composite outline drawing of driver and compressor
Driver outline
Jacket water piping schematic
Lube oil schematic
Packing vent and drain schematic
Interstage equipment and piping drawings
Lube oil cooler outline
Oil filter outline
Lube oil pump outline (when not integral part of compressor)
Auxiliary lube oil pump outline
Gage board outline
Vent and drain schematic (for hazardous gases)
Practice 000 250 1063
Publication Date 11Feb00
Page 1 of 5
FLUOR DANIEL
SUPPLIER DRAWING AND DATA REVIEW - RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS
Piping Engineering
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
Moisture trap outline
Lube oil piping drawing
GENERAL SQUAD
CHECKLIST
Composite Outline Of
Compressor And Driver
Overall Dimensions:
Adequately dimensioned for space and orientation requirements. Be sure that the
location for external connection points of piping are clearly dimensioned. Check totally
enclosed motors for maintenance requirements with Electrical Supervisor.
Piston Pull:
Check piping layout drawing for space requirements.
Centerline of Shaft above Floor:
Check against the piping layout elevation requirements. Check the horizontal offset
between compressor shaft and driver shaft if gear box is required.
Cylinder Valve:
Check cylinder valve orientation and removal requirements plus manual clearance pocket
requirements against suction and discharge bottle orientation and nozzle lengths.
Cylinder Support:
Check cylinder support and distance piece support (if required) against piping layout
elevation and check clearance from bottom bottle to cylinder support.
Dimensions:
Check dimensions from centerline of cylinder to inlet and outlet face connections.
Suction and Discharge Size, Rating, and Facing:
Ensure that piping nozzles are in accordance with applicable piping specifications for
items such as material type, pressure ratings, pipe schedules, and type of facing. If the
seller drawings are from an offshore manufacturer, verify that piping connections meet
ASTM, ANSI, or other applicable codes. Ensure that all nozzles are adequately
dimensioned.
Stud Projections:
The bottom cylinder bottle connection must be long enough for double nuts (stud
removal) for bottle removal.
Practice 000 250 1063
Publication Date 11Feb00
Page 2 of 5
FLUOR DANIEL
SUPPLIER DRAWING AND DATA REVIEW - RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS
Piping Engineering
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
Drawings:
Review the drawings against the P&IDs to verify that piping and instrument connections
are accounted for.
Maintenance Lifts:
Check against piping layout drawing for handling requirements. Verify weight of heaviest
component that might be removed and check facility to be employed. Also, check piping
layout for overhead clearance and required breakout flanges in piping.
Allowable Nozzle Loads:
The maximum limitations for allowable loads, forces, and moments by the seller should be
clearly indicated on the compressor drawing or datasheet.
Foundation Requirement:
Check against compressor structure plan drawing. On seller's first squad check, show
extent of concrete around the unit and the minimum clearance dimension to edge of
concrete for seller fittings, piping, or down connections to auxiliary equipment.
Auxiliary Piping Connections:
Check against auxiliary and P&ID (process and instrument diagram) for identifying
symbols, size, rating, and facing. Connection points should be verified for erection ease.
Driver Outline (Motor)
Overall Dimensions:
Check that all dimensions required for space and orientation are shown. If external piping
connections are required, be sure they are sized and dimensioned correctly. Also, if driver
sound enclosure is required, check overall dimensions and accessibility to driver.
Rotor Removal:
Check for space and handling requirements.
Equipment Weight:
Weights should be listed to determine handling requirements in accordance with the
piping layout drawing.
Driver Outline (Turbine)
Refer to Piping Engineering Practice 000.250.1062: Supplier Drawing and Data Review - Pumps
and Turbines, for seller squad checklists on special purpose steam turbines.
ADDITIONAL SQUAD
CHECK ITEMS
Additional items that must be squad checked but that may or may not appear on the
composite outline drawing are indicated as follows:
Practice 000 250 1063
Publication Date 11Feb00
Page 3 of 5
FLUOR DANIEL
SUPPLIER DRAWING AND DATA REVIEW - RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS
Piping Engineering
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
Jacket Water Schematic:
Check only that routing of supply and return piping can accommodate seller's
connections.
Lube Oil Schematic:
If piping not furnished by seller, check that routing of supply and return piping can
accommodate seller's connections.
Packing Vent and Drain Schematic:
Check that routing of piping can accommodate seller's connections.
Interstage Equipment and Piping Drawing:
Verify accessibility, removal, and operation requirements. Check with stress for support
requirements, especially on cylinder mounted intercoolers and furnished piping.
Lube Oil Cooler Requirements:
Check bundle pull area only upon evaluation of main suction and discharge piping
routing. If cooler is located below steel platforming, removable floor steel is required.
Check weight of these lifts involved.
Oil Filter Outline:
Check size, rating, facing, and dimensional data for piping connections only if Fluor
Daniel is furnishing the piping.
Lube Oil Pump Outline:
Lube oil pump outline and auxiliary lube oil pump outline (when not integral part of
compressor): For pump squad checklist, refer to Piping Engineering Practice 000.250.1062.
Gage Board:
Check for accessibility and orientation.
Vent and Drain Schematic (For hazardous gases):
Check that routing of piping can accommodate seller's connections.
Moisture Trap Outline:
If trap is to be used in unfurnished piping, check operational requirements with the
mechanical engineer.
Lube Oil Piping:
Check accessibility of in-line items and support requirements.
GENERAL NOTES
For reciprocating compressors, the lube oil system equipment is usually mounted on the
compressor and supplied and piped by the seller.
For all seller schematic drawings, verify with Fluor Daniel auxiliary flow diagrams for process
requirements. Check that all devices and piping furnished by the seller, and devices and
piping required to complete the installation have been so indicated.
Following are general sources of reference material to check:
Practice 000 250 1063
Publication Date 11Feb00
Page 4 of 5
FLUOR DANIEL
SUPPLIER DRAWING AND DATA REVIEW - RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS
Piping Engineering
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
Piping layout drawings
Structural and Civil drawings
Mechanical equipment datasheets
Auxiliary and process flow diagrams
The following sources should be checked for special requirements as they apply to seller
equipment:
Engineering conference notes
Fluor Daniel narrative equipment specifications
Seller equipment drawing notes
Fluor Daniel mechanical equipment engineer
Seller's service manual
Squad checking should be avoided on all unchecked certified drawings submitted for
approval.
REFERENCES
Piping Engineering
Practice 000.250.1060: Supplier Drawing And Data Review
Piping Engineering
Practice 000.250.1062: Supplier Drawing And Data Review - Pumps And Turbines
Piping Engineering
Practice 000.250.2470: Compressor Piping - Reciprocating Compressors - Piping
And Arrangement
Practice 000 250 1063
Publication Date 11Feb00
Page 5 of 5
FLUOR DANIEL
SUPPLIER DRAWING AND DATA REVIEW - RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS
Piping Engineering
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
Client Name Master Specification 000 250 50001
Project Name Date 18Jan00
Contract Number Page 1 of 16
Revision
PROCESS AND UTILITY PIPING DESIGN, LAYOUT, AND DRAWING
00025050001.doc Piping Engineering
This specification has been revised as indicated below and described in the revision record on the following
page. Please destroy all previous revisions.
Revision
No.
Date Originator's
Name & Initials
Reviewed/Checked By
Name & Initials
Pages
APPROVALS SIGNATURES DATE
Lead Engineer
Project Manager:
Client Approval:
ISSUED FOR : Construction Other
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Record of Revisions
Revision
No.
Date Description
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1.0 GENERAL
1.1 Summary
A. Scope of Specification
This specification prescribes the design of above ground pressure piping systems,
equipment layout, pipe routing, and drawing practices for refineries, chemical plants, and
similar facilities (except plumbing inside of buildings).
B. Related Specifications
The following specifications prescribe items of related Work:
000.210.02720: Storm Sewer Systems And Culverts
000.210.02730: Sanitary Sewer Systems
000.245.45001: Fire Protection Design Criteria For Refinery And
Petrochemical Facilities
000.250.50003: Piping-Material Specification Line Class-Process And Utility
Piping
000.250.50025: Shop Fabrication And Handling-Process And Utility Piping
000.250.50026: Field Fabrication And Installation Process And Utility Piping
000.250.50027: Piping Tie-Ins
000.250.50030: Geographic Color Coding
000.250.50050: Piping Pressure Testing
000.250.50112: Packaged Equipment Piping
000.250.50200: Piping Flexibility
000.250.50300: Heat Tracing For Piping, Equipment, And Instruments
000.285.50028: Internal Cleaning Of Piping Systems
000.285.86110: Hot Insulation
000.285.86130: Cold Insulation
000.285.86210: Painting
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Coordinate Work prescribed by this specification with Work prescribed by the above
listed specifications.
