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Abdul Rafay

Period 8
World Studies (Ms. Nester)

Middle Eastern History Time-line

Pictured Above: Balfour and his declaration
1917-The Balfour Declaration
Due to mass exoduses and pogroms, a modern Zionist movement was created in 1917. Weizmann,
one of the first leaders and promoters of the movement sent a letter to the British mpire, who
controlled much of the !pper "inai#$rans%ordan and &alestine during that time, and pleaded for the
creation of the 'ewish homeland. Balfour, then foreign secretar( of the British mpire, was
incredi)l( influenced )( this and pursued to )uild such a place. $hus, the British*controlled mandate
of &alestine was promised to the 'ewish people, however, this would spar+ a great chain of re)ellion
and disdain )( the ,ra)s. With this in mind, Balfour created a ver( neutral document. -owever, due
to this am)iguit(, the nationalists on )oth sides of the coin, )elieved that the declaration proved and
supported their arguments. Due to the unrelentless fighting )etween these groups the British
handed over the mandate to a specialized !... council which decided in the favor of the creation of
/ &alestine0s1.

Pictured above: Mustafa Kemal
1923- Modernization in Turkey
,fter the once extensive empire of the 2ttomans collapsed and the &artition of the provinces
occurred, the fleeting $ur+s went into a sector of space called $ur+e(, which the( solemnl( )elieved
is their homeland. Due to it3s nationalistic movements and the state of independence, the 4recians
and the ,rmenians, along with the 5aliphate and the ,llies, attac+ed the $ur+ish nationalists who
)elieved that the countr( should )e independent altogether. ,fter their extensive war with the
4ree+s, the $ur+s settled down. 6ustafa 7emal )ecame a great hero for the $ur+ish and was thus
elected into presidenc(, once it officiall( declared it3s independence. -e esta)lished a primaril(
secular government. -is ideolog( reflected that of non*secularit(, in which he disesta)lished the
"haria laws in favor of adoptivel( uropean laws, which he )elieved could strengthen the nation. .
-e was also appalled at the idea of the -i%a) and opted for a more 8uropean9 loo+ of no veils. -e
also )uilt countless roads to industrialize the now independent nation of $ur+e(. -e is now
remem)er as ,tatur+, or the father of modern $ur+e(.

Pictured Above: Abd-al-Aziz, founder of Saudi Arabia
1926-The Isolation of Saudi ra!ia
$he Bedouin .omads of ,ra)ia were once scattered into different political units across the
"inai 5ountr(. , Bedouin 8shei+h9 )( the name of ,)d*al*,ziz sought the unit( of the ,ra)ia in
matters of glo)al power. -e , one )( one, con:uered the tri)es of Bedouins and united them under a
;slamic isolationist law. $he rights in this newl( conservative states were strictl( "haria, restricting
much law practice and much other things within the laws of ;slam. .o )are s+in exposed for women,
covered )( veils. ,lcohol was )anned and some other laws were enacted accordingl(. $he general
stigma of this countr( was anti*Western and was relativel( isolated from matters of the the 4lo)e.

&ictured a)ove< David Ben*4urion, $he countries that do not currentl( recognize the countr( of
;srael.
19"7-The #i$ht for Israel
,fter (ears of argument, the first ;sraeli &rime 6inister, David Ben*4urion, announced the existence
of ;srael in 19=7. $he neigh)oring countries of the ,ra)s denounce the existence of ;srael.
.eigh)ors li+e ;ran, Bahrain, "audi ,ra)ia, and 6uslim 6a%orit( countries denounce the existence of
;srael.