1.2 References
The following referenced publications form part of this specification. Each publication is the
latest revision and addendum in effect at the time of the project's execution unless noted
otherwise. Except as modified by the requirements specified herein or the details of the drawings,
all Work included in this specification shall conform to the applicable provisions of the following
referenced publications:
A. Applicable Codes
1. ASME/ANSI (American Society of Mechanical Engineers/American National
Standards Institute) Code for Pressure Piping, B31.3: Chemical Plant and Petroleum
Refinery Piping.
Note!!! The limits of piping covered by codes other than ASME/ANSI B31.3 shall
be indicated on the P&IDs (piping and instrumentation diagrams). This
specification may be used with other sections of the ASME/ANSI B31
Code and Section 1 of the ASME Code, where applicable.
2. OSHA Part 1910.
3. National Fire Protection Association, Code No. 30.
4. Applicable plumbing, heating and ventilation, or refrigeration codes for piping
serving buildings and areas other than plant or process areas.
5. Sour service piping (subject to sulfide stress cracking) shall be in accordance with
NACE specification MR0175.
B. Design Documents
Detail and specification numbers in this specification refer to Fluor Daniel practices and
specifications, respectively.
1.3 Quality Assurance
A. Approved department design guidelines and methods are used in conjunction with project
requirements to achieve the desired level of quality.
B. Project piping engineers and piping design supervisors monitor, review, and control the
design and planning activities of personnel assigned to the project to ensure that
applicable codes, practices, and specifications are being followed to meet project quality
goals.
C. Quality criteria shall be reviewed constantly during design planning activity.
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2.0 PRODUCTS
2.1 Materials
A. Piping material shall be in accordance with Specification 000.250.50003; note any
deviations on the piping drawings. Prepiped or packaged items shall be in accordance
with Specification 000.250.50112.
B. Install flat face flanges against flat face cast iron valves and equipment.
C. Locking devices for valves shall be provided by the client.
D. Minimum pipe size shall be 1/2 of an inch, except for connections to equipment.
E. Do not use pipe sizes 1-1/4 inch, 2-1/2 inch, 3-1/2 inch, and 5 inch except for connections
to equipment.
2.2 Design Summary
A. Base relation of units, location of equipment, and routing of pipe on economics, safety,
ease of maintenance, operation, and construction requirements. The alignment of
equipment and routing of pipe shall offer an organized appearance.
B. Major lines normally shall be carried on overhead pipeways. In certain instances, they
may be buried, providing they are adequately protected. Lines that must be run below
grade, and must be periodically inspected or replaced, shall be identified on the P&IDs;
Place these lines in covered concrete trenches. Cooling water may be run above or below
ground, based on economics. Domestic or potable water shall be run underground. Pipe
support spacings shall be maximized using the limits of pipe spans and structural
integrity.
C. Do not provide space for future equipment, pipe, or units unless required by the client or
for process considerations. This requirement shall be indicated on the plot plan and
P&IDs.
D. Avoid dead ends, especially for piping where solids or fluids may congeal or form
corrosive condensate.
E. The location and spacing of offsite storage tanks and dike requirements shall be in
accordance with National Fire Protection Association, Code No. 30, and OSHA part
1910.106 (b), where applicable. Spacing may be increased for construction requirements.
F. Normally, route piping in offsite areas on sleepers. Stagger the sleeper elevations to
permit ease of crossing or change of direction at intersections. Flat turns may be used
when entire sleeperways change direction.
G. Group offsite equipment, pumps, and exchangers to permit economical pipe routing.
Locate this equipment outside of diked storage areas, except where indicated otherwise
on the P&IDs.
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H. Locate cooling towers downwind of buildings and equipment to keep spray from falling
on them. Orient the short side of the tower into the prevailing summer wind for
maximum efficiency. Locate cooling towers a minimum of 100 feet from process units,
utility units, fired equipment, and process equipment.
I. Locate the flare stack upwind of process units, with a minimum distance of 200 feet from
process equipment, tanks, and cooling towers. If the stack height is less than 75 feet,
increase this distance to a minimum of 300 feet. These minimum distances shall be
verified by Fluor Daniel Process Engineering.
J. Keep the loading and unloading facilities that handle flammable commodities a minimum
of 200 feet from process equipment, and 250 feet from tankage.
K. Piping flexibility shall be in accordance with Specification 000.250.50200.
L. The plant layout of equipment shall utilize common structures for equipment, vessels,
and pumps. As a rule single installation of equipment will not require a structure.
M. Project Specifications shall be reviewed and modified as necessary to reduce the Total
Installed Cost on a project by using alternative Piping materials & components and
alternative Pipeline fabrication & installation methods. Examples of these alternatives
include the use of pipe bends instead of elbows and the use of hydraulically installed
LOKRING

Fittings.
2.3 Design Requirements
A. Pumps
1. Locate pumps close to the equipment from which they take suction.
2. Design piping to provide clearance for pump or driver removal. Similarly, on end
suction pumps, piping shall permit removing suction cover and pump impeller while
the suction and discharge valves are in place.
3. Arrange suction lines to minimize offsets. The suction lines shall be short and as
direct as possible, and shall step down from the equipment to the pump. Suction
lines routed on sleeperways may rise to pump suction nozzle elevation, subject to
approval of Fluor Daniel Process Engineering.
4. Orient valve handwheels or handles so they will not interfere with pump
maintenance or motor removal. Valve handwheels or handles shall be readily
operable from grade.
B. Exchangers
1. Group exchangers together wherever possible.
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2. Limit stacked shell and tube exchangers to four shells high in similar service;
however, the top exchanger shall not exceed a centerline elevation of 18 feet above
high point of finished surface, unless mounted in a structure.
3. Keep channel end and shell covers clear of obstructions such as piping and structural
members to allow unbolting of exchanger flanges, and removal of heads and tube
bundles.
4. Locate reboilers as close as possible to the equipment they serve.
5. Normally, locate air coolers above pipeways.
C. Vessels and Columns
1. Wherever possible, locate piping at columns radially about the columns on the
pipeway side; locate manway and platforms on the access side. Manways should be
on or about a common centerline to make use of a common lifting device or davit.
2. Provide platforms at manways above 15 feet centerline elevation from high point of
finished surface. The maximum distance for ladder runs and space between offset
platforms shall be 30 feet.
3. Position platforms so the manhole centerline is no less than 2 feet above the
platform, with 2'- 6" preferred. The bottom of the manhole entry shall not be more
than 3'- 6" above the platform.
4. Provide combined platforms, where practical and economical, at multiple tower
arrangements with common manway elevations.
5. Provide vessel davits for handling items such as internals and relief valves on vessels
exceeding a height of 30 feet above the high point of the finished surface, and on
vessels not accessible by mobile crane. Orient davits to allow the lowering of
appurtenances into the access area.
6. Wherever possible, orient level instruments on the side toward the pipeway.
7. Stacking two or more vertical vessels shall be investigated. This investigation shall
consider the process conditions (commodities, temperatures, pressures), vertical
height limitations, and piping layout for economic advantages. The stacking of
vessels requires the acceptance of Process and Vessel engineering.
D. Fired Equipment
1. Locate fired equipment, if practical, so that flammable gases from hydrocarbon and
other processing areas cannot be blown into the open flames by prevailing winds.
2. Locate snuffing steam manifolds and fuel gas shutoff valves a minimum of 50 feet
horizontally from the heaters they protect.
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3. Burner Valving
a. Floor Fired Furnaces: Combination oil and gas firing valves shall be operable
from burner observation door platform. For those fired by gas only, the valves
shall be near the burner and shall be operable from grade.
b. Side Fired Furnaces: Locate firing valves so they can be operated while the
flame is viewed from the observation door.
4. Terminate heater stacks a minimum of 15 feet above any platform within a radius of
40 feet.
5. Access and platforming requirements shall be in accordance with the contract fired
equipment narrative specification.
6. Pressure relief doors and tube access doors shall be free from obstructions. Orient
pressure relief doors so as not to blow into adjacent equipment.
7. The elevation of the bottom of the heater above the high point of the finished surface
shall be in accordance with the contract fired equipment narrative specification.
E. Reciprocating Compressors
1. Suction and discharge lines that are subject to vibration (mechanical and acoustical)
normally shall be routed at grade and held down at points established by analysis of
the system.
2. Accessibility and maintenance for large lifts such as cylinder, motor rotor, and piston
removal shall be by mobile equipment.
3. Clean suction lines internally per Specification 000.285.50028. The extent of
cleaning shall be indicated on the P&IDs.
4. Horizontal, straight line, reciprocating compressors shall have access to cylinder
valves. Access shall be from grade or platform if required.
5. Depending on unit size and installation height, horizontal-opposed and gas engine
driven reciprocating compressors may require full platforming at the operating level.
6. The sizing, routing, supporting, and restraining of the suction and discharge piping is
subject to review by means of an analog computer study, as outlined in the
compression specifications.
F. Centrifugal Compressors
1. Top suction and discharge lines either shall be routed to provide clearance for
overhead maintenance requirements, or shall be made up with removable spool
pieces.
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2. Locate lube and seal oil consoles adjacent to and as close as possible to the
compressor. Oil return lines from the compressor and driver shall have a minimum
slope of 1/2 inch per foot to the inlet connection of seal traps, degassing tanks, and
oil reservoir. Review the equipment arrangement for access and operation.
3. Pipe the reservoir, compressor bearing, and seal oil vents to a safe location at least
6 feet above operator head level.
4. Heavy parts such as upper or inner casing and rotor shall be accessible to mobile
equipment.
5. Support piping so as to minimize dead load on compressor nozzles; the load shall be
within the recommended allowance of API-617.
6. Clean suction lines internally per Specification 000.285.50028. The extent of
cleaning shall be indicated on the P&IDs.
7. Centrifugal compressors shall have full platforming at operating level.
G. In-Line Instruments
1. Locate liquid level controllers and level glasses so as to be accessible from grade,
platform, or permanent ladder. The level glass shall be readable from grade
wherever practical.
2. Relief valves shall be accessible. Wherever feasible, locate them at platforms that
are designed for other purposes. Relief valves with a centerline elevation over
15 feet above high point of finish surface (except in pipeways) shall be accessible
from platform or permanent ladder.
3. Install thermal relief valves, 1 inch and smaller, in a horizontal position when it is
impractical to install in the vertical position. Install relief valves, 1 1/2 inch and
larger, in a vertical position.
4. Normally, install relief valves that discharge to a closed system higher than the
collection header. There shall be no pockets in the discharge line.
5. Relief valves that discharge to the atmosphere shall have tail pipes extended to a
minimum of 8 feet above the nearest operating platform that is within a radius of
25 feet. This requirement may be waived, provided a review of the proposed
arrangement indicates that it does not present a hazard.
6. Review relief valves discharging hydrocarbon vapors to the atmosphere within
100 feet of fired equipment for vapor dissipation.
7. Provide steam traps at pocketed low points and at dead ends of steam headers. Also,
provide traps on excessively long runs of steam piping, for sufficient condensate
removal, and to ensure dry quality steam at destination. Steam traps located more
than 15 feet above high point of finish surface, except in pipeways, shall be
accessible from the platform.
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8. Indicate control, block, and bypass valve sizes on the P&IDs. Control valves shall
be accessible from grade or platforms. In general, the instruments or indicators
showing the process variables shall be visible from the control valve.
9. Orifice runs should be located in the horizontal. Vertical orifice runs may be used
with the approval of Fluor Daniel Control Systems Engineering. Orifice flanges with
a centerline elevation over 15 feet above the high point of finished surface, except in
pipeways, shall be accessible from a platform or permanent ladder.
10. Locate orifice taps shall be located as follows:
a. Air and Gas [- Top vertical centerline (preferred)]
[- 45 degrees above horizontal centerline (alternate)]
b. Liquid and Steam [- Horizontal centerline (preferred)]
[- 45 degrees below horizontal centerline (alternate)]
c. The piping isometrics details shall show the required tap orientations.
H. Temperature and Pressure Instrument Accessibility and Visibility
1. Temperature test wells located less than 15 feet above high point of finished surface
shall be accessible from grade or a portable ladder. Those located in a pipeway shall
be considered accessible by a portable ladder. Those located over 15 feet above high
point of finished surface shall be accessible from a platform or permanent ladder.
2. Temperature indicators shall be visible from grade, ladder, or platform.
3. Thermocouple and temperature indicators located less than 15 feet above high point
of finished surface shall be accessible from grade or a portable ladder. Those located
in a pipeway shall be considered accessible by portable ladder. Those over 15 feet
above high point of finished surface shall be accessible from a platform or permanent
ladder.
4. Local pressure indicators shall be visible from grade, permanent ladder, or platform.
Those located less than 15 feet above high point of finished surface shall be
accessible from grade or a portable ladder. Those located in a pipeway shall be
considered accessible by portable ladder. Those over 15 feet above high point of
finished surface shall be accessible from a platform or permanent ladder.
2.4 Plant Operation
A. Valve Operation
1. Indicate operating valves requiring attention, observation, or adjustment during
normal plant operation on the P&IDs with the symbols O.V. They shall be located
so as to be within reach from grade, platform, or permanent ladder.
2. Operating valves may be chain-operated if the bottom of handwheel is over 7 feet
above high point of finished surface or operating platform.
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3. The centerline of handwheel or handles on block valves used for shutdown only,
located less than 15 feet above high point of finished surface, and those located in
pipeways, may be accessible by portable ladder.
4. The centerline of handwheel or handles on block valves used for shutdown only and
located over 15 feet above high point of finished surface, except those located in
pipeways, shall be operable from permanent ladder or platform.
5. In general, keep valve handwheels, handles, and stems out of operating aisles.
Where this is not practical, elevate the valve to 6'- 6" (plus or minus 3 inches) clear
from high point of finished surface to bottom of handwheel.
6. Utility piping systems (air, water, steam, condensate, and nitrogen) going into
separate process units shall have a battery limit block valves with a line blind only.
Individual block valves to users within the process units are not required unless
specified by the Client or Process engineering.
B. Sample Connections
1. Provide sample and test connections as indicated on P&IDs. They shall be readily
accessible from grade or platform.
2. In general, where liquid samples are taken in a bottle, locate the sample outlet above
a drain funnel to permit free running of the liquid before sampling.
3. Note samples that require cooling on the P&IDs, and provide a cooler.
C. Vents and Drains
1. The P&IDs shall indicate and size the vents, drains, and bleeds required for plant
operation, except as noted in section C3 below.
2. Provide plugged hydrostatic vents and drains without valves at the high and low
points of piping.
3. Provide valved bleeds at control valve stations, level switches, level controllers, and
gauge glasses per job standard.
D. Line Strainers
1. Provide temporary conical type strainers in 2 inch and larger butt weld pump suction
lines for use during startup. Arrange piping to facilitate removal.
2. Use permanent Y-type strainers on 2 inch and smaller screwed or socket weld pump
suction piping.
3. Provide temporary basket type strainers located at the suction pulsation device inlet
for startup of reciprocating compressors. Arrange piping to facilitate removal of the
strainer.
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4. Provide temporary basket type strainers and locate them as close as possible to the
compressor inlet flange for startup of centrifugal compressors. Arrange piping to
facilitate removal of the strainer.
E. Insulation
Hot insulation for piping and equipment shall be in accordance with Specification
000.285.86110; cold insulation, with Specification 000.285.86130.
F. Insulation Shoes
1. Provide insulation shoes where a line crosses a support for hot insulated piping in the
following categories only:
a. Aluminum lines.
b. 3 inch and larger carbon and alloy steel lines with design temperatures over
650 degrees F.
2. Large diameter lines (20 inches and over), stainless steel lines where galvanic
corrosion may exist, lines with wall thickness less than standard weight, and vacuum
lines shall be analyzed to determine if shoes or wear plates are needed.
G. Cradles
Provide cradles at supports for insulated lines in cold service and for acoustical
applications.
H. Personnel Protection
1. Provide eyewash and emergency showers in areas where operating personnel are
subject to hazardous sprays or spills, such as acid. Indicate these items on the
P&IDs.
2. Provide personnel protection at uninsulated lines and for equipment operating above
140 degrees F when they constitute a hazard to the operators during the normal
operating routine. Lines that are infrequently used, such as snuffing steam and relief
valve discharges, do not require protective shields or coverings.
3. Note valve and flange shields, if required, in the piping material specifications.
2.5 Maintenance
A. Clearances
Minimum clearances for equipment, structures, platforms, and supports shall be in
accordance with the following table:
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ITEM DESCRIPTION
ROADS Headroom for primary access roads (from the crown) ..................... 21' - 0"
Width of primary access roads excluding 5 foot shoulders ............. 20' - 0"
Headroom for secondary roads (from the crown) ............................ 12' - 0"
Width of secondary roads excluding 3 foot shoulders ..................... 10' 0"
Clearance from edge of road shoulders to platforms, equipment,
pipe associated with equipment, or similar features ........................... 5' - 0"
RAILROADS Headroom over through-railroads (from top rail) ........................... **22' - 6"
Clearance from track centerline to obstruction ................................ **10' - 0"
MAINTENANCE
AISLEWAYS AT GRADE
Horizontal clearance for equipment maintenance by hydraulic
crane (12T capacity) .......................................................................... 10' - 0"
Vertical clearance for equipment maintenance by hydraulic crane
(12T capacity) ..................................................................................... 12' - 0"
Horizontal clearance for fork lift (5000 lbs capability) and similar
equipment ........................................................................................... 6" - 0"
Vertical clearance for fork lift (5000 lbs capability) and similar
equipment ........................................................................................... 8' 0"
Horizontal clearance for equipment maintenance by portable
manual equipment (A-frames, hand trucks, dollies, or similar
equipment) .......................................................................................... 3' - 0"
Vertical clearance for equipment maintenance by portable manual
equipment (A-frames, hand trucks, or similar equipment) ................. 8' - 0"
WALKWAYS Horizontal clearance, not necessarily in a straight line .................... 2' - 6"
Headroom (except for handwheels) ................................................. 7' - 0"
PLATFORMS Minimum width ............................................................................... 2' - 6"
Minimum clearance around any obstruction on the platforms ......... 1' - 6"
Headroom ......................................................................................... 7' - 0"
Maximum vertical distance between platforms ................................ 30' - 0"
EQUIPMENT Minimum maintenance space required between flanges of
exchangers or other equipment arranged in pairs ................................ 1' - 6"
Minimum maintenance space required for structural member or
pipe ..................................................................................................... 1' - 0"
Clearance from edge of road shoulder (the extreme projection) ...... 5' - 0"
FIRED EQUIPMENT Horizontal clearance from hydrocarbon equipment (shell to shell) .