&ictured ,)ove< , comparison )etween the population of 'ewish and ,ra) peoples in the 6iddle
ast
19=>*197? ,ra)*;sraeli 5onflict
;n 19=>, communities of the 6uslim*dominated regions of $rans%ordan, g(pt, "(ria and
;ra: attac+ed the newl( announced nation of ;srael. ;n 19@A, 19A7, and in 197? there were similar
wars. $hese wars were enacted )ecause of the political disputes on territor(. ;n 19@A, the truce
)etween the ,ra)s and the ;sraelis was )ro+en resulting in mass warfare. ;n 19A7, due to fre:uent
;sraeli raids for territor(, 4eneral .asser, started retaliating )ut due to superior ,ir Borces, ;srael
maintained a great peace of the "inai &eninsula and claimed the 2ld 5it( of 'erusalem.

Pictured Above: Pro-Palestinian propaanda satiri!in t"e control of t"e Western #edia.
$he ,ra) &alestinian Cefugee 5amps are often neglected, poor, and minimal in supplies.
$heir promise of a &alestinian homeland was shattered. ;ntifadas, thus, were made, as terrorist
attac+s roe in the ;sraeli area. $he &D2 want an independent state of &alestine, and strive to do
this. ;srael responds to intifadas with e:ual violence. $he leaders of 197E3s &D2 and ;srael were
,rafat and Ca)in respectivel(.

Pictured Above:A $ritis" ne%spaper outlinin t"e closin of t"e Sue! &anal to t"e Western'(uropean
public.
19%6-Suez &risis
$he resentment of the Western dominated econom( of g(pt caused political riots and protests.
$he ultra*nationalists soon overthrew the leader of the nation to put in place .asser, a supporter of
the nationalistic reforms of g(pt. ,fter failed and underfunded pro%ects from the nations of Britain
and Brance 0who controlled the "uez 5anal1, he too+ awa( the "uez 5anal and loc+ed it awa( from
trade )etween the seas for :uite a while. -is defiance of the West is cited as a credit towards his
prestige in the 6iddle astern political landscape. "oon afterward, "adat ta+es the lead and in
1979, ma+es peace with ;srael -is polic( towards ;srael is not appreciated )( the xtremists and he
is thus assassinated in 19>1. -osni 6u)ara+ continued this delicate peace with ;srael, however,
;slamic reformers and extremists still oppose his views

Pictured Above: Sorry) No *as for t"e +.S. ,oday-
196'(1973-The )*+& and the )il &risis
$he 2&5 was an organization founded )( Dr. 'uan &a)lo &erez of Fenezuela in response
to the unilateral wealth distri)ution of the companies vs the nations which supplied them. $he initial
reason wh( thus was founded for was also )ecause it heralded the fact that it unified the oil policies
of the ma%orl( economicall( oil*)ased nations and tied them together. 6an( of the mem)ers of the
group are 6iddle*astern and are predominantl( ,ra) and 6uslim in origin.
;n 2cto)er of 197?, ;n the midst of the Gom 7ippur holida( of the 'ewish religion , the ,ra)ic
nations of the "(rians and the g(ptians attac+ed the 'ewish ;sraelis. this was later called the Gom
7ippur war. $he predominantl( ,ra) nations of the 2&5 decided to raise the oil prices for the
Western ,llies that supported ;srael, due ot their siding with "(ria and g(pt. $his lead to an
extreme crisis in econom( for the Western consumer as the oil prices increased dramaticall( and
there was less oil in the mar+et.

Pictured Above: A roup of Wo#en protesters on t"e be"alf of a Musli# oriented party.
197',s-Isla-ic .e/i/al
$he ;slamic Cevival was a fundamentalist movement set on the )asis of life and the values of life as
exclaimed )( the "haria laws. ;n the 197E3s there was great turmoil in the nations. Dots of these
nations )lamed the westernized ideas and thoughts as he cause of this trou)le. ;n retaliation, man(
funded revivals of "haria law in their countries. $heir re%ection of Western ideas however, did not
lead them to re%ect modern ideas.