50' - 0"
Exception: Reactors or equipment in alloy systems shall be
located for economical piping arrangement.
Clearance from edge of roads to shell .............................................. 10' - 0"
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ITEM DESCRIPTION
PIPE
(aboveground)
Clearance between the outside diameter of flange and the outside
diameter of pipe insulation .................................................................. *0' - 1"
Clearance between the outside diameter of pipe, flange, or
insulation and structural member ........................................................ *0' - 2"
[** Verify conformance with local regulations] *With full consideration of thermal movements
B. Accessibility
1. Provide a means of egress (a continuous and unobstructed way of exit travel) from
any point in a building, elevated equipment, or structure.
2. Provide a secondary means of escape where the travel distance from the furthest
point on a platform to an exit exceeds 75 feet.
3. Access to elevated platforms shall be by permanent ladder. The need for stairways
shall be determined by platform elevation, number of items requiring attention,
observation and adjustment, and the frequency of items. Indicate stairways at
structures on the plot plan.
4. Provide safety cages and ladders per applicable details of Practice 000.215.5130
(Structural) and Practice 000.258.58045 (Vessels).
5. Ladder safety devices such as safety belts and harnesses, may be used on boiler, flare
stack, water tank, and chimney ladders over 20 feet in unbroken lengths in lieu of
cage protection and landing platforms [Refer to OSHA 1910.27 (d)(5)].
6. Arrange equipment, structures, and piping to permit maintenance and service by
means of mobile equipment. Provide permanent facilities as indicated on the plot
plan where maintenance by mobile equipment is impractical.
7. Provide a clear access area at grade for vessels with removable internals or for
vessels requiring loading and unloading.
8. Exchangers with removable tube bundles shall have maintenance clearance equal to
the bundle length plus 5 feet measured from the tube sheet.
9. Provide sufficient access and clearance at fired equipment for removal of tubes,
sootblowers, air preheater baskets, burners, fans, and other related serviceable
equipment.
10. Plant roads may be used as tube pull areas.
C. Spectacle Blinds
1. Provide spectacle blinds as indicated on the P&IDs.
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2. Spectacle blinds shall be accessible from grade or platform. Blinds located in a
pipeway are considered accessible. Blinds that weigh over 100 lbs shall be
accessible by mobile equipment. Where this is not possible, provide davits or
hitching points.
3. Stagger closely grouped flanges with blinds.
D. Utility Stations
Provide utility stations with water, steam, or air as indicated below. Use a single 50 foot
length of hose to reach the entire working area from the station. Hose, hose rack, and
hose connections shall be provided by the client.
1. Provide water outlets at grade level only, in pump areas, and near equipment that
shall be water washed during maintenance.
2. Provide steam outlets at grade level only in areas subject to product spills, and near
equipment that requires steaming out during maintenance.
3. Provide air outlets in areas where air-driven tools are used such as at exchangers,
both ends of heaters, compressor area, top platform of reactors, and on columns, so
that each manway to be serviced is within the reach of a 50 foot hose.
3.0 EXECUTION
3.1 Design And Drawing Practices
A. Model
When called for in the Scope of Work an electronic model shall be built using the
appropriate design program (PDS or PDMS). It shall be built in accordance with the
applicable section of the project CAD documents and the PAG (Piping Applications
Guide) Manual.
When called for in the Scope of Work a physical model shall be built in accordance with
the applicable section of the project physical model documents and Specification
670.250.50002.
B. Types of Piping Documents
1. Aboveground piping plans: Drawings with sufficient detail to indicate pipe routing,
intersections, anchors, guides, supports, provisions for expansion, spare equipment,
and connections to associated apparatus. Show piping plan dimensions in feet and
inches. When the dimensions are less than 1 foot, use inches. Draw sections and
details to show routing of piping that cannot be clearly shown in the plan drawing.
Draw piping as a single line, except in areas where double line may be required for
verification of clearances. Show all piping on the piping plan.
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2. Piping isometrics: 11 inch by 17 inch drawings of individual lines, or portions of
lines, complete with all information required for fabrication and installation. Provide
isometrics when required by Fluor Daniel to expedite the fabrication and installation
of pipe. The isometric drawing number is the same as the line number.
3. Heat tracing schedules and details shall indicate the extent, size, routing, and tracing
material.
4. Pressure Test Summary and related documents shall indicate line test pressure, test
medium, and other supporting data. These documents shall be issued to Field
Construction for pressure testing.
C. Symbols
Piping symbols shall be in accordance with Practice 000.250.9817 and Practice
000.250.9818.
Identify special items of piping material by an item code number on the P&IDs and
isometrics.
The symbol "F" in a hexagon may be used on drawings to denote that the line beyond this
symbol shall be routed at the jobsite by the field, including location of valves, field
supports, and instruments.
D. Line Identification
Clearly identify pipe lines by line numbers on P&IDs and drawings, and summarize on
the Pipe Line List.
4.0 ATTACHMENTS
Not applicable.
End of Specification
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INTERNAL CLEANING OF NON-HYGIENIC PIPING SYSTEMS
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This specification has been revised as indicated below and described in the revision record on the following page.
Please destroy all previous revisions.
Revision
No.
Date Originator's
Name & Initials
Reviewed/Checked By
Name & Initials
Pages
APPROVALS SIGNATURES DATE
Lead Engineer
Project Manager:
Client Approval:
ISSUED FOR : Construction Other
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Record of Revisions
Revision
No.
Date Description
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1.0 GENERAL
1.1 Summary
A. Scope of Specification
1. This specification prescribes the requirements for internal cleaning procedures for all
non-hygienic piping systems, including the following:
a. Cleaning contractor requirements.
b. Precleaned material requirements.
c. Field flushing and cleaning requirements
d. Field passivation of stainless steel piping systems
B. Work Not Included
Not included in this specification are the flushing, cleaning, passivation and sterilization
of stainless steel hygienic tubing systems (line classes TG03, TG04, and TG05). These
procedures shall be included in Specification 50029.
C. Related Specifications
The following specifications prescribe items of related Work:
50003: Piping - Material Line Class Specification
50025: Fabrication & Handling of Non-Hygienic Process & Utility Piping
(Shop/Field)
50029: Cleaning and Passivation of Hygienic Systems
50050: Piping Pressure Testing
Coordinate Work prescribed by this specification with Work prescribed by the above listed
specifications.
D. Related Technical Requirements
Attachments to specification include the following:
1. Complete service index and assigned cleaning procedure.
2. Individual cleaning procedures.
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E. Terminology
1. Blowout: Blowing of a vapor (such as air, nitrogen, or steam) at sufficient velocity to
remove all foreign matter from piping systems.
2. Chemical Cleaning: Cleaning which involves the use of chemical agents to dissolve
and remove the contaminants.
3. Cleaning: The process of removing deposits, scales, corrosion products or other
foulants which restrict flow, impair heat transfer, or contaminate product being
conveyed in the piping systems.
4. Degree of Cleaning: A detailed description of exactly to what extent contaminants will
be removed from the piping system.
5. Disinfecting: Removal of biological contaminants harmful to human health if
contained in potable water.
6. Field Cleaning: Any cleaning procedure performed on piping systems after field
installation.
7. Flushing: Circulating flushing fluid at sufficient velocity to remove all foreign matter.
8. Mechanical Cleaning: Cleaning accomplished by hand, power tool, or abrasive
cleaning.
9. Neutralization: Reaction between hydrogen ion from an acid and hydroxyl ion from a
base to produce pH neutral water.
10. Paint Stripping: Removal of mill applied varnishes or other paint.
11. Passivation: Process of forming a protective film on metal; typically refers to exposure
of stainless steel parts, systems or equipment to an oxidizing environment such as nitric
acid or a mild organic acid, which removes light surface contaminants, enhances the
protective chromium oxide film, and increases resistance to corrosive environments.
12. Pickling: Chemical removal of heavy, tightly adhering oxide films or scales resulting
from welding operations, thermal treatments (such as annealing or hardening), and hot-
forming by immersion, swabbing, or spraying with an aqueous mineral acid solution.
Pickling also removes 1 to 1.5 mils of the substrate metal.
13. Precleaned Products: Materials that have been chemically cleaned, mechanically
cleaned, paint stripped, disinfected, passivated, rinsed, pickled, or protected from
corrosion by shop fabricator or manufacturer before installation.
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14. Rinsing: Removal of residual cleaning agents by washing out with fresh or de-ionized
water.
1.2 References
The publications listed below form part of this specification. Each publication shall be the latest
revision and addendum in effect on the date this specification is issued for construction unless
noted otherwise. Except as modified by the requirements specified herein or the details of the
drawings, Work included in this specification shall conform to the applicable provisions of these
publications.
A. ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers)
1. ASME Code for Pressure Piping, B31.3, latest edition Chemical Plant and Petroleum
Refinery Piping.
B. CGA (Compressed Gas Association, Inc.)
1. G4.1. - Cleaning Equipment for Oxygen Service
C. Chlorine Institute
1. Pamphlet 6.
D. AWWA (American Water Works Association)
1. C651, latest edition.
E. ASTM
1. A380 Standard practice for cleaning and descaling Stainless Steel
parts, equipment and systems.
F. Federal Specification
1. QQ-P-35C Passivation treatment for corrosion resistant steels - 1988
1.3 Submittals
A. Cleaning Contractor Requirements
Alternative cleaning procedures not specified in this document shall be prepared and
submitted to Fluor Daniel Engineering's Material Engineer. The procedure shall include
the following:
1. Steps of the cleaning or passivating procedure.
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2. Chemicals and equipment to be used.
3. Required time for each step.
4. Process temperatures.
5. Inspection Procedures
Contractor's procedures will be evaluated based on, but not limited to, the following
criteria.
1. Ability to clean and remove surface contaminants.
2. Ability to guarantee a high surface Chromium/Iron ratio.
3. Ability to reduced heat tinting near heat effected zones.
4. Safety and ease of disposal of chemical solutions.
5. Cost.
6. Documented results of corrosion testing.
1.4 Quality Assurance
A. General
1. Cleaning Procedures
All cleaning procedures shall be specified with a degree of cleaning required and an
inspection procedure to assure the degree of cleanliness has been achieved.
2. Precleaned Material
Upon delivery of precleaned material to the jobsite, inspection, storage, and installation
procedures shall be done in accordance with Specification 50025.
B. Qualifications
1. Cleaning procedures shall be performed by a reputable cleaning contractor, approved
by Fluor Daniel Engineering.
2. Utilize personnel who are trained in the cleaning, protection techniques and safety
rules.
2.0 MATERIALS
Manufacturer Cleaning Requirements - Precleaned materials to be supplied by the manufacturer or vendor
are specified in Specification 50003.
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3.0 EXECUTION
The requirements and procedures for Field Cleaning and protection of all process and utility piping after
installation and before commissioning are included in this section.
3.1 Field Cleaning Requirements
A. Completely remove weld slag, flux, debris, grease, oil, and any foreign matter on the
surfaces of field fabricated items using cleaning methods as specified in Attachment 02.
B. Reclean all precleaned surfaces as specified in accordance with this specification.
C. Protect cleaned surfaces in accordance with this specification.
3.2 General Preparation For Cleaning
A. All cleaning shall be done after pressure testing.
B. Schedule field cleaning as close to the commissioning of the equipment as possible.
C. Protect threaded connections, flange faces, and valves to prevent damage by abrasion.
D. Block off, disconnect or remove the following items from the piping system to be cleaned:
Filters
Exposed instruments, gages, and cylinders
Orifice plates
Oil reservoirs
Relief valves, control valves, and plug cocks
Expansion joints
Materials that may become damaged by cleaning solutions or procedures
E. Do not allow aluminum, copper, galvanized steel, magnesium, or zinc surfaces to come
in contact with solutions having a pH of less than 4.0 or a pH of more than 10.
F. Do not contact equipment containing austenitic material with the following materials:
1. Acid solutions containing halides or chemicals such as hydrochloric acid.
Alternative solvents are acceptable provided the chloride content does not exceed
50 ppm (50 cm
3
/m
3
).
2. Caustic soda (NaOH) solutions. If degreasing is required, Sodium Carbonate and
Trisodium Phosphate solutions may be used, provided the chloride content does not
exceed 50 ppm (50 cm
3
/m
3
).
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G. Do not introduce chemical solution into equipment unless high point vents and low point
drains (supplied by piping contractor) are available to ensure proper filling and complete
removal of solutions.
H. Do not apply heat directly to equipment containing acid solutions. Boilers may be fired for
degreasing, but acid solutions must be diluted and heated externally to the equipment.
3.3 Cleaning Procedures After Installation
A. Cleaning Procedure Index
Cleaning procedures shall be selected based on service and line class according to
Attachment 01.
B. Cleaning Procedures
1. Cleaning procedures are included in Attachment 02 and outlined as follows:
a. Scope of Procedure.
b. Preparation for Cleaning Procedure.
c. Materials.
d. Equipment.
e. Cleaning Procedure.
f. Chemical Solution and Rinse Disposal.
g. Degree of Cleaning.
h. Inspection Procedure.
i. Post Cleaning Procedures.
2. Cleaning documentation form is included in Attachment 03 and is outlined as
follows:
a. Objects Being Cleaned
b. Cleaning Date
c. Cleaning Procedure
d. Performed By
e. Witnessed By
f. Date
C. Identification of Cleaned Item
1. Metal tag cleaned items at all valves and connections to avoid subsequent
contamination and to identify potential hazard. Tag shall read as follows:
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WARNING:
INTERNALLY CLEANED AND PRESSURIZED;
KEEP SEALED UNTIL COMMISSIONING.
(DATE)
2. Tag shall be yellow with black letters and at least 8 inches (200 mm) by 10 inches
(250mm), secured with 14 gage stainless steel wire.
4.0 ATTACHMENTS
Attachment 01: 26Jan98
Cleaning Procedure Index
Attachment 02: 26Jan98
Cleaning Procedures After Installation
Attachment 03: 26Jan98
Cleaning Documentation Form
End of Specification
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Cleaning Procedure Index
67525050028a01.doc Piping Engineering
SERVICE
ABBREV. SERVICE
MATERIAL
LINE CLASS MATERIAL
CLEANING
PROCEDURE
AP PLANT AIR BA21 COPPER/CS 1 and then 2
TG01 316 SS 2
BBD BOILER BLOW DOWN AA21 CS 1
BFW BOILER FEED WATER AA21 CARBON STEEL 1
BW BIOWASTE (AG) AG01 316L SS 1
BWD BIOWASTE DRAIN (UG) BU03 Double Walled FRP 1
CA CLEAN AIR AG01 316L SS 2
TG01 316 SS
CC CLEAN CONDENSATE TG01 316 SS 1
C02 CARBON DIOXIDE BA21 COPPER/CS 1 and then 2
TG01 316 SS 2
CSH HIGH PRESSURE CONDENSATE AA21 CARBON STEEL 1
CSM MEDIUM PRESSURE CONDENSATE AA21 CARBON STEEL 1
CWR HVAC CHILLED WATER RETURN BA21 COPPER/CS 1
CWS HVAC CHILLED WATER SUPPLY BA21 COPPER/CS 1
GR GLYCOL RETURN BA21 COPPER/CS 1
GS GLYCOL SUPPLY BA21 COPPER/CS 1
HWR HEATING HOT WATER RET BA21 COPPER/CS 1
HWS HEATING HOT WATER SUP BA21 COPPER/CS 1
IA INSTRUMENT AIR BA21 COPPER/CS 1 and then 2
N2 NITROGEN BA21 COPPER/CS 1 and then 2
NAOH SODIUM HYDROXIDE AG01 316L SS 1
NG NATURAL GAS BA22 CS 2 - Nitrogen
PD PROCESS WASTE DRAIN (UG) BU01 FRP 4
PW PROCESS WASTE (AG) BA21 COPPER/CS 4
(UG) BU01 FRP
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Cleaning Procedure Index
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SERVICE
ABBREV. SERVICE
MATERIAL
LINE CLASS MATERIAL
CLEANING
PROCEDURE
SD STORM DRAINAGE (AG) BR02 CAST IRON 4
(UG) BR01 CAST IRON
SH HIGH PRESSURE STEAM AA21 CARBON STEEL 2
SM MEDIUM PRESSURE STEAM AA21 CARBON STEEL 2
SS SANITARY SEWER (AG) BR02 CAST IRON 4
(UG) BR01 CAST IRON
WC CITY WATER BC01 COPPER 3
WDHR DOMESTIC HOT WATER RETURN BA21 COPPER/CS 3
WDHS DOMESTIC HOT WATER SUPPLY BA21 COPPER/CS 3
WP PLANT WATER BA21 COPPER/CS 1
WHPOT HOT POTABLE WATER BC01 COPPER 3
WPOT POTABLE WATER BC01 COPPER 3
WTR TOWER WATER RETURN BA21 COPPER/CS 1
WTS TOWER WATER SUPPLY BA21 COPPER/CS 1
WW WASTE WATER BU01 FRP 1
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Cleaning Procedures After Installation
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Contents

Cleaning Procedure 1
Cleaning and Water Flushing

Cleaning Procedure 2
Air, Nitrogen, and Steam Cleaning

Cleaning Procedure 3
Water Flushing and Disinfection

Cleaning Procedure 4
Water Flush of Precleaned Systems

Cleaning Procedure 5
Chemical Cleaning for Oxygen Service
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CLEANING PROCEDURE 1
Cleaning and Water Flushing
A. Scope of Procedure
This procedure covers flushing and cleaning of piping systems after assembly and erection.