Pictured Above: .u%ait co#fortably placed bet%een /ra0) /ran) and Saudi Arabia
190'-*ersian 1ulf 2ars3
;n the 199E3s periods of insta)ilit( and war were enacted upon the single most politicall(, and
economicall( charged area of the 6iddle ast < the &ersian 4ulf.$he ;ra:is in their efforts to expand
their lands, launched stri+es on ;ran. ,s the war went on, man( lives were lost and no true outcome
or )enefit came from this. -owever, in 199E, the ;ra:i nation decided to invade 7uwait due to its
historical )elonging to ;ra: )ut also )ecause of the oil*rich econom( it had and also )ecause the
leader then **"addam -ussein** urged the people to do so. -owever, under the )anner of the !..,
the !.". launched a great counterattac+ and it prompted the ;ra:is to flee, however, after ravaging
man( oil farms of 7uwait.

Pictured Above: Supporters of ."o#eini1s uprisin protestin on t"e streets
19>E3s ;ranian Cevolution and -ostage 5risis
;n 19=@, ;ran remained a nation run )( the "hahs, in that time specificall(, "hah Ceza
&ahlavi was a more secular societ( which for)ade more ;slamic practices of the time. $he
uropeans and the outside world praised him )ut a lot of people from his countr( resented his
secular wa(s. $his was a time for ;slamic enlightenment and a lot of people resented the Western
wa(s due to previous occupation of their countr(. ",F,7, a police unit suppressed an( political
opposition to his ultra*Western and modern oriented outloo+. ,(atollah 7homeini was a religious
leader exiled )ecause of his oppression. 7homeini organizes protests and )ecomes the face of the
revolution. &rett( soon, the revolution opted the "hah out of power. -owever, the "hah was
medicall( treated )( the !.". and angr( revolutionaries reacted )( holding the !.". m)ass(. 2n
.ovem)er =, the people too+ the m)ass(, and had @/ hostages which lead to counter protest from
the !.". .egotiations.

9(11 Inter/ie4
11 ;f (ou could go )ac+ to "eptem)er 1E, /EE1, what would (ou tell the worldH
2; would tell them, ;t3s not us, ;t3s them, the( did it not us. .o 6uslims are terrorists, as no terrorists are trul(
6uslim. 2ur religion condones thisI ;t has no tolerance for an( death let alone for ?,EEE deathsI.9
/1 Do (ou thin+ 9#11 will ever fade into histor( li+e 1/#7#19=1 hasH
2; hope people will remem)er it as a )eacon of hope towards the integration of the world, not li+e a )eacon of
hatred for the 6uslims9
?1 Do (ou +now an(one that in .ew Gor+ 5it( on 9#11#/EE1H
2Ges, m( colleague, who died this (ear due to a $ali)an assassination was in .ew Gor+. ; was in ngland when this
happened so ; faced a lot of hatred.9
=1 What do (ou thin+ we can do to prevent something li+e this from ever happening againH
2"top the hatred )etween )oth groups of people. &eople should )e harmonious not tur)ulent and in conflict forever.9
Pictured Above:
3445- ,"e invasion of /ra0 by t"e +.S.
(ver since t"e *ulf Wars) t"e +.S. And t"e Western overn#ent %ere resentful and %ary of Sadda#
6ussein and "is ultra-nationalist rei#e i#posed on "is people. ,"ey resented "is enocidal and
syste#atic re#oval of t"e indienous peoples of .urd) and #any ot"er sub-sects. $us" addressed t"ese
procession on Septe#ber of 3443) in %"ic" "e spread "is ideoloies and t"e eneral outloo7 of /ra0
fro# a lobal point-of-vie%. +sin t"e /ra0 8iberation policy) t"ey cited t"at t"e +.S.A. 6ad t"e ri"t
to police t"e /ra0is and install a ne% overn#ent. 6o%ever) #any overn#ents re9ected "is ideals)
#ost notably) :rance and *er#any) %"o said t"is %as drastic and too7 it to t"e e;tre#e. Reardless)
t"e invasion of /ra0 %as enacted upon and in <5 =ece#ber 3445 Sadda# 6ussein %as captured and
brou"t to 29ustice>. 6o%ever) t"e rationale and leality of t"e War is still 0uestioned and acted upon.

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