B. Preparation for Cleaning Procedure
1. All pipe runs and joints shall be visually inspected for proper installation and continuity.
2. Equipment with restricted flow passages or inaccessible areas where sediment could collect shall
either be bypassed or furnished with adequately sized temporary protection strainers.
3. If system pumps are to be used for flushing and do not have a permanent suction strainer, they shall
then have a temporary strainer installed between the suction valve and the pump. The temporary
strainer shall be galvanized woven wire cloth, wire diameter 0.035 of an inch mesh, 6 x 6.
4. Where flushing water is recirculated and not wasted to sewers, temporary strainers and/or baskets
shall be installed at all sumps, tanks, and other accessible areas where extraneous material flushed
from the piping system can be collected and removed.
5. To prevent contamination of instruments, all instrumentation lines shall be disconnected during the
flushing operation. These lines shall be cleaned separately by blowing out with air or flushing with
water. All instrumentation lines are to be reconnected after completion of the cleaning operation.
C. Materials
Fresh, clean water shall be used as the flushing and cleaning agent.
D. Equipment
Not applicable.
E. Cleaning Procedure
1. All pipe lines shall be flushed at no less than their design flow rate. Where possible, piping systems
should be sectionalized, and full system flow rates provided through individual sections. Large
diameter lines where design flow rates are not practical shall have flow rates specified by Fluor
Daniel Engineering's field engineer.
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2. Strainers and baskets should be inspected frequently during the flushing operation and cleaned if
necessary.
F. Chemical Solution and Rinse Disposal
Not applicable.
G. Degree of Cleaning
Removal of all loose non-adherent material together with all adherent material that could break away during
operation of the equipment.
H. Inspection Procedure
Flushing operations shall continue until extraneous material is no longer collected at strainers and baskets.
Final flush shall be witnessed by a representative of the owner. It is the responsibility of the contractor to
continue the flush and clean operation until the owner approves of the final condition.
The contractor is to take all steps necessary to insure an acceptable flush to include but not limited to removal
and replacement of any associated work in place. This at no additional cost or schedule impact to the owner.
I. Post-Cleaning Procedure
Upon completion of flushing, all temporary strainers and baskets shall be removed from the Piping system
unless otherwise specified. Tanks and sumps are to be drained and thoroughly cleaned. Equipment and
piping shall be returned to their preflush condition.
End of Cleaning Procedure 1
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CLEANING PROCEDURE 2
Air, Nitrogen, and Steam Cleaning
A. Scope of Procedure
This procedure covers the blowing-out of piping systems after assembly and erection.
B. Preparation for Cleaning Procedure
1. All pipe runs and joints shall be visually inspected for proper installation and continuity.
2. Equipment that has restricted flow passages or inaccessible areas where scale or particles could
collect shall either be bypassed or removed and replaced by a spool piece.
3. To prevent contamination of the instruments, all instrumentation lines shall be disconnected during
the blowing-out operation. These lines shall be blown-out separately and reconnected at the
conclusion of the cleaning operation.
4. All low points and dirt legs must have blow-off valves.
C. Materials
1. Blowing agent shall be one of the following (as determined by field engineer):
Oil free air
Nitrogen
Steam
D. Equipment
Not applicable.
E. Cleaning Procedure
1. All pipe lines shall be thoroughly blown through to ensure complete cleansing of all foreign
matter. Care shall be taken that the discharge point of the pipe line is in a safe location and so
arranged that the discharge stream is dissipated harmlessly. All personnel shall be kept clear of the
discharge area during the blowing-out operation.
2. Steam lines that are to be blown-out with steam shall have a warm-up period to allow gradual
expansion and metal warm-up before high volume blow-out is commenced.
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F. Chemical Solution and Rinse Disposal
Not applicable.
G. Degree of Cleaning
Removal of all loose non-adherent material together with all adherent material that could break away
during operation of the equipment.
H. Inspection Procedure
Following blow-through, all low points and dirt legs are to be blown-down until all residual matter is
removed. Final blow-down shall be witnessed by a representative of the owner. It is the responsibility of the
contractor to continue the blow-down operation until the owner approves of the final condition.
The contractor is to take all steps necessary to insure an acceptable blow-through to include but not limited
to removal and replacement of any associated work in place. This at no additional cost or schedule impact
to the owner.
I. Post-Cleaning Procedure
All piping and equipment shall be returned to their preblow-out condition.
End of Cleaning Procedure 2
This copy is intended for use solely with
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For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
Client Name Master Specification 675 250 50028
Project Name Date 26Jan98
Contract Number Attachment 02 - Sheet 6 of 13
Revision
FLUOR DANI EL
INTERNAL CLEANING OF NON-HYGENIC PIPING SYSTEMS
Cleaning Procedures After Installation
67525050028a02.doc Piping Engineering
CLEANING PROCEDURE 3
Water Flushing and Disinfection
A. Scope of Procedure
1. This procedure covers flushing and disinfecting of above- and below ground potable water piping
systems after assembly and erection.
2. This procedure requires compliance with all federal, state, and local laws and regulations that may be
applicable.
B. Preparation for Cleaning Procedure
1. All pipe runs and joints shall be visually examined for proper installation and continuity.
2. Equipment that has restricted flow passages or inaccessible areas where sediment could collect, shall
either be bypassed or removed and replaced by a spool piece.
C. Materials
1. Flushing procedure - potable water
2. Disinfecting Procedure
a. Forms of chlorine can be calcium hypochlorite, sodium hypochlorite or liquid chlorine
packaged in steel cylinders.
Note!!! Liquid chlorine must be used in conjunction with a chlorinator.
b. Solution strength shall be in accordance with AWWA C651.
c. Due to its hazardous nature, adequate safety precautions and instruction shall be employed
when handling any form of chlorine.
D. Equipment
Dependent on system to be disinfected.
E. Cleaning Procedure
1. Flushing Procedure prior to disinfecting.
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
Client Name Master Specification 675 250 50028
Project Name Date 26Jan98
Contract Number Attachment 02 - Sheet 7 of 13
Revision
FLUOR DANI EL
INTERNAL CLEANING OF NON-HYGENIC PIPING SYSTEMS
Cleaning Procedures After Installation
67525050028a02.doc Piping Engineering
a. All pipe lines shall be flushed with potable water before disinfecting. Minimum flushing
velocity should be 2.5 feet per second for water mains.
b. Flushing operations shall continue until water discharges are clear and free from turbidity
and extraneous materials and is approved by the owner's representative. The contractor is
to take all steps necessary to insure an acceptable system condition. This to include but not
be limited to removal and replacement of any or all associated work in place. This at no
additional cost or schedule impact to the owner.
c. Upon completion of the flushing operation, systems shall be drained and all items
previously removed, bypassed, or disassembled shall be reinstalled, reassembled, and made
ready for the disinfecting procedure.
2. Disinfecting Procedure
Piping systems shall be filled with a chlorine solution and left standing for an adequate contact
period.
Note!!! Contact time shall be in accordance with AWWA C651, latest edition.
a. Chlorine Application
(1) For large systems a concentrated chlorine solution feed can be proportioned with
the incoming potable water filling the system.
(2) On small systems the chlorine solution can be mixed in a container to the required
concentration and fed into the piping by gravity feed or pump.
3. Post-Flushing Procedure
After the applicable contact period, the heavily chlorinated water shall be flushed from the system
with potable water until the chlorine concentration in the water leaving the system is no higher than
that in the incoming potable water, or less than 1 ppm.
F. Chemical Solution and Rinse Disposal
1. Outlet pipes or nozzles at flushing discharges shall be directed to a safe locati on where chance of
damage from disposal of flushing water is minimal.
2. All spent chemical solutions and rinses must be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable
manner.
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
Client Name Master Specification 675 250 50028
Project Name Date 26Jan98
Contract Number Attachment 02 - Sheet 8 of 13
Revision
FLUOR DANI EL
INTERNAL CLEANING OF NON-HYGENIC PIPING SYSTEMS
Cleaning Procedures After Installation
67525050028a02.doc Piping Engineering
3. If any liquid effluent streams are discharged to a sewer system connected to a public sewage
treatment plant, they must comply with the applicable provincial and local pretreatment regulations.
G. Degree of Cleaning
1. Removal of all loose non-adherent material together with all adherent material that could break away
during operation of the equipment.
2. Disinfection of contaminants harmful to human health if consumed.
H. Inspection Procedure
Inspection shall be in accordance with AWWA C651, latest edition.
I. Post-Cleaning Procedure
Reassembly procedures shall be in accordance with Section E.1.c before disinfecting procedure.
End of Cleaning Procedure 3
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
Client Name Master Specification 675 250 50028
Project Name Date 26Jan98
Contract Number Attachment 02 - Sheet 9 of 13
Revision
FLUOR DANI EL
INTERNAL CLEANING OF NON-HYGENIC PIPING SYSTEMS
Cleaning Procedures After Installation
67525050028a02.doc Piping Engineering
CLEANING PROCEDURE 4
Water Flush of Precleaned Systems
A. Scope of Procedure
This procedure covers flushing of precleaned piping systems after assembly, erection, and testing.
B. Preparation for Flushing Procedure
1. Before installation, all piping sections (spools) shall be swabbed clean and flushed so that the erected
piping will be clean and free from foreign material.
2. Hydrostatic testing requirements must be completed before flushing.
C. Materials
Hydrostatic Test Fluid
D. Equipment
Not applicable.
E. Cleaning Procedure
Flushing shall be accomplished after completion of pressure testing and all necessary corrections have been
made. The extent of flushing will be the drawing off of the water used for hydrostatic testing of the piping.
F. Chemical Solution and Rinse Disposal
Not applicable.
G. Degree of Cleaning
Removal of all loose non-adherent material together with all adherent material that could break away du ring
operation of the equipment.
H. Inspection Procedure
Piping spools shall be clean and free from foreign material before installation. Care shall be taken to insure
cleanliness during installation. Final flush shall be witnessed by a representative of the owner. It is the
responsibility of the contractor to continue the flush and clean operation until the owner approves of the final
condition.
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
Client Name Master Specification 675 250 50028
Project Name Date 26Jan98
Contract Number Attachment 02 - Sheet 10 of 13
Revision
FLUOR DANI EL
INTERNAL CLEANING OF NON-HYGENIC PIPING SYSTEMS
Cleaning Procedures After Installation
67525050028a02.doc Piping Engineering
The contractor is to take all steps necessary to insure an acceptable flush to include but not limited to r emoval
and replacement of any associated work in place. This at no additional cost or schedule impact to the owner.
I. Post-Cleaning Procedures
Not applicable.
End of Cleaning Procedure 4
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
Client Name Master Specification 675 250 50028
Project Name Date 26Jan98
Contract Number Attachment 02 - Sheet 11 of 13
Revision
FLUOR DANI EL
INTERNAL CLEANING OF NON-HYGENIC PIPING SYSTEMS
Cleaning Procedures After Installation
67525050028a02.doc Piping Engineering
CLEANING PROCEDURE 5
Chemical Cleaning for Oxygen Service
A. Scope of Procedure
This procedure covers chemical cleaning, drying and purging of oxygen piping systems after assembly,
erection and pre-cleaning testing.
Cleaning of the system shall be accomplished by flushing with chemicals at sufficient temperature,
concentration, velocity and contact time to remove all contaminants, passivating and drying. The following
procurement and erection procedures have been followed:
1. All pipe, tubing, fittings and valves purchased for the system have been pre-cleaned by the
manufacturer or supplier.
2. All pipe, tubing, fittings and valves have been capped and sealed during shipping and storage to
preclude rust and contamination.
3. All pipe, tubing, fittings and valves have been tungsten inert gas (TIG) welded on the fir st sealing
pass.
4. Piping system has been kept clean and rust free during fabrication and erection, contamination kept
to a minimum.
B. Preparation for Cleaning Procedure
1. All pipe runs and joints shall be visually inspected for proper installation a nd continuity.
2. Adequate drains shall be provided at low points and vents at high points.
3. Pre-cleaned components, valves, filters, regulators and any other equipment that may be damaged or
contaminated during the cleaning operation shall either not be installed until after the cleaning
operation is completed or be by-passed. Spool pieces and jumpers along with required unions or
flanges shall be provided and installed by the piping contractor. Inline socketweld valves subjected
to chemical cleaning shall require valve manufacturer's approval of the cleaning procedures and the
valve must be in its full open position during the cleaning operation.
4. Before cleaning with spool pieces in place, the system shall be hydrostatically tested in accordance
with Specification 50050.
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
Client Name Master Specification 675 250 50028
Project Name Date 26Jan98
Contract Number Attachment 02 - Sheet 12 of 13
Revision
FLUOR DANI EL
INTERNAL CLEANING OF NON-HYGENIC PIPING SYSTEMS
Cleaning Procedures After Installation
67525050028a02.doc Piping Engineering
C. Materials
Water connections will be available in some areas of the plant. Contractor is to contact field representative for
availability and pressure. Contractor shall supply nitrogen and water when not available on site.
D. Equipment
Cleaning equipment and all mixing and blending equipment shall be provided by contractor and shall be
located in a safe designated working area.
E. Cleaning Procedure
1. Chemical cleaning is a highly specialized service and shall be done by a reputable cleaning
contractor.
2. Cleaning procedures shall be prepared by contractor and submitted to engineer for review and
approval.
3. Provide necessary safety ropes or isolation barricades to enclose all working area possible.
4. Supply water connections to wash down any chemicals spilled during cleaning.
5. Unauthorized personnel, as determined by the field engineer, are not permitted in the cleaning area
during hazardous cleaning operations.
6. Drain, vents and temporary effluent piping shal l be piped to ground level, use only gate valves on
these lines. These drop lines should be posted and/or barricaded to keep out unauthorized personnel.
7. The cleaning and flushing operation shall be witnessed and approved by a representative of the
owner. It is the responsibility of the contractor to continue the flush and clean operation until the
owner approves of the final condition.
The contractor is to take all steps necessary to insure an acceptable flush to include but not limited to
removal and replacement of any associated work in place. This at no additional cost or schedule
impact to the owner.
F. Chemical Solution and Rinse Disposal
1. Outlet pipes or nozzles at flushing discharges shall be directed to a safe location where chance of
damage from disposal of flushing water is minimal.
2. All spent chemical solutions and rinses must be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable
manner. Confirm offsite disposal of waste chemicals.
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
Client Name Master Specification 675 250 50028
Project Name Date 26Jan98
Contract Number Attachment 02 - Sheet 13 of 13
Revision
FLUOR DANI EL
INTERNAL CLEANING OF NON-HYGENIC PIPING SYSTEMS
Cleaning Procedures After Installation
67525050028a02.doc Piping Engineering
3. If any liquid effluent streams are discharged to a sewer system connected to a public sewage
treatment plant, they must comply with the applicable provincial and local pretreatment regulations.
G. Degree of Cleaning
1. Removal of all loose non-adherent material together with all adherent material that could break away
during operation of the equipment.
2. Removal of all traces of hydrocarbons in the system.
H. Inspection Procedure
The following tests shall be performed on interior of line while spool pieces are being removed and on interior
of valves and equipment being installed to insure cleanliness of the system.
1. Fluorescent test: random surfaces shall be examined with ultraviolet light ("black light") for traces
of hydrocarbons. Any trace of hydrocarbons shall be reason for rejection. Filter paper may be used
to wipe areas inaccessible to fluorescent test. Use hard filter paper to avoid leaving paper fibers
behind.
2. Water break test: for use on small parts - clean water poured on a metal surface should form a thin,
unbroken film. Formation of droplets shall be considered evidence of contamination.
3. Visual examination: shall show no mill scale or rust. Any mill scale or rust shall be considered
reason for rejection.
I. Post-Cleaning Procedure
Remove all spools, contaminated gaskets and jumpers used in the cleaning operations and install all pre-
cleaned components. Inspect each component before installation into the clean system. Any component
that is contaminated or suspected of being contaminated must be re-cleaned.
After cleaning is completed and system is assembled and ready for operation, the system will be
pneumatically tested using oil free nitrogen in accordance with Specification 50050.
After testing is completed, the system shall be purged with oil free nitrogen and maintained under pressure
until ready for placement into service.
End of Cleaning Procedure 5
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
Client Name Master Specification 675 250 50028
Project Name Date 26Jan98
Contract Number Attachment 03 - Sheet 1 of 1
Revision
FLUOR DANI EL
INTERNAL CLEANING OF NON-HYGENIC PIPING SYSTEMS
Cleaning Documentation Form
67525050028a03.doc Piping Engineering
Object(s) being cleaned:
Cleaning Date: ______________________________________________________________________________
Cleaning Procedure: __________________________________________________________________________
Performed by: ________________________________ Date: ______________________________
Witnessed by: ________________________________ Date: _______________________________
Note!!! Copies of marked-up isometrics or P&IDs showing blinding points may be used in lieu of a hand-
drawn sketch to show the extent of systems being cleaned.
This copy is intended for use solely with
Piping Design Layout Training.
For other purposes, refer to the original document
available through Knowledge Online.
PIPING DESIGN LAYOUT TRAINING
LESSON 10
COMPRESSORS TEST
Page 1 of 3
15/11/2002 Rev. 0
LESSON 10 - TEST 1
COMPRESSORS
Name: ________________________________
1. List at least four important items that affect centrifugal compressor piping layout that
will be found in the Mechanical Data Sheet Specifications.
a. b .
c. d.
2. Name three basic types of Compressor Drivers.
a. b.
c.
3. Name the basic classifications of compressors and give at least two types of each
classification.
4. Give a brief description of a compressor.
5. Name and briefly describe the two basic types of steam turbines.
6. What is the purpose of the Vendor's Drawing and Data Commitment?
7. Name four important documents that should be maintained in the Piping Compressor
Job Book.
a. b.
c. d.
PIPING DESIGN LAYOUT TRAINING
LESSON 10
COMPRESSORS TEST
Page 2 of 3
15/11/2002 Rev. 0
LESSON 10 - TEST 2
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR DESIGN
NAME ____________________________
T F 1. The compressor suction drum must always be located within the immediate
vicinity of the compressor.
T F 2. The area directly above vertically split compressors must be clear for lifting off
the upper half of the case.
T F 3. The trip and throttle valve must be accessible from a platform.
T F 4. A reducing flange may be used at the compressor inlet for special applications.
T F 5. Horizontally split compressors are usually mezzanine mounted.
T F 6. A tentative date for the Engineering Conference should be established prior to
starting preliminary layout.
T F 7. Steam turbine driver cases are horizontally split or vertically split.
T F 8. Each flow diagram should be reviewed for physical affect on plot plan.
T F 9. Interstage equipment is usually furnished and piped by the compressor Vendor.
T F 10. It is a good practice to make a flow transposition for installations which have
interstage equipment.
T F 11. It is important to ascertain the validity of outline material with the Mechanical
Engineer before starting work for presentation at the Engineering Conference.
T F 12. The performance of centrifugal compressors can be adversely affected by the
suction piping configuration.
T F 13. The ASME Code minimum straight run requirement is 4 pipe diameters.
T F 14. The overhead seal oil tank need not be accessible when the compressor is
located within a building.
T F 15. The piping at the compressor nozzles should be supported so that there is no
dead load on the nozzle.
PIPING DESIGN LAYOUT TRAINING
LESSON 10
COMPRESSORS TEST
Page 3 of 3
15/11/2002 Rev. 0
LESSON 10 - TEST 3
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR DESIGN
Name ________________________________
T F 1. Handwheels for clearance pocket valves must be accessible during
operation and start-up.
T F 2. A transposition should be made, regardless of size, for any reciprocating
compressor.
T F 3. The preferred orientation of the balanced-opposed compressor is with its
piston rod parallel to the headers.
T F 4. A bottom takeoff from the compressor header may be used if adequate
drains are provided.
T F 5. Vibration of the piping system is reduced` through the installation of
pulsation suppression devices.
T F 6. Each compartment of a volume bottle must be equipped with a drain
connection.
T F 7. Machinery-mass excited frequencies have little or no transmission 10 to 20
feet from the mat.
T F 8. The last discharge piping must be held down in the pipeway.
T F 9. The distance between hold downs is determined from the natural frequency
of the pipe.
T F 10. Pulsation suppression devices are not required on interstage systems.
T F 11. Temporary suction strainers should always be located in accordance with
Fluor Daniel standards.
T F 12. One major layout factor is orientation of the compressor relative to
interstage equipment.
T F 13. The angle type reciprocating compressor has all compression cylinders on
one side of its crankshaft.
PIPING DESIGN LAYOUT TRAINING
LESSON 10
COMPRESSORS TEST GRADING MASTER
Page 1 of 4
15/11/2002 REV 0
COMPRESSORS TEST - GRADING MASTER
Encircle each wrong answer on the students test. Minimum passing grade is 71.
GRADE AVG:
100-96 EXCELLENT
95-83 VERY GOOD
82-71 GOOD
70 and below FAIL
PIPING DESIGN LAYOUT TRAINING
LESSON 10
COMPRESSORS TEST GRADING MASTER
Page 2 of 4
15/11/2002 REV 0
TEST 1
INTRODUCTION OF COMPRESSORS
1. List at least four important items that affect centrifugal compressor piping layout that will be found in the
Mechanical Data Sheet Specifications. (5pts each answer = 20 pts)
a. Design and operating inlet
and discharge conditions
b . Maximum allowable nozzle forces
and moments
c. Location d. Casing split
e. Casing Connections (size,
rating, type, etc.)
f. Auxiliary Connections (size,
rating, type, etc.)
g. Weight and general space
requirements.
h. Driver type and utility
requirements and conditions
i. Mounting plate type j see page 28 through 30 for others
2. Name three basic types of Compressor Drivers. (5pts each answer = 15 pts)
a. Electric motors b. Steam Turbines
c. Gas Turbines
3. Name the basic classifications of compressors and give at least two types of each classification.
(5 pts each answer = 10 pts)
Dynamic: Centrifugal and Axial,
Positive-displacement: Reciprocating, Rotary sliding-vane, Rotary lube, Rotary
liquid piston.
4. Give a brief description of a compressor. (10 pts )
Compressors provide a mechanical means of increasing vapor pressure by
intaking the vapor at a relatively low pressure, compressing it, and discharging it
at a higher pressure.
5. Name and briefly describe the two basic types of steam turbines. (10 pts)
Condensing turbines exhaust below atmospheric pressure to a surface condenser. Noncondensing
turbines exhaust at atmospheric pressure or higher into a steam piping system.
6. What is the purpose of the Vendor's Drawing and Data Commitment? (15 pts)
It lists all the drawings the vendor is required to submit for Fluor Daniel approval
and gives a priority status for each drawing. Piping activities are scheduled to
conform to vendor sequence of delivery and scheduled delivery date of each
drawing.
7. Name four important documents that should be maintained in the Piping Compressor Job Book.
(5 pts each answer = 20 pts)
a. Schedules & Due Dates b. Mechanical Narrative
Specifications
c. Mechanical Data Sheets d. Catalog Information
e. Flow Diagrams f. Communications and Ref.
Material
g. Vendor Drawings h. Analog Isometrics
i. Client Design Info j. Layout Drawings & Sketches
PIPING DESIGN LAYOUT TRAINING
LESSON 10
COMPRESSORS TEST GRADING MASTER
Page 3 of 4
15/11/2002 REV 0
TEST 2
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR DESIGN
(6.7 pts each answer)
T 1. The compressor suction drum must always be located within the immediate
vicinity of the compressor.
F 2. The area directly above vertically split compressors must be clear for lifting off
the upper half of the case.
T 3. The trip and throttle valve must be accessible from a platform.
F 4. A reducing flange may be used at the compressor inlet for special applications.
T 5. Horizontally split compressors are usually mezzanine mounted.
T 6. A tentative date for the Engineering Conference should be established prior to
starting preliminary layout.
T 7. Steam turbine driver cases are horizontally split or vertically split.
T 8. Each flow diagram should be reviewed for physical affect on plot plan.
F 9. Interstage equipment is usually furnished and piped by the compressor Vendor.
T 10. It is a good practice to make a flow transposition for installations which have
interstage equipment.
T 11. It is important to ascertain the validity of outline material with the Mechanical
Engineer before starting work for presentation at the Engineering Conference.
T 12. The performance of centrifugal compressors can be adversely affected by the
suction piping configuration.
F 13. The ASME Code minimum straight run requirement is 4 pipe diameters.
F 14. The overhead seal oil tank need not be accessible when the compressor is
located within a building.
T 15. The piping at the compressor nozzles should be supported so that there is no
dead load on the nozzle.
PIPING DESIGN LAYOUT TRAINING
LESSON 10
COMPRESSORS TEST GRADING MASTER
Page 4 of 4
15/11/2002 REV 0
TEST 3
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR DESIGN
(7.7 pts each answer)
T 1. Handwheels for clearance pocket valves must be accessible during
operation and start-up.
T 2. A transposition should be made, regardless of size, for any reciprocating
compressor.
T 3. The preferred orientation of the balanced-opposed compressor is with its
piston rod parallel to the headers.
T 4. A bottom takeoff from the compressor header may be used if adequate
drains are provided.
T 5. Vibration of the piping system is reduced` through the installation of
pulsation suppression devices.
T 6. Each compartment of a volume bottle must be equipped with a drain
connection.
F 7. Machinery-mass excited frequencies have little or no transmission 10 to 20
feet from the mat.
F 8. The last discharge piping must be held down in the pipeway.
T 9. The distance between hold downs is determined from the natural frequency
of the pipe.
F 10. Pulsation suppression devices are not required on interstage systems.
T 11. Temporary suction strainers should always be located in accordance with
Fluor Daniel standards.
T 12. One major layout factor is orientation of the compressor relative to
interstage equipment.
T 13. The angle type reciprocating compressor has all compression cylinders on
one side of its crankshaft